Early Earth

Living Cells originated at a time when the atmosphere and environment were different to those presently found on earth Archaea are single cell micro-organisms with no nucleus, it use anaerobic respiration (able to living in the absence of Oxygen) and live in extreme environment/condition such as high temperature, acid-rich, saline area etc. those environment are rich in minerals but hazardous to other organisms. Archaea’s population decreased after earth filled with oxygen, other than that, current archaea is very same as ancient archaea.

Archaea like to live near Black Smoker (volcanoes under ocean) due to the amount of carbon dioxide, high temperature and rich mineral it provide. Archaea is important in our ecosystem and it carry out methanogenesis cycle and nitrogen cycle. Methanogenesis cycle convert carbon Dioxide to methane, nitrogen cycle convert of nitrogen in the atmosphere into biological nitrogen. Cyanobacteria are single-celled organism lived in water and soil, it can tolerate great ranges in salinity and temperature.

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Mostly found around open area where sunlight are presented. Cyanobacteria were also the first organisms use photosynthesis on Earth which release oxygen as waste product, because of that, they tiled the balance of early Earth dramatically by increase oxygen level and reduce carbon dioxide. After iron filled with oxygen to form rust, more oxygen released in atmosphere to form ozone to protect cells from UV-ray and Earth become more suitable for life.

The evolution of photosynthesis shift the balance of gases in the atmosphere Banded iron formation support the theory that photosynthesis shifted the balance of gases in the atmosphere. BIF are sedimentary rock formed when oxygen start to formed, it contain thin layer of iron oxide (using the first fresh-made oxygen from Cyanobacteria’s photosynthesis to form rust) and silica (skeleton of anaerobic organism poisoned by oxygen) settled under ocean, these Formation occur around 2 billion years ago, we have found BIF almost in every part of the world.

Other than that, Stromatolites and fossil of cyanobacteria were found in some part of the world. Early earth atmosphere contain large amount of carbon Dioxide compare to what we have today, precipitation and photosynthesis played a huge role in remove carbon Dioxide from early atmosphere. Photosynthesis use sunlight as energy to convert water and carbon dioxide to oxygen. Precipitation occur when carbon dioxide enter water containing calcium hydroxide, the carbon dioxide is removed from atmosphere and forms solid carbonate deposited on bottom of ocean.

The evidence provided by geological record suggests that there have been climate variation over Earth’s history. Carbon dioxide has a great effect on average global temperature, higher the carbon dioxide level means higher average global temperature. Carbon dioxide in atmosphere create greenhouse effect (carbon dioxide trap heat in atmosphere create hot than average atmosphere). But in its own way, carbon dioxide also saved this planet from last ice age, volcano releasing large amount of carbon dioxide to trap the heat in atmosphere in order to melt the snowball earth.

After cretaceous, amount of carbon dioxide release is balanced with the carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis, since the industrial revolution, carbon dioxide output rate is faster than photosynthesis’s consuming rate, excessive carbon dioxide released in atmosphere by our industry creating greenhouse effect, Earth average temperature is increased, if we continual release such large amount of Carbon dioxide in daily bases we could suffer from extreme disaster such as: * Strong storm and hurricanes – as ocean heat up, more water evaporate to create stronger storms. Droughts – land will dry out due to high temperature. * Flood – sea level increase due to melting of polar ice caps.

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