Eco Notes 11 - Part 11
INDIAN ECONOMY ON THE EVE OF INDEPENDENCE Points to remember * The sole purpose of the British colonial rule in India was to reduce the country to being a feeder economy for Great Britain’s own rapidly expanding modern industrial base. * Conditions in the Indian economy on the eve of independence: (i) Low level of economic development : the colonial govt, never made any sincere attempt to estimate India’s national and percapita income. The estimates given by Dr VKRV. Rao growth of GDP was only 2% while the growth of percapita output was just 1/2 (0. 5) percent.
(ii) Backward agricultural sector : Due to :– A. Land tenure system Zamidari system, Mahalwari system and Ryotwari system. B. Forced commercialisation of Agriculture C. Partition of the country. (iii) Less developed Industrial sector A. Deindustrialisation decline of Indian handicraft industry. B. Capital good industries were lacking C. Limited operation of public sector D. Discriminatory tarrif policy. (iv) Unfavourable foreign trade : A. Net exporter of raw material and importer of finished good. B. Britain had monopoly control on foreign trade. C.
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Drain of India’s wealth. (v) Adverse demographic condition : A. High death rate 40 per thousand. B. High infant martality rate 18 per thousand. C. Mass Illiteracy 83% illiterate. D. Low life expectancy 32 years E. Low standard of living people used to spend 80% to 90% of their income on basic needs. (vi) Under developed infrastructure : Absence of good roads, electricity generation, health, education and communication. However some efforts have been made to develop basic infrastructure like roads, railway ports, water transport post & telegraph by the British rulars.
The main motive was not to provide basic amenties to the Indian people but for their colonial interest. (vii) More dependence on primary sector * Largest share of work force which was 72% was engaged in agriculture. * 10% marufacturing while 18% warkforce were engaged in service sector. * Some positive effects of the British rule in India : A. Provided transport facilities, largely in terms of railways. B. Development of ports. C. Provision of post and telegraph services. D. British Govt. left a base of a strong and efficient administrative set up. E.
Political and economic unification of the country. F. Evolution of banking and monetary system. ANSWER OF ONE MARK QUESTIONS 1. Infant mortality rate was 18 per thousand. 2. Life expactancy was 32 years. 3. Infant mortality rate means number of deaths of children below the age of one year per thousand live birth. 4. Dada Bhai Nauroji, & Prof V. K. R. V. Rao. 5. Commercialisation of agriculture means production of crops for sale in the market rather than for self consumption. 6. (i) To get raw materials from India at cheap rate. (ii) To sell British manufactured goods in Indian market at high prices.
7. Jute and textile industries. 8. When export of a country is more than import. 9. 10% in secondary sector and 18% in tertiary sector. ONE MARK QUESTIONS 1. What was the infant mortality rate of India during British rule? 2. State the life expectancy in India during British rule. 3. What do you mean by infant mortality rate? 4. Give the name of one economist who estimated India’s per capital income during colonial period. 5. What is meant by commercialisation of agriculture? 6. What was the motive behind the deindustrialisation by the colonial Govt. in India? 7.
Which industries were adiversly affected due to partition. 8. What does the export surplus mean? 9. What percentage of India’s working population was engaged in secondary and tertiary sector during British rule? 3/4 MARKS QUESTIONS 1. Mention four features of India’s agriculture on the eve of independence. 2. W hat were the objectives of the British Govt. in bringing about infrastructural change in the Indian economy. 3. How would you explain the drain of wealth during the British rule. 4. Discuss occupational structure of Indian economy at the time of independence.
5. State three main features of Indian economy at the time of independence. 6. Mention the state of Indian industries on the eve of independence. 6 MARKS QUESTIONS 1. Critically appraise some of the shortfalls of the industrical policy pursued by the British colonial administration. 2. What were the main causes of India’s agricultural stagnation during the colonial period. 3. Give a quantitative appraisal of India’s demographic profile during the colonial period. 4. Were there any positive contributions made by the British in India? Discuss.