Tea is the most consumed drink world-wide aside from H2O. Among teas, green tea polyphenolshave been extensively studied as cardiovascular disease, since ancient period green tea has been considered a health-promoting drink. And in recent old ages, scientists worldwide have evaluated the possible wellness benefits of green tea and its most abundant catechin, epigallocatechingallate ( EGCG ) .The intent of the survey is to find the consequence of green tea on cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular patients, of both sexes, would be indiscriminately selected and followed up, with green tea consumption, for two months.
Two types of teas would be used in the survey, Lipton green tea and locally available green tea, these would besides be subjected to proximate analysis and entire phenolic contents would besides be determined. The fluctuation in alimentary value and phenolic contents among Lipton and local green tea will besides be evaluated. The ensuing informations will be subjected to analysis of discrepancy ( Steel et al. , 1997 ) . Significant consequences will be subjected to Duncan Multiple Range Test ( Duncan, 1955 ) to compare the consequences.
University OF AGRICULTURE, FAISALABAD
INSTITUTE OF RURAL HOME ECONOMICS
Outline for M.Sc ( Hons. ) Home Economics ( Food and Nutrition ) .
Title: Consequence of Green Tea on Cardiovascular Diseases
Date of Admission: 06-10-2011
Date of Initiation: After Approval
Probable Duration: 3 months
1. Name of Student: Sidra Khalid
2. Registration No: 2007-ag-1019
3. Name of Supervisor: Dr. Naheed Abbas
1. Dr. Naheed Abbas ( Supervisor )
2. Miss Sana Arif ( Member )
3. Prof. Dr. M.AslamMirza ( Member )
Cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) is a chief cause of morbidity, disablement, and mortality all around the universe. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) is the figure one cause of decease in the United States and other developed states ( Lloyd et al. 2010 ) . Hyperlipidemia, which consequences from abnormalcies in lipid metamorphosis, leads to the development of atherosclerotic plaques and is one of the cardinal hazard factors of CVD ( Jain et al. , 2007 ) . Hazard of bosom onslaught is 3-fold higher in topics with lipemia than in topics with normal lipid position ( Yusuf et al. , 2004 ) .
Cardiovascular diseases are recognized as multifactorial diseases. Hazard factors for the development of CVD have been identified, which includes older age, male sex, a positive household history, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, fleshiness, andcigarette smoke ( Ezzati M. , et al 2007 ) . All around the universe high cholesterin is one of the major wellness concerns impacting people. Harmonizing to the World Health Organization, approximately 39 % of the people worldwide cholesterin ( WHO, 2013 ) .
Cholesterol is one of thecardinal substances in prolonging the normal maps of the organic structure, including the cell constructions and fabrication of endocrines. High cholesterin, can take to increased hazard of bosom disease and shot. High cholesterin interventions target Low Density Lipoprotein ( LDL ) , which is frequently referred to as the “ bad cholesterin ” . LDL is known as “ bad ” because it transport cholesterin from the liver to organic structure cells and frequently consequences in plaque formation in the arterias ( National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 2012 ) .
Many clinical tests show an increased hazard of bosom disease when there is an elevated degree of LDL, doing LDL the primary mark of therapy ( Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults, 2011 ) .Oxidation of LDL is thought to play an of import function in the atherogenesis. In the initial phases of coronary artery disease, LDL accumulates in the intima of lesion-prone sites of the arterial wall ( Schwartz et al. , 1991 ) .
The possible engagement of oxidative procedures early in atherogenesis has stimulated the thought that dietetic antioxidants may hold a preventative consequence in cardiovascular disease ( Gey, 1995 ) . Epidemiologic informations and randomised tests indicate a protective function of dietetic oxidizers against CVD ( Stephens et al. , 1996 ) . Flavonoids derived from tea have been demonstrated to expeditiously scavenge a assortment of free groups. Indeed, the potent antioxidant belongingss of tea polyphenols are thought to be one of the mechanisms underlying their putative protective action against CVD. When the complex nature of coronary artery disease is considered, tea may hold a protective function against CVD via a figure of different mechanisms, one of which is its antioxidant activity. ( Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2010 ) .
Tea is the most consumed drink in the universe besides H2O. Consumption of tea is in the signifiers of green, oolong, and black tea, which are originated from the foliages of the works Camelliasinensis. Green tea polyphenols have been extensively studied as cut downing cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) agents ( Zaveri, 2006 ; Cooper et al. , 2005 ) . Green tea is prepared by drying, non fermenting, newly harvested tea foliages and hence contains more antioxidants than fermented teas. Newly harvested foliages are instantly steamed to forestall agitation, giving a dry, stable merchandise, steaming procedure destroys the enzymes responsible for interrupting down the colour pigments in the foliages and allows the tea to keep its green colour during the fabrication processes. As green tea is fermented to oolong and so to black tea, polyphenol compounds ( catechins ) in green tea are dimerized, such that these teas may hold different biological functions ( Cheng, 2000 ) .
Approximately 2.5 million dozenss of tea foliages are produced yearly world-wide, with 20 % produced as green tea, which is consumed in Asia, some parts of North Africa, the United States, and Europe. Green tea has been found good than black tea in footings of antioxidant activity due to the higher content of ( a?’ ) -epigallocatechingallate ( Cheng, 2000 ) . Catechins, a category of low molecular weight polyphenols, are major polyphenols of green tea, which comprises of one tierce of entire dry weight of green tea. Green tea contains poly phenolic compounds, ( – ) -epigallocatechin-3-gallate ( EGCG ) , ( – ) -epigallocatechin ( EGC ) , ( – ) -epicatechin-3-gallate ( ECG ) and ( – ) -epicatechin ( EC ) . The major catechin is ( a?’ ) epigallocatechin-3-gallate ( EGCG ) . The biological effects of tea polyphenols are focused on the effects of EGCG, including the bar of LDL oxidization, decrease of thrombocyte collection, lipid ordinance, and suppression of proliferation and migration of smooth musculus cells ( Cabrera et Al. , 2006 ) .
The cardio-protective consequence of flavonoids from green tea can be attributed to non merely antioxidant, anti-thrombogenic andA anti-inflammatory belongingss but besides betterment of coronary flow speed modesty ( Hirata et al. , 2004 ; Cheng, 2004 ) . The good consequence of green tea against coronary artery disease has been referred to the antioxidant activity of the flavonoids ( Rietveld and Wiseman. , 2003 ) . Antioxidants are compounds that protect cells against the detrimental effects of reactive O species such as free groups. An instability between antioxidants and reactive O species consequences in oxidative emphasis, taking to cellular harm. Catechins are hypothesized to assist protect against these diseases by lending, along with antioxidant vitamins and enzymes, to the entire antioxidant defence system ( Abdel-Raheimet al. , 2009 ) .
Chinese green tea has been shown to significantly forestall endothelial-cell induced LDL oxidization and suppress lipoxygenase activity. Because LDL oxidization is a characteristic characteristic of atherogenesis and lipoxygenase is involved in the procedure, the consumption of green tea, hence, reduces the hazard of coronary bosom disease. Green tea has besides been shown to take down plasma cholesterin by increasing faecal gall acids and cholesterin ( Yang and Koo. , 2000 ) . Green tea besides has an anti-inflammatory consequence ( Cheng. , 2003 ) . Green tea might be a preventative agent for chronic inflammatory diseases ( Sueokaet al. , 2001 ) .
Green tea catechins affect lipid metamorphosis by different tracts and forestall the visual aspect of atherosclerotic plaque. Its consumption decreases the soaking up of triglycerides and cholesterin and these findings are in conformity with the fact that it increases elimination of fat ( Raederstorffet al. , 2003 ) .
The undertaking at manus has been planned:
To find and compare the alimentary value, along with entire phenolic contents, of Lipton green tea and locally available green tea.
To analyze the consequence of green tea on cardiovascular diseases.
To compare the effects of both Lipton green tea and locally available green tea on cardiovascular diseases.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE:
Miura et al. , ( 2000 ) conducted an experiment, to analyze the consumption of green tea polyphenols renders LDL resistant to ex vivo oxidization in worlds ‘ male voluntaries were assigned the same dietetic form. They were every bit divided into two groups: control and tea. The tea group ingested 300 milligram of green tea polyphenol extract twice daily. Plasma concentrations of lipoids, ascorbate, I±-tocopherol, and lipid peroxides did non alter before and after the experiment in either group, but I?-carotene was higher in the tea group. These consequences suggested that day-to-day ingestion of seven to eight cups ( about 100 milliliters each cup ) of green tea might increase opposition of LDL to in vivo oxidization, taking to take downing the hazard of cardiovascular diseases.
Erbaet al. , ( 2005 ) investigated the consequence of the add-on of two cups of green tea ( incorporating about 250 milligrams of entire catechins ) to a controlled diet in a group of healthy grownups with regard to a group following the same controlled diet but non devouring green tea. Antioxidant position and lipid profile in plasma were measured at the beginning and at the terminal of test. Consumption of GT caused a important addition in plasma entire antioxidant activity, important lessenings in plasma peroxides degree and induced DNA oxidative harm in lymph cells ) , a moderate although important lessening in LDL cholesterin with regard to command. The survey suggested the ability of GT, consumed within a balanced controlled diet, to better overall the anti-oxidative position and to protect against oxidative harm in worlds.
Zaveri, ( 2005 ) reported that the usage of green tea as a malignant neoplastic disease chemo preventative or for other wellness benefits has been confounded by the low unwritten bioavailability of its active poly phenoplast catechins, peculiarly epigallocatechin-3-gallate ( EGCG ) , the most active catechin. This reappraisal summarized the purported good effects of green tea and EGCG in assorted carnal theoretical accounts of human diseases. Dose-related differences in the effects of EGCG in malignant neoplastic disease versus neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, every bit good as disagreements between doses used in in vitro surveies and accomplishable plasma apprehension of the in vivo effects of green tea catechins in worlds, before the usage of green tea is widely adopted as health-promoting step.
Ohmoriet al. , ( 2005 ) studied to edify whether green tea ingestion may hold these effects in vivo or non, which may be good against coronary artery disease. Green tea has shown to suppress LDL oxidization, thrombocyte collection, and matrix metallo proteases ( MMPs ) actions in vitro. They measured serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL ( MDA-LDL ) concentrations and urine 8-epi-prostaglandin in healthy nonsmokers male. They drank 7 cups of H2O daily for twosome of hebdomads and drank 7 cups of green tea daily for the following hebdomads. They concluded that day-to-day ingestion of green tea decreased serum MDA-LDL concentrations, but it had no important effects on thrombocyte collection, thrombocyte TX production or plasma MMPs concentrations. Other consequences suggested that green tea ingestion besides inhibit LDL oxidization in vivo.
Cheng. ( 2006 ) reported that tea is one of the most widely consumed drinks in the universe, besides H2O. It can be categorized into three types, depending on the degree of agitation, i.e. , green ( fresh ) , oolong ( partly fermented ) and black ( fermented ) tea. Green tea has been found to be superior to black tea in footings of antioxidant activity owing to the higher content of ( a?’ ) -epigallocatechingallate. The procedures used in the industry of black tea are known to diminish degrees of the mono-metriccatechins to a much greater extent than the less terrible conditions applied to other teas. The cardio-protective consequence of flavonoids from green tea can be attributed to non merely antioxidant, anti-thrombogenic and anti-inflammatory belongingss but besides betterment of coronary flow speed modesty. He discussed the effects of green tea on coronary artery disease, coronary bosom disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and fleshiness, and, eventually, its comparing with black tea.
Kuriyamaet al. , ( 2006 ) performed an experiment on grownups without history of shot, coronary bosom disease, or malignant neoplastic disease to look into the associations between green tea ingestion and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplastic disease, and all causes. Green tea ingestion was reciprocally associated with mortality due to all causes and due to cardiovascular diseases. The reverse association with all-cause mortality was stronger in adult females than that of work forces. In work forces, the ratio of mortality due to all causes was associated with different green tea ingestion. The reverse association with cardiovascular disease mortality was stronger than that with all-cause mortality. Among the types of cardiovascular disease mortality, the strongest opposite association was observed for shot mortality. In contrast, the hazard ratios of malignant neoplastic disease mortality were non important.
Cabrera et Al. ( 2006 ) reviewed that tea is the most consumed drink in the universe besides H2O. Green tea is a ‘non-fermented ‘ tea, and contains more catechins, as compared to black tea or oolong tea. Catechins are in vitro and in vivo strong anti-oxidants, its content of certain minerals and vitamins increases the antioxidant potency. Since ancient times, green tea has been considered by the traditional Chinese medical specialty as a healthy drink. Recent human surveies suggest that green tea may lend to decrease in the hazard of cardiovascular disease and some signifiers of malignant neoplastic disease, every bit good as to the publicity of unwritten wellness and other physiological maps such as anti-hypertensive consequence, fleshiness control, antibacterial and anti-viral activity, addition in bone mineralization, anti-fibrotic belongingss, and neuro protective power. Increasing concern in its wellness benefits has led to the inclusion of green tea in the group of drinks with functional belongingss.
Koo and Noh, ( 2007 ) evidenced from in vitro and in vivo surveies that green tea or catechins inhibit the enteric soaking up of dietetic lipoids. Surveies in vitro indicate that green tea catechins, peculiarly ( a?’ ) -epigallocatechingallate, interfere with the emulsification, digestion, and solubility of lipoids, critical stairss involved in the enteric soaking up of dietetic fat, cholesterin, and other lipoids. Animal and epidemiological surveies suggested that green tea catechins may cut down the hazard of cardiovascular diseases e.g. , coronary bosom disease ( CHD ) . The wellness benefit of green tea had been attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory belongingss ; nevertheless, considerable grounds suggested that green tea and its catechins may cut down the hazard of CHD by take downing the plasma degrees of cholesterin and triglyceride. Green tea reduced the soaking up and tissue accretion of other lipotropic organic compounds. The available information suggests that green tea or its catechins might be used as safe and effectual lipid-lowering curative agents.
Khan and Mukhtar, ( 2007 ) reported that although wellness benefits have been attributed to tea, particularly, green tea ingestion since many old ages, scientific probes of this drink and its components have been underway for less than three decennaries. Peoples have been devouring brewed tea from the foliages of the Camellia sinensisplant for about 50A centuries. Presently, tea, in the signifier of green or black tea, is the most widely consumed drink in the universe. In vitro and carnal surveies provide strong grounds that polyphenols derived from tea may possess the bioactivity to impact the pathogenesis of several degenerative diseases. Among all tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate of green tea has been shown to be responsible for much of the wellness advancing ability. Tea and tea readyings have been shown to suppress tumor formation in a assortment of carnal theoretical accounts of carcinogenesis.
Wolfram, ( 2007 ) suggested that dose-response relationships observed in several epidemiological surveies have suggested that pronounced cardiovascular and metabolic wellness benefits can be obtained by regular ingestion of 5-6 or more cups of green tea day-to-day. Intervention surveies utilizing similar sums of green tea, incorporating 200-300 milligram of EGCG, have demonstrated its utility for keeping cardiovascular and metabolic wellness. Additionally, there are legion in vivo surveies showing that green tea and EGCG exert cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. Therefore, green tea and EGCG can be regarded as nutrient constituents utile for the care of cardiovascular and metabolic wellness. To turn out the effectivity for disease bar or intervention, long-run clinical surveies look intoing the effects of one precisely-defined green tea merchandise on cardiovascular and metabolic end points would benecessary.
Nagao et Al, ( 2007 ) investigated the consequence of green tea catechins in cut downing organic structure fat and hazard of cardiovascular by in indiscriminately collected Nipponese work forces and adult females. The persons were ingested 96-583 milligram of green tea catechins daily with normal dietetic consumption and usual physical activity. The uninterrupted consumption of green tea high in catechins resulted in organic structure fat, LDL cholesterin and systolic blood force per unit area, bespeaking that green tea high in catechins in return consequences in decrease fleshiness and cardiovascular hazards.
Tinahoneset Al. ( 2008 ) studied to find the consequence of a green tea infusion on vascular map and lipid peroxidation as compared with placebo. The survey was carried out with healthy adult females, none of them were having any medical intervention. The ingestion of green tea infusion was associated with a important 37.4 % decrease in the concentration of oxidised LDL. This survey found that ingestion of green tea infusion by adult females consequences in alterations in vascular map and a considerable lessening in serum oxidization.
Chackoet Al. ( 2010 ) investigatedthe wellness benefits of green tea for a broad assortment of conditions, including malignant neoplastic disease, bosom disease, and liver disease due to good effects of green tea catechin, peculiarly ( – ) -epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. They related the healthful mechanisms of green tea catechins by groundss from in vitro, animate being and human surveies. As there were besides on utilizing green tea catechins to handle metabolic syndrome, such as fleshiness, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular hazard factors. And they suggested that long term ingestion of green tea catechins could be good against high-fat diet-induced fleshiness and type II diabetes and to cut down the hazard of bosom disease.
Mineharuet al. , ( 2011 ) studied to analyze the relationship between the ingestion of these drinks and hazard of mortality from CVD, persons aged 40-79aˆ…years free of shot, coronary bosom disease ( CHD ) and malignant neoplastic disease at early phase were prospectively followed. The day-to-day ingestion of drinks was assessed by questionnaires. They concluded that ingestion of java, green tea and oolong tea and caffeine consumption was associated with a lower hazard of mortality from CVD.
Zhenget Al. ( 2011 ) identified the consequence of green tea and its infusion on entire cholesterin ( TC ) , LDL cholesterin, and HDL cholesterin. They identified relevant tests of green tea drinks and infusions on lipid profiles in grownups. Weighted average differences were calculated for net alterations in lipid concentrations by utilizing fixed-effects or random-effects theoretical accounts. The analysis of surveies showed that the ingestion of green tea drinks resulted in important decreases in serum TC and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, but no consequence on HDL cholesterin was observed. Analysiss showed that these alterations were non influenced by the type of intercession, dosage of green tea, survey continuance, single wellness position, or quality of the intervention survey.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
It would be a clinical comparative survey in which the alimentary value ( Proximate analysis ) and clinical effects ( on cardiovascular patients holding normal everyday diet ) , ofLipton green tea every bit good as locally available green tea, would be determined after a follow up of 2 months.
Entire 21 patients, of both sexes, will be selected indiscriminately. The selected patients would be farther divided into three groups as:
Group-1: No intervention would be given to 7 patients ( command Group ) .
Group-2: Lipton green tea would be given to 7 patients.
Group-3: Locally available green tea would be given to 7 patients.
Area of Research:
21 patients of cardiovascular diseases, for a follow up of two months with green tea consumption, would be indiscriminately selected, from Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore.
Green tea samples, of both teas, will be brought and processed in the Nutrition Research Laboratory of theNational Institute of Food & A ; Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
The proximate analysis of green tea ( Lipton and local tea ) , for protein, fat, rough fibre, ash and soluble saccharides will be done by utilizing the method given by AOAC ( 1990 ) .
Phenolic content Analysis:
The entire figure of phenolic contents of both Lipton green tea and locally available green tea, will be determined.
The ensuing informations will be subjected to analysis of discrepancy ( Steel et al. , 1997 ) . Significant consequences will be put to Duncan Multiple Range Test ( Duncan, 1955 ) to compare and construe the consequences.
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