Effects of Light Exposure on Germination

RP 3: Germination Introduction: Germination is the process of which a plant of fungus emerges from its seed or spore - Effects of Light Exposure on Germination introduction. Germination involves activating the seed’s metabolism, which is done through numerous stages. The fist stage involves the rehydrating the cell by absorbing water. This allows the cell to become metabolically active. After water absorption, gibberellin is produced in the cotyledon of the seed. The enzyme gibberellin stimulates the production of amylase, which catalyzes the digestion of starch and converts it into maltose in the food the seed stores.

Maltose is then transported to the growth regions of the seed. Maltose is converted into glucose, which can either be used in the cell for aerobic cellular respiration or other substances needed for growth. After the leaves of the seed are exposed to light, photosynthesis provides the seed with food and the food stores are no longer needed. In this research, the relationship between Mung bean light exposure and germination will be investigated. In order for germination to take place certain external factors are needed. Water must be available for the seed to hydrate the dry tissues to activate the seed’s metabolism.

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Oxygen must also be available for the cell to perform aerobic cellular respiration. The environment the seed is germinating in must be in suitable temperatures. Enzymes within the seed for germination is affected by temperature, if the temperature is too cold or hot, the process of germination may be slow or impossible. Design Research Question: The affect of different hours of light exposure in the germination of Mung Beans. Variables: The independent variables in this research include the different amount of times Mung beans are exposed to light.

The different amount of time involved with light exposure for Mung beans consisted of two-hour intervals. The amounts of light Mung beans were exposed to wear 0-2-4-6-8 hours of light within a period of 24 hours for three days. The dependent variable within the research was the germination of the Mung beans. The dependent variable was measured by counting the number of Mung beans germinated within each 24-hour period and recorded as quantitative data, qualitative data was also recorded as well. The research was also conducted with controlled variables involved.

The control groups within the research were the trails not receiving any amount of light at all. All Mung beans were exposed to the same light intensity and source. The light source was a lamp placed at a distance of 24 centimeter above the petri dishes. The petri dishes were also left in the same location that had a constant room temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. The same amount of water, 40 milliliters of water was poured in each petri dish as well, coming from the same source. Materials: * 20 Petri Dishes * 400 Mung Beans * Gradual Cylinder (100mls) * Water * 2 Lamps * Cotton Buds Meter Stick Procedure: The research involved setting up an environment for Mung beans to germinate. Toured up pieces of cotton buds were placed in each petri dish to absorb water, allowing the hydration of Mung beans. 20 Mung beans were placed in each petri dished and 40 milliliters of water was distributed in each petri dish. After all previous steps have been executed; place the petri dishes under the light source for the desired amount of time. After the desired amount of time for petri dishes to be exposed to light, remove them and place them in a location with no light source available.

After a span of 24-hours have passed since the Mung beans have be exposed to light, place the petri dish back under the light source for the desired amount of time. This process was repeated for each trail three times within a span of 72 hours. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Number of Germinations Within the First 24-Hour Period Trials and number of germinations| Number of hours of light exposure| | 0 hours | 2 hours | 4 hours | 6 hours | 8 hours | | Trial 1 | 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| | Trial 2| 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| | Trial 3| 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| 0/20| |

Average number of germinations| 0| 0| 0| 0| 0| | Table 1- the table above displays the number of germinations for each trial within the first 24-hours. Number of Germinations Within the First 48-Hour Period Trials and number of germinations| Number of hours of light exposure| | 0 hours (± 0. 58)| 2 hours(± 1)| 4 hours(± 1. 53)| 6 hours(± 1. 73)| 8 hours(± 1)| | Trial 1| 7/20| 7/20| 8/20| 10/20| 11/20| | Trial 2| 8/20| 9/20| 9/20| 10/20| 12/20| | Trial 3| 8/20| 8/20| 10/20| 13/20| 13/20| | Average number of germinations| 7. 66| 8| 9| 11| 12| |

Table 2- the table above displays the number of germinations for each trial within the first 48-hours. Number of Germinations Over the Course of 72 Hours Trials and number of germinations| Number of hours of light exposure| | 0 hours(± 1. 15)| 2 hours(± 0. 58)| 4 hours(± 0. 58)| 6 hours(± 1)| 8 hours(± 0. 58)| | Trial 1| 16/20| 16/20| 17/20| 20/20| 20/20| | Trial 2| 18/20| 15/20| 17/20| 18/20| 20/20| | Trial 3| 16/20| 16/20| 18/20| 19/20| 18/20| | Average number of germinations| 16. 66| 15. 66| 17. 33| 19| 19. 33| | Table 3- the table above displays the number of germinations for each trial within 72 hours.

Hours| Mung Beans Receiving No Light| Mung Beans Receiving Two Hours of Light| Mung Beans Receiving Four Hours of Light| Mung Beans Receiving Six Hours of Light| Mung Beans Receiving Eight Hours of Light| After 24 Hours| Mung Beans have hydrated and increased in Size| Mung Beans have hydrated and increased in Size| Mung Beans have hydrated and increased in Size| Mung Beans have hydrated and increased in Size| Mung Beans have hydrated and increased in Size| After 48 Hours| Less than half of the Mung Beans have germinated (23/60). Seed coat has broken and bean shoot is visible. Less than half of the Mung Beans have germinated (24/60). Seed coat has broken and bean shoot is visible. | Almost half of the Mung Beans have germinated (27/60). Seed coat has broken and bean shoot is visible. | More than half of the Mung Beans have germinated (33/60). Seed coat has broken and bean shoot is visible and has slightly extended out. | More than half of the Mung Beans have germinated (36). Seed coat has broken and bean shoot is visible and has extended out. | After 72| Most of the Mung Beans (50/60) have germinated. The seed coat has been broken completely and bean shoots are completely visible, along with some roots. Most of the Mung Beans (47/60) have germinated. The seed coat has been broken completely and bean shoots are completely visible, along with some roots. | Most of the Mung Beans (52/60) have germinated. The seed coat has been broken completely and bean shoots are completely visible, along with some roots. | Most of the Mung Beans (57/60) have germinated. The seed coat has been broken completely and bean shoots are completely visible, along with some roots. | Most of the Mung Beans (58/60) have germinated. The seed coat has been broken completely and bean shoots are completely visible, along with some roots. | Graph1 – The graph above displays the total average Mung bean germinations for each amount of light exposure over the course of 72 hours. From conducting a t-test, the data collected was considered to be statistically significant. The data used to conduct the t-test were for the trials of the Mung beans receiving not light and eight hours of light after the course of 72 hours. This data was used to determine whether light exposure had an affect on germination on not. The p- value calculated was 0. 3739, which showed determined statically significant data.

T-test where also conducted between each interval of two hours of light exposure on Mung beans. The t-test determine the data to not be statistically significant From using the data sets of Mung Beans receiving six hours of light exposure and eight hours of light exposure after the end of forty-eight hour time period, the p-value measured to be 0. 2508, determining to be insignificant. T-test between Mung beans receiving no light and two hours of light after 72-hour period. P value and statistical significance: The two-tailed P value equals 0. 2508 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant.

T-test between Mung beans receiving two hours of light and four hours of light after 72-hour period. P value and statistical significance: The two-tailed P value equals 0. 0668 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not quite statistically significant. T-test between Mung beans receiving four hours of light and eight hours of light after 72-hour period. P value and statistical significance: The two-tailed P value equals 0. 3739 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant. T-test between Mung beans receiving four hours of light and eight hours of ight after 72-hour period. P value and statistical significance: The two-tailed P value equals 0. 0158 By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be statistically significant. Sample Calculations: Calculating the total average for Mung beans to germinate under specific amounts of light exposure can be determined by using the following formula (trial 1+ trial 2+ trial 3)/3. Sample calculation for Mung bean germination after receiving 6 hours of light in-between 24-48 hours: (10+10+13)/3 = 11 Calculations for uncertainties can be determined by calculating the standard deviation between two sets of data.

Calculating uncertainties can be conducted by calculating the range within a set of data then dividing by two. Sample calculation for Mung beans being exposed to light for six hours after a 72-hour period. : (20-18)/2=1 Conclusion From examining the results of the research, Mung beans receiving eight hours of light a day were able to germinate the fastest. The average calculated for all germination trails within each 24-hour period for Mung beans exposed to eight hours of light was always the greatest within the data set compared to Mung beans exposed to light for 0,2,4,6 hours of light a day.

The line graph clearly shows a steady increase of germination of Mung beans receiving greater amounts of light exposure. From examining tables 1,2,3; trials between two hours intervals were not that significantly different but between Mung beans receiving no light exposure and eight hours of light exposure, there was a significant difference. After the end of the 72-hour period, there was an average of 2. 67 more germinations between Mung beans receiving eight hours of light and Mung beans receiving no light.

Although the amount of germinations between Mung beans exposed to light or not light was not drastic, the process of germination was still increased. The reason behind germination occurring quicker may have been the change in temperature of the Mung bean. Mung beans germinate faster in warm environments due to the rate of enzyme activity. The enzyme gibberellin was able to be stimulated quicker and produce amylase, which catalyzed the digestion of starch and converted it into maltose in the food the seed stores, which enabled maltose to be transported to the growth regions of the Mung beans, resulting in germination.

Evaluation One random source of error could be potentially the distribution of water and the Mung beans within each petri dish. Mung beans located close to each other were unable to absorb water and hydrate as much as Mung beans given more space between other Mung beans. This error could have been avoided by distributing less Mung beans within each petri dish and using more trials instead. Water distribution may have been another factor.

Some Mung beans have received more water for absorption and hydration than other Mung beans due to poor water distribution. Another source of error may have been the placement of cotton buds. Some areas within a petri dish may have been padded with cotton buds poorly, resulting in poor absorption of water, which then would result in poor absorption for Mung beans. The only way to avoid this error would to place cotton pads instead of ripped pieces of cotton buds, this would ensure even cotton distribution for water absorption.

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