Discuss the claim that some areas of knowledge are discovered and others are invented What is the difference between invention and discovery? An invention is when an object or an idea or even a method is created and it didn’t exist where as a discovery is defined as to learn more about something which was already present but not known. Usually invention is something that it is material an object for example whereas discovery is more of a natural process and is therefore in the human nature.
Also an important thing to note is that discovery cannot be an accident as it serves a purpose and requires exploration whereas inventions don’t necessarily require exploration but more innovation. A good example of discovery would be the childhood, every day you discover something new, how to walk, how to eat, and even how to speak. This is also the most important part for a person as this is where you are taught what is right and wrong by your family. Perception of what is right and wrong might differ in persons as well as in culture.
A good example of invention would be the cellphone; it didn’t exist before the creator Martin Cooper decided to invent it. Of course it is easy to say it but much harder to do it, the creator had to go through many experiments in order to test its product and assure its functionality. The fact that some areas of knowledge are discovered whereas others are invented, and what it can be understood from this sentence is that some areas of knowledge have always existed and are therefore true whereas others have been invented and can be false or based on some misunderstood concepts.
Following this argument are the arts invented or discovered? Well if we look over literature works we can say that it had been invented. For example Shakespeare invented all of his poems as they did not exist before, he didn’t discover them. For music, we can divide it into two parts the manufacture of an instrument and the creation of a song. A creation of a new instrument can be regarded as an invention as it didn’t exist before, and it is the conception of an idea and the result of many experiments done by a human being.
In the other hand if we look over the environment and the beautiful landscapes of nature it can be considered as a form of art. If we take the Victoria Falls as an example we cannot say that it has been invented by someone but rather discovered by someone. In conclusion we can say that arts are more invented than discovered as it consists more of human experiments than the actual discovery of works. The origin of language in the human species has been the center of many debates for several centuries and is also considered the hardest problem in science.
This is due to the lack of direct evidence because fossilizing a language requires the impossible. Many theories started emerging in order to explain the origin of language. However as they are too many to be listed I will only look into one, the gestural theory. It implies that human language developed from gestures that were used for simple communication. It has later evolved to verbal expression has our ancestors were using more and more tools and their hands were being used more and more for other actions.
However many people still use their hand to speak especially when the two interlocutors have no language in common. I can testify that using your hands to speak gets the job done as everyone the universal language of gesture. In the end, language origins still constitutes a mystery and whether it has been invented or discovered still has to be discovered. History is an excellent example of a discovered area of knowledge. We can say that we discover what happened during renaissance time or the prehistoric times for examples by looking over manuscripts, letters and other documents.
However anyone can invent history by making his own story. Also everyone’s perception of history is different so some people would see a war as something important and useful whereas others would see it as something useless and a terrible cost of human lives. So this is why history school books try to be as much neutral as they can in order to avoid any opinions. Even though with these restrictions a German history book about World War II would have a different opinion than an American history book about World War II.
So in conclusion we can assume that most of the history we learn today has been discovered. Another debate that has been during for ages is whether mathematics has been invented or discovered. If it has been discovered where did mathematicians look to discover it? A mathematician can also say that he has invented 2+2 = 7? Greek philosopher Plato pointed out that math was discoverable and that it represents the structure of the universe. So where exactly does mathematical truth exist?
Can mathematical truth exist before someone invented it? If mathematics was invented, then mistakes could have been done and these mistakes could be passed on to other fields of science that used mathematics in order to discover something. For example physics relies a lot from mathematics as many formulas and laws are derived from mathematics. Sciences in the other hand have most of the time seen as something present but unknown. So this is why most people and scientists would consider sciences as something discovered.
For example let’s take the theory of an atom which is applied in chemistry and chemistry, it states that matter is composed of discrete units called atom. This assumes that atoms were present from the beginning of the universe and that without it no chemical reactions will take place at all. So how could it have been invented if nothing existed before, this creates a paradox. Another example would be to have a look at the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin. It implies that organisms have evolved in order to adapt to the changes in environment and to survive.
It has taken him many years and experiments in order to satisfy his hypothesis. Of course saying that he had invented the theory of evolution would be wrong as the theory existed and still exists before and after Darwin’s death, so it had always existed just no one had the opportunity to discover it . And this is where most of the scientists agree together, they agree that science is waited to be discovered not invented, as it is always happening around us. In conclusion, there are area of knowledge that have been discovered and others who have been invented.
However saying without any strong evidence that an area of knowledge has been entirely discovered or invented might be wrong as in order to invent something some appropriate discoveries are required and that in order to discover something some inventions might be needed. And this proves that there is a relationship between discovery and invention, and that no invention could be achieved without discoveries; however some discoveries can be made without inventions. So the claim that some areas of knowledge are discovered and others are invented is to an extent correct.