Do behavioral manifestations of Attention Deficit Disorder decrease as students’ reach the 9th grade? Essay

Running Head: ADD – LIKE BEHAVIOR AND SCHOOL PERFORMANCE

Do behavioral manifestations of Attention Deficit Disorder decrease as students’ reach the 9th grade? - Do behavioral manifestations of Attention Deficit Disorder decrease as students’ reach the 9th grade? Essay introduction?? A longitudinal study of students and their performance in school in Northwestern Vermont.
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            Behaviors associated with attention deficit disorder had been surveyed to determine whether the said behaviors tend to diminish or decrease when the student matures and has progressed through the grade levels in school. Using an instrument developed by the researcher, the same group of students was measured when they were in the second, fourth and fifth grades, while their academic performance and school behavior was also measured when they were in the ninth and twelfth grade. The results of the statistical analysis revealed that the average ADD-like behaviors were not high, while the group reported minimal social adjustment problems, less drop-outs, and had average GPA’s and IQ scores which supports the hypothesis that ADD-like behaviors decrease over time.

Do behavioral manifestations of Attention Deficit Disorder decrease as students’ reach the 9th grade? A longitudinal study of students and their performance in school in Northwestern Vermont.

Attention deficit disorder has been one of the earliest developmental disorders to be identified and measured. Numerous studies have been conducted on attention deficit disorders in order to determine its symptoms and behavioral manifestations, from hypersensitivity to neurological causes, from limited attention span to disruptive behaviors, attention deficit disorder have been adequately quantified and managed for some years now (Rasmussen & Gillberg, 2000). In the past, what was known of this condition was limited to the clinical and psychological, in fact many undiagnosed children have been attending regular schools without any intervention and some have outgrown the difficulties of the condition while others have not. A common misconception of educators and teachers is that hyperactivity and problem behaviors are normal to children during the elementary years which are why most students who may have ADD are undiagnosed.

At the same time, ADD may persist into adulthood, but what happens to children with ADD when they get older has not been fully explained (Howell, Huessy  & Hassuk, 1985). This study attempts to fill in the gap between the findings of the clinical studies on ADD and what have been previously known about the persistence of ADD like behaviors in children when they reach 9th grade. Most studies were conducted among school age children who have been clinically diagnosed as ADHD; this study assesses ADD-like behaviors among school children when they were in the 2nd, 4th and 5th grade, using a behavioral questionnaire developed by Huessy (1985) in a similar study.  The goal of this report is to determine whether ADD-like behaviors as identified by teachers is related to their academic performance and experiences in school over a 15 year period.

Method

Participants

            Participants were 216 students (54% boys, 46% girls) from one of 18 schools in northwestern Vermont. The schools were chosen in such a way to produce a reasonable cross section of rural schools within 40 miles of Burlington, Vermont. Age at first assessment, family background, racial/ethnic identity and other background variables were not assessed.

Procedure

All participants were part of a larger study conducted by Howell, Huessy, and Hassuk (1985). The original study began with 501 children in the second grade and consisted of six stages of data collection: 2nd grade, 4th grade, 5th grade, 9th grade, 12th grade, and three years post graduation. The first three assessments were collected via the child’s current teacher, the second two assessments were collected via school records and the final assessment was an extensive interview. Due to normal attrition, the sample size was reduced to 352 children by the end of the fifth grade. The present study utilizes data collected during all six collection periods and includes only those for whom complete data is available (N = 216).

Measures

            Gender. The gender of the child was collected via a questionnaire completed by the child’s second grade teacher.

            Grade Repetition. Whether or not the child repeated a grade during high school was assessed via school records at the end of the 12th grade.

            English Level.  The level of English class the child was enrolled in was assessed via the school record in the ninth grade. The three categories were: remedial, general and college preparatory.

            English Grade. The grade the child received in English during the ninth grade was assessed via school records. Grades were: A, B, C, D, or F.

            Social Adjustment Problems. Whether or not the child exhibited any social adjustment problems in the ninth grade was assessed via school records. A child was considered to have a social adjustment problem if there were at least two notations in the record of infractions like disruptive classroom behavior, truancy, or setting fires in trash cans.

            High School Dropout Status. Whether or not the participant dropped out before completing high school was obtained from the interview conducted approximately three years post high school graduation.

            ADD-like Behavior Score.  ADD-like behavior score is the average of three scores obtained during the second, fourth and fifth grades. Each child’s current teacher was asked to complete the form. The diagnostic instrument was a 21-item questionnaire that tapped behavioral components commonly associated with ADD. Teachers rated each child on a scale from 1 (low behavior) to 5 (high behavior), where 3 indicated an “average” level of behavior. For each of the three assessments, the 21 items were summed to obtain a total score. The score used in the present study reflect an average of these three assessments. Howell et al. (1985) report high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha ranged from .93–.96 across the three assessments), and good validity for the measure.

            Intelligence Quotient (IQ). IQ was assessed via a group administered Intelligence Test.

            Grade Point Average (GPA). Overall high school GPA was collected from school records at the end of the 12th grade. GPA was calculated using the following scale: A=4, B=3, C=2, D=1, F=0.

Results

Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics for the variables used in this study are provided in Table 1 and 2.  Table 1 presents the demographic data of the participants of the study in terms of grade retention, social adjustment problems, and dropping out of school, their 9th grade English proficiency level and grades. Table 2 presents the mean and standard deviation of the ADD-like scores, IQ and GPA in the 9th grade of the participants.

Table 1

School experiences of participants (n=216)

Frequency
Percent
Repeated a grade                                       Yes

No
20

196
9.3

90.7
Social adjustment problems                      Yes

No
25

191
11.6

88.4
High school drop out                                Yes

No
20

196
9.3

90.7
9th Grade English Level              College prep

General

Remedial
29

154

33
13.4

71.3

15.3
9th Grade English Grade                             A

                                                                  B

                                                                  C

                                                                   D

                                                                   F
28

82

78

25

3
13

38

36

11.6

1.4

            The table presents the experiences of the participants in school identified during their 9th grade data gathering. The table showed that only 9.3% were ever asked to repeat a grade while 11.6% was indicated to have had social adjustment problems and 9.3% did not complete high school. The table also presents the English proficiency level and grades of the participants in the 9th grade. English proficiency was either college preparatory, general and remedial of which 71.3% were in the general level. English grades ranged from A to F, wherein majority of the participants had a grade of B (38%) and C (36.1%).

Table 2

Mean and Standard Deviation of ADD-like scores, IQ and GPA (n=216)

Mean
Standard Deviation
Minimum
Maximum
ADD-like behavior scores (mean of 3)
52.85
10
24.67
76.67
IQ Score
102.35
13
55
137
GPA (in 9th grade)
2.43
.84
.25
4

            The table presents the mean and standard deviation of the scores of the participants in the ADD-like behavior questionnaire, the data used was the mean of the 3 years that the questionnaire was administered (2nd, 4th & 5th grade). The mean ADD-like scores of the group was 52.85 with a standard deviation of 10, likewise; the maximum ADD-like behavior score was 76.67 while the minimum was 24.67. The IQ scores were determined during the ninth grade of which the mean IQ is 102.35 with a standard deviation of 13 and the highest IQ score was 137 while the lowest was 55. The grade point average of the participants during their 9th grade in school was also surveyed, the table shows that mean GPA for this group was 2.43 with a standard deviation of .84, highest GPA was 4 and the lowest had 0.25.

Results for t Test

Table 3. t-Test result between gender, social adjustment and dropping-out and ADD-like behavior scores (n=216)

Gender
Social Adjustment
Dropping-out
ADD-like behavior scores (t)

*5.192

5.235

3.748
95% Confidence interval
4.33
6.84
4.23
*p>.05

            The research question answered was “Does ADD-like behaviors cause social adjustment and dropping-out of high school and is there a difference in ADD-like scores between genders?” The hypothesis tested was

Ho: p = 0

Ha: p ≠ 0

            The assumption for the t-test was that observations are independent and that the tested variables will not contribute to the ADD-like behaviors or that the ADD-like behaviors cause social adjustment problems or dropping-out. The t-test was used because the variables are single factor difference questions and are dichotomous. The results indicate that ADD-like behavior was significantly related to gender (p>4.33), the analysis of means indicated that males (56.08) had a greater mean which shows that males had higher ADD-like scores than females. Social adjustment and dropping-out was not caused by ADD-like behavior, thus for gender we reject the null hypothesis and for social adjustment and dropping-out, we accept the null-hypothesis.

Results for Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Table 4. Analysis of Variance of ADD-like behaviors and English Proficiency Level and Grade

9th Grade English proficiency level
9th Grade English Grade
ADD-like behavior scores
1.46
1.50
Sig.
.024
.017
p>.05

            The research question answered was “Is English proficiency level and grade in the 9th grade related to ADD-like behaviors?” The hypothesis tested was:

Ho: p = 0

Ha: p ≠ 0

            The assumption for the ANOVA was that ADD-like behaviors will not affect the proficiency level and grades in English in the 9th grade. The one-way ANOVA was used because the variables are made up of an interval scale and the question involves two variables with several categories and one dependent variable. The results indicate that at 0.05 alpha, proficiency level had .024 significance and English grades had a significance of 0.17. The significance levels both are statistically significant which leads to the rejection of the null hypothesis and accepting the alternative hypothesis. This meant that ADD-like behaviors were affecting the level of proficiency and grades of the students during the 9th grade.  The analysis of the mean squares revealed that between groups (.343) in the proficiency level was higher than the within groups (.234). These imply that ADD-like behavior was found to have an effect between categories. For the English grades, the mean squares of between groups (.996) was higher than the within groups (.661). This again showed that ADD-like behavior was present between categories of grades.

Table 5 Post hoc Analysis of ANOVA test of English proficiency and grade

N
Type 1
Type 2
English proficiency

College Prep

General

Remedial

29

154

33

43.06

53.80

56.97
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.

a  Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 42.088.

b  The group sizes are unequal. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used. Type I error levels are not guaranteed.

c  Type 1/Type 2 Error Seriousness Ratio = 100.
English grade

A

B

C
D

F

28

82

78

25

3

46.23

50.05

54.60

54.60

62.52

64.44
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.

a  Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 11.519.

b  The group sizes are unequal. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used. Type I error levels are not guaranteed.

c  Type 1/Type 2 Error Seriousness Ratio = 100.

Results for Correlation

Table 6 Pearson moment correlation “r” of ADD-like behavior scores and IQ scores and GPA(n=216)

IQ score
9th Grade GPA
ADD-like behavior scores

**-.629

**-.542

** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed)

The research question answered was “Is there any relationship between ADD-like scores and IQ scores and GPA?” The hypothesis tested was:

Ho: p = 0

Ha: p ≠ 0

The assumption for the correlation was that variables were not related and that ADD-like behavior scores exist independently from IQ scores and GPA. The correlation coefficient between ADD-like scores and IQ (-.629) is significant, which means that there is indeed a relationship between ADD-like scores and IQ scores, but since the coefficient is negative, it means that as the ADD-like scores increase, the IQ scores decrease. For the correlation coefficient of ADD-like scores and GPA (-.542), the correlation is significant at 0.01 alpha. This mean that there is a relationship between the two variables and the negative sign indicate that as the ADD-like scores increase, the GPA decreases.

Discussion

            The findings of this study analysis had found that ADD-like behavior does not preclude social adjustment problems and dropping out of high school. At the same time, ADD-like behavior is found to be related to gender, wherein males had higher ADD-like scores than females. It was also found that ADD-like behavior was related to English level proficiency and grades. The statistical relationship is probably due to the fact that ADD-like behaviors include impatience, fidgeting or not being able to focus on a task and English is a subject that needs concentration and attention. The results also revealed that there is a negative relationship between ADD-like behavior scores and IQ scores and GPA; this implied that those who had higher IQ scores and GPA’s had lower ADD-like behavior scores. Over-all, the study found that ADD-like behaviors identified by teachers early in their elementary years did not actually caused students to neither have social adjustment difficulties nor make them drop-out of high school, but instead it did contribute to the student’s English proficiency level and grade.

References

Howell, C., Huessy,  H. & Hassuk,  B. (1985). Fifteen-year follow-up of a behavioral history of

attention deficit disorder. Pediatrics 76:186-190.

Rasmussen, P. & Gillberg, C. (2000). Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental

coordination disorder at age 22 years: A controlled, longitudinal, community-based study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 39;11:1424-1431.

APPENDICES

Appendix A

SPSS  Syntax Guide

Descriptive Statistics

DESCRIPTIVES

  VARIABLES=ADDSC IQ GPA

  /STATISTICS=MEAN STDDEV MIN MAX .

FREQUENCIES

  VARIABLES=ENGL ENGG

  /ORDER=  ANALYSIS .

FREQUENCIES

  VARIABLES=GENDER REPEAT SOCPROB DROPOUT

  /ORDER=  ANALYSIS .

t-Test

T-TEST

  GROUPS = GENDER(1 2)

  /MISSING = ANALYSIS

  /VARIABLES = ADDSC

  /CRITERIA = CI(.95) .

T-TEST

  GROUPS = SOCPROB(1 0)

  /MISSING = ANALYSIS

  /VARIABLES = ADDSC

  /CRITERIA = CI(.95) .

T-TEST

  GROUPS = DROPOUT(1 0)

  /MISSING = ANALYSIS

  /VARIABLES = ADDSC

  /CRITERIA = CI(.95) .

ANOVA

ONEWAY

  ENGL BY ADDSC

  /MISSING ANALYSIS .

ONEWAY

  ENGG BY ADDSC

  /MISSING ANALYSIS.

ONEWAY

  ADDSC BY ENGL

  /MISSING ANALYSIS

  /POSTHOC = WALLER(100) ALPHA(.05).

ONEWAY

  ADDSC BY ENGG

  /MISSING ANALYSIS

  /POSTHOC = WALLER(100) ALPHA(.05).

Correlation

CORRELATIONS

  /VARIABLES=ADDSC IQ

  /PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG

  /MISSING=PAIRWISE .

CORRELATIONS

  /VARIABLES=ADDSC GPA

  /PRINT=TWOTAIL NOSIG

  /MISSING=PAIRWISE .

Appendix B

SPSS Output Tables – Descriptive Statistics

Table 1 Mean and Standard Deviation for ADD-like behavior, IQ and GPA scores

N
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
ADD-like behavior score (mean of 3)
216
24.67
76.67
52.8480
10.45221
IQ Score
216
55.00
137.00
102.3542
12.55762
GPA in 9th Grade
216
.25
4.00
2.4386
.84507
Valid N (listwise)
216

Table 2  Frequency Distribution of 9th Grade English Level and  English Grade

9th Grade English Level

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
College Prep
29
13.4
13.4
13.4
General154
71.3
71.3
84.7
Remedial33
15.3
15.3
100.0
Total216
100.0
100.0

9th Grade English Grade

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
F
3
1.4
1.4
1.4

D
25
11.6
11.6
13.0

C
78
36.1
36.1
49.1

B
82
38.0
38.0
87.0

A
28
13.0
13.0
100.0

Total
216
100.0
100.0

Table 3 Frequency Distribution of Gender

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
Male
116
53.7
53.7
53.7
Female100
46.3
46.3
100.0
Total216
100.0
100.0

Table 4 Frequency Distribution of Student Responses to Schooling Experience Questions

Repeated Grade?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
No
196
90.7
90.7
90.7
Yes20
9.3
9.3
100.0
Total216
100.0
100.0

Social Adjustment Problems in 9th Grade?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
No
191
88.4
88.4
88.4
Yes25
11.6
11.6
100.0
Total216
100.0
100.0

Dropped out of High School?

Frequency
Percent
Valid Percent
Cumulative Percent
Valid
No
196
90.7
90.7
90.7
Yes20
9.3
9.3
100.0
Total216
100.0
100.0

Appendix C

SPSS Output Tables- Inferential Statistics

Table 1.A t-test of ADD-like scores for male and female students

Group Statistics

Gender
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
ADD-like behavior score (mean of 3)
Male
116
56.0862
10.00158
.92862
Female100
49.0917
9.72213
.97221

t-test  Results

Table 1B t-test of ADD-like behavior score and social adjustment problems

Group Statistics

Social Adjustment Problems in 9th Grade?
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
ADD-like behavior score (mean of 3)
Yes
25
62.5600
7.12112
1.42422
No191
51.5768
10.15789
.73500

t-test Results

Table 1C t-test of ADD-like behavior and High school drop out

Group Statistics

Dropped out of High School?
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
ADD-like behavior score (mean of 3)
Yes
20
60.9500
7.15924
1.60085
No196
52.0213
10.39424
.74245

t-test Result

Table 2A One Way ANOVA of ADD-like Score and 9th Grade English Level

9th Grade English Level

Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
36.669
107
.343
1.465
.024
Within Groups
25.257
108
.234

Total
61.926
215

Waller-Duncan

9th Grade English Level
N
Subset for alpha = .05
12
1
College Prep
29
43.0690

General
154

53.8052
Remedial
33

56.9747
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.

a  Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 42.088.

b  The group sizes are unequal. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used. Type I error levels are not guaranteed.

c  Type 1/Type 2 Error Seriousness Ratio = 100.

Table 2B One-Way ANOVA of ADD-like Behavior and 9th Grade English Grade

9th Grade English Grade

Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
106.572
107
.996
1.506
.017
Within Groups
71.424
108
.661

Total
177.995
215

Waller-Duncan

9th Grade English Level
N
Subset for alpha = .05
12
1
College Prep
29
43.0690

General
154

53.8052
Remedial
33

56.9747
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.

a  Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 42.088.

b  The group sizes are unequal. The harmonic mean of the group sizes is used. Type I error levels are not guaranteed.

c  Type 1/Type 2 Error Seriousness Ratio = 100.

Table 3A Pearson Moment Correlation between ADD-like behavior score and IQ

Correlations

ADD-like behavior score (mean of 3)
IQ Score
ADD-like behavior score (mean of 3)
Pearson Correlation
1
-.629(**)
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N216
216
IQ Score
Pearson Correlation
-.629(**)
1
Sig. (2-tailed).000

N216
216
**  Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 3B Pearson Moment Correlation of ADD-like behavior score and GPA

Correlations

ADD-like behavior score (mean of 3)
GPA in 9th Grade
ADD-like behavior score (mean of 3)
Pearson Correlation
1
-.542(**)
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
N216
216
GPA in 9th Grade
Pearson Correlation
-.542(**)
1
Sig. (2-tailed).000

N216
216
**  Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

 

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