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Doing Gender Article Summary Essay

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•1960s, 1970s- sex: ascribed to biology by anatomy, hormones and physiology. Gender: achieved status: constructed through psychology, cultural and social means •Sex didn’t seem given in ambiguous / conflicting criteria, gender less achievement in ant/psyc/social imperatives- division of labour, formulation of gender identities, social subordination of women by men •Gender socialization theories: gender achieved by age 5 was fixed, unvarying and static like sex •Purpose: sociological understand of gender as a routine, methodical and recurring accomplishment •DOING gender is undertaken by women & men- competence as members of society hostage to its production= complex of socially guided perceptual, interactional and micropolitical activities that cast particular pursuits as expressions of m/f natures •Gender as accomplishment= interactional & institutional arenas—carried out in presence of others oriented to its production •Gender role and gender display focus on behavioral aspects •Role= obscures work that is involved in producing gender in everyday activities •Display- relegates it to periphery of interactions

•In interactions organize their various and manifold activities to reflect/express gender •Sex= determination made through application of socially agreed upon biological criteria for classifying persons as m/f •Sex category= application of sex criteria, categorization established/sustained by socially required identification displays •Gender= activity managing situated conduct in light of normative conceptions of attitudes/activities appropriate for 1’s sex category •Differences between m/f fundamental & enduring, supported by division of labor into m/w work & elaborate differentiation of fe/ma attitudes/behaviors prominent features of social organization •Structural arrangements of society responsive to differences •Role theory- emphasized social & dynamic aspect of role construction & enactment= situated identities as situation demands- gender no specific site or organization context oMany roles gender marked, special qualifiers added to exceptions into the rule i.

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e.: male nurse •Gender= not set of traits, variable or role BUT product of socials doings of some sort – gender is constituted through interaction

Gender Display
•Goffman- interact with others in env. assume each possess essential nature- shown through natural signs/expressed •Fe/Ma- prototypes of essential expression, displayed in social situation •Displays highly conventionalized behaviors structured as 2 part exchanges= statement reply type •Gender socially scripted dramatization of the cultures idealization of fe/ma natures played for an audience •Gender expressions might reveal clues to underlying fundamental dimensions of fe/ma •Move beyond this, not seen as m/d by displays—what involved in doing gender as ongoing activity embedded in everyday interactions

Sex, Sex Category & Gender
– Agnes born with male genitialia wanted to be female- went through process had to learn to be feminine Sex •Genitalia hidden from public inspection in everyday life but continue through social rounds to observe a world of 2 naturally sexed persons •Presumption essential criteria exist, are there if looked, basis for sex categorization •M/F- gender attribution process- cultural events not collection of traits, behaviors of physical attributes •Take for granted sex and sex category are congruent

Sex Categorization
•Categorization relies on an if test in everyday interaction- if people can be seen as members of relevant categories then categorized them that way- take appearances at face value unless reason to doubt •Categorization 1st display fails: appearance didn’t have grounds for categorization i.e. facial hair, customer disturbed by not knowing sales clerks m/f and embarrassed to ask them •We can to know the sex category of others but we presume others are displaying it for us Gender

•Sex categorization/gender not the same- can be unfeminine but doesn’t make you unfemale •Had to produce configuration of behavior that would be seen by others as normative gender behavior •Learned from fiancé’- should not offer her opinions or claim equality with men •Successful, marking/displaying gender= fitted to situations & modified/transformed as the occasion demands- consists of managing many occasions so that whatever the particulars outcome seen as seeable in context as gender appropriate or gender-inappropriate

Gender & Accountability
•Sex category is omnirevelent than a person engaged in virtually any activity may be held accountable for performance of that activity as a w/m, their incumbency in 1 or other sex categories can be used to legitimate/discredit their other activities •To do Gender isn’t always to live up to normative conceptions of fe/ma= engage in behavior at risk of gender assessment •Doing gender is unavoidable

Resources for Doing Gender
•Doing gender means creating differences between girls & boys and women & men, differences that are not natural, essential or biological. •Once constructed used to reinforce the essentialness or gender •Creation of variety of institutionalized frameworks where sexedness enacted= physical features of social settings provide obvious resource for expression of essential differences= North America m/f washrooms even though similar waste products/elimination •Many situations are not clearly sex categorized or what transpires in them obviously gender relevant yet any social encounter can be pressed into service in the interests of doing gender •Fishman’s research- division of labor in talk between heterosexual intimates- women ask more questions, fill more silences, use more attention getting beginnings to be heard •Some occasions organized to routinely display/celebrate behaviors conventionally linked to 1 or other sex category •Chances where women can show masculine behaviors but at the end they have to be accountable as a lady •Sex category & gender are managed properties of conduct & contrived with respect to the fact that others will judge/respond to use in particular ways •Person’s gender is not simply an aspect of what one is but fundamentally, something one does, recurrently in interaction with others

Research Agendas
•Conventional approach to process of becoming girls/boys sex-role socialization- general assumption that people chose to maintain existing customs •Cahill experiences of preschool CH using social model of recruitment into normally gendered identities= CH concern with being seen as socially competent evokes their initial claims to gender identities—girl/boy vs. classification concern •Little boys- appropriate gender ideal of efficaciousness= affect physical and social env. through exercise and physical strength/appropriate skills, girls- learn to value appearance managing themselves as ornamental objects •Being boy/girl more competent than baby also being competently m/f •Self-regulating process- being to monitor own and others conduct with regard to its gender implications Gender & Division of Labor

•Berk- wives even when employed do vast majority household/child-care tasks= wives/husbands perceive this as fair—level of contribution different •Current arrangement of domestic division of labor support 2 production processes: household goods and services (meals etc) and gender—do gender as they do housework •Not simply household labor is designated as women’s work but for woman to engage in it & man not to engage to draw on the essential nature of each= wifely/husbandly roles •Study: gender get done in work settings outside home, dominance & subordination are themes of overarching importance= flight attendants- emotional labor for airline profits, women produce enactments of their essential femininity Sex & Sexuality

•1 to recognized as lesbian must first establish a categorical status as female •Transsexual procedures only when asked= patriarchy prescription that 1 must be either ma/fe, free choice is conditioned

Gender, Power & Social Change
•Doing gender= unavoidable because of the social consequences of sex-category membership: allocation of power and resources not only in domestic, economic and political domains but also interpersonal relations •Any situation, one’s sex category can be relevant and ones performance of gender can be subjected to evaluation oGenders social arrangements base don sex category accountable as normal and natural •Fail to do gender appropriately, individuals not the institutional arrangements, may be called to account •Social movements- feminism- ideology and impetus to question existing arrangements and social support for ind. to explore alternatives •Legislative changes- Equal rights amendment- weakened accountability of conduct to sex category •Doing gender furnished the interactional scaffolding of social structure along with built in mechanism of social control •Social change must be pursued at institutional and cultural level of sex category and interactional level of gender •Recognize that the analytic distinction between institutional and interactional sphere does not pose as either/or choice when it comes to the question of effection social change

West, Candace., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1991). Doing Gender. In Lorber, J. & Farrell, D (Eds).The Social Construction of Gender. Newsbury Park: Sage.

Cite this Doing Gender Article Summary Essay

Doing Gender Article Summary Essay. (2016, Aug 13). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/doing-gender-article-summary/

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