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History of Albert Einstein

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    Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on Mar. 14, 1879. Einstein’s parents, who

    were non observant Jews, moved from Ulm to Munich when Einstein was an infant. The

    family business was the manufacture of electrical parts. When the business failed, in 1894,

    the family moved to Milan, Italy. At this time Einstein decided officially to relinquish his

    German citizenship. Within a year, still without having completed secondary school,

    Einstein failed an examination that would have allowed him to take a course of study

    leading to a diploma as an electrical engineer at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.

    He spent the next year in nearby Aarau at the continual secondary school, where he

    enjoyed excellent teachers. Einstein returned in 1896 to the Swiss Federal Institute of

    Technology, where he graduated, in 1900 as a secondary school teacher of mathematics

    After two years he obtained a post at the Swiss patent office in Bern. The

    patent-office work required Einstein’s careful attention, but while employed there he

    completed an astonishing range of publications in theoretical physics. For the most part

    these texts were written in his spare time and without the benefit of close contact with

    either the scientific literature or theoretician colleagues. Einstein took one of his scientific

    papers to the University of Zurich to obtain a Ph.D. degree in 1905. In 1908 he sent a

    second paper to the University of Bern and became a lecturer there. The next year Einstein

    received a regular appointment as associate professor of physics at the University of

    By 1909, Einstein was recognized throughout German-speaking Europe as a

    leading scientific thinker. In quick succession he held professorships at the German

    University of Prague and at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. In 1914 he

    advanced to the best-paying post that a theoretical physicist could hold in central Europe,

    professor at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft in Berlin. By the age of 35 he was

    recognized as the best physicist in whole Europe.

    When British eclipse expeditions in 1919 confirmed his predictions about the

    general theory of relativity, Einstein was bombarded by the popular press. Einstein’s

    personal ethics also fired public imagination. Einstein, who after returning to Germany in

    1914 did not reapply for German citizenship, was one of only a handful of German

    professors who remained a pacifist and did not support Germany’s war aims. After the

    war, when the victorious allies sought to exclude German scientists from international

    meetings, Einstein–a Jew traveling with a Swiss passport–remained an acceptable

    German envoy. Einstein’s political views as a pacifist and a Zionist pitted him against

    conservatives in Germany, who branded him a traitor and a defeatist. The public success

    accorded his theories of relativity evoked savage attacks in the 1920s by the anti-Semitic

    physicists Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard, men who after 1932 tried to create a

    so-called Aryan physics in Germany. Just how controversial the theories of relativity

    remained for less flexibly minded physicists is revealed in the circumstances surrounding

    Einstein’s reception of a Nobel Prize in 1921–awarded not for relativity but for his 1905

    With the rise of fascism in Germany, Einstein moved, in 1933 to the United States

    and abandoned his pacifism. He reluctantly agreed that the new menace had to be put

    down through force of arms. In this context Einstein sent a letter, in 1939, to President

    Franklin D. Roosevelt that urged that the United States proceed to develop an atomic

    bomb before Germany did. The letter, composed by Einstein’s friend Leo Szilard, was one

    of many exchanged between the White House and Einstein, and it contributed to

    Roosevelt’s decision to fund what became the Manhattan Project.

    As much he appeared to the public as a champion of unpopular causes, Einstein’s

    central concerns always revolved around physics. At the age of 59, when other theoretical

    physicists would long since have abandoned original scientific research, Einstein and his

    co-workers Leopold Infeld and Banesh Hoffmann achieved a major new result in the

    Until the end of his life Einstein sought a unified field theory, whereby the

    phenomena of gravitation and electromagnetism could be derived from one set of

    equations. After 1920, however, while retaining relativity as a fundamental concept,

    theoretical physicists focused more attention on the theory of quantum mechanics, as

    elaborated by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and others, and Einstein’s later

    thoughts went somewhat neglected for decades. This picture has changed in more recent

    years. Physicists are now striving to combine Einstein’s relativity theory with quantum

    theory in a “theory of everything,” by means of such highly advanced mathematical models

    I picked this man to write about because at first he started out normal and no one

    tought that he will become one of the greathest minds in the world of all time. As a little

    kid he couldn’t pass secondary school and later in his life he with some help from two

    co-workers in the Manhattan project he created the the Atomic bomb. At the age of 26 he

    forms the equation of energy: E=MC^2. On the next two pages is a timetable and

    everything that Einstein did in his life.

    1879: Albert Einstein is born to Hermann Einstein (a featherbedsalesman) and his wife

    1884: Around this time, Albert receives his first compass, beginning his quest to

    1889: At age 10, Albert sets into a program of self education andreads as much about

    1894: The Einsteins move from Munich to Pavia, Italy andAlbert, 15, stays on in

    Munichto finish the school year. Albert lasts only a term on his own and follows his family

    1895: Albert attempts to skip high school by taking an entrance exam to the Swiss

    Polytechnic, a top technical university, but he

    fails the arts portion. His family sends him to the Swiss town of Aarau to finish high

    1896: Albert graduates from high school at the age of 17 and enrolls at the ETH (the

    1898: Albert falls in love with Mileva Maric, a Hungarian classmate at the ETH.

    1900: Albert graduates from the ETH.

    1901: Albert becomes a Swiss citizen. Unemployed, he searches for work. He and Mileva

    meet in northern Italy for a tryst. Mileva becomes pregnant. In the fall, Albert finds work

    in Schaffhausen, Switzerland as a tutor. Mileva, visibly pregnant, moves to Stein Am

    Rhein, three miles upriver. Mileva then moves to Hungary to give birth to their baby at her

    parent’s home. Albert moves to Bern.

    1902: In January, Mileva gives birth to their daughter, Lieserl, whom they eventually put

    up for adoption. She reportedly becomes ill and then all record of her disappears. Albert

    takes a job at the Swiss Patent Office. Hermann Einstein becomes ill and dies.

    1903: Albert and Mileva marry in January

    1904: Mileva gives birth to their first son, Hans Albert.

    1905: “Annus Mirabilis” — Einstein’s “Miracle Year”: his Special theory of Relativity is

    born. June 30th, Einstein, submits his paper, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”

    to the leading German physics journal. At age 26, he applies his theory to mass and energy

    1906: Still living in Bern, Einstein continues as an Examiner at the Swiss Patent Office.

    1907: Einstein begins applying the laws of gravity to his Special Theory of Relativity.

    1911: The Einsteins move to Prague where Albert is given a full professorship at the

    German University there. Albert is the youngest to attend the invitation-only Solvay

    Conference in Brussels, the first world physics conference.

    1912: The Einstein’s move to Zurich where Albert is given a position as a professor of

    1913: Einstein works on his new Theory of Gravity.

    1914: Einstein becomes director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin and professor of

    theoretical physics at the University of Berlin. The family moves there in April, but Mileva

    and the sons return to Zurich after 3 months. The divorce prodeedings begin.In August,

    1915: Einstein completes the General Theory of Relativity.

    1917: Einstein collapses and, near death, falls seriously ill. He is nursed back to health by

    his cousin, Elsa. He publishes his first paper on cosmology.

    1919: Albert marries Elsa. May 29, a solar eclipse proves Einstein’s General Theory of

    1922: Is awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for 1921.

    1927: Attends fifth Solvay Conference and begins developing the foundation of quantum

    1928: Einstein begins pursing his idea of a unified field theory.

    1932: Einstein is 53 and at the height of his fame. Identified as a Jew, he begins to feel the

    1933: Albert and Elsa set sail for the United States. They settle in Princeton, New Jersey

    where he assumes a post at the Institute for Advanced Study.

    1936: Elsa dies after a brief illness.

    1939: World War II begins. Einstein writes a famous letter to President Franklin D.

    Roosevelt warning of the possibility of Germany’s building an atomic bomb and urging

    1940: Einstein becomes an American citizen; retains Swiss citizenship.

    1955: Einstein dies of heart failure on April 16.

     

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