Emergence of the Field of Psychology
How did the field of psychology emerge? The field of psychology emerged 130 years ago, when researchers began to directly study and observe psychological effects. The first psychological laboratory was established in Germany 1879 by Wilhelem Wundt. 6. What a contemporary perspectives in psychology? Three complementary streams of psychology are the: a) Biological perspective(including biopsychology and evolutionary psychology) b) Psychological perspective (including behaviorism, cognitive psychology, the psychodynamic approach, and humanism) c) Sociocultral perspective. 7. What are the major specialties in psychology?
Including: biopsychology, clinical, cultural, cognitive, community, comparative, consumer, counseling, developmental, educational, engineering, environmental , evolutionary, forensic, gender, health, industrial-organizational, learning, medical, personality, school, sensation and perception and social psychology. 8. How the experiment performed? Experiments involved two or more groups of subjects, which differ only with regard to the independent variable. Since the independent variable the only difference between, the experimental group and the control group, it is the only possible cause of a change in dependant variable. . What is double blind experiment? Research participant bias is a problem in some studies: the placebo effect is a search of research participant bias, in experiment involving drugs. 9. What a non-experimental research do psychologists use? Psychologists are also relying on naturalistic observation, correlational method, case studies, and survey method. 1. How the neurons operate and communicate? Neurons carry the input from the senses to the brain, where the inputs are processed. Neurons also carry output from the brain in order to activate muscles and glands, yet is single neuron not to smart it takes many to make ou blink, your brain power arises because individual neurons link to one another in spidery webs, each neurons receives massages from many others. Neurons from vast networks, they produce intelligence and consciousness. 2. What a major parts of nervous system? a) Central Nervous System(brain, spinal cord) b) Peripheral Nervous System. (somatic nervous system, automatic nervous system) 3. How different parts of the brain identified are and what do they do? 4. How do left and right hemispheres differ and what are the different functions of the lobes of the cerebral cortex.
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The human brain is marked not by overall size but by advanced corticalization, or enragement of the cerebral cortex. a)Split brains- can be created by cutting the corpus callosum. The split brain shows a remarkable degree of independence between the right and left hemispheres. b)The left hemisphere is good at analysis and it processes in most people it also specializes in writing, calculating, judging time and rhythm, and ordering complex movements. c)The right hemisphere detects overall patterns; it process information simultaneously and holistically.
It is largely nonverbal and excels at spatial and perceptual skills, visualization, and recognition of patterns, faces, and melodies. d)The frontal lobes contain the primary motor area (which includes many mirror neurons) and many association areas, which combine and process information. Damage to one association area –Broca’s area – results in minor aphasia, a difficulty speaking and writing. Prefrontal cortex is related to abstract thought and one’s sense of self. The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory area, which processes bodily sensations.
The temporal lobes contain the primary auditory area and are responsible for hearing and language. Damage can cause a difficulty understanding and meanings of the words. The occipital lobes contain the primary visual area is responsible for vision. Men’s and women’s brains specialized in different ways. 5. Does the glandular system affect behavior? Endocrine glands serve as a chemical communication system within the body. The ebb and flow of hormones the endocrine glands entering the bloodstream affect behavior, moods and personality.