A broad definition of disasters Include the fact that they are dramatic, sudden, unscheduled events that are often accompanied by large losses of human life, suffering and affliction to a society or a significant part of it, and a temporary breakdown of prevailing lifelines and systems. Such events cause considerable material damages and Interrupt the normal functioning of an economy and of society in general (Otter and Marti, 1995).
All communities face some risk of natural disaster or other emergency, and how it is handled at the local, state and national levels determines the impact of the aftermath of the disaster.
Developing nations In particular, experience pervasive risk of devastation, human ND property loss resulting from human and natural disasters. According to Henderson (2004), this level of risk can be attributed to socio-economic stress, aging disaster and insufficient fiscal and economic resources to carefully implement the preparedness, response, mitigation and recovery components of integrated emergency management.
Disasters are clearly a development problem. First, because certain natural phenomena, including those of hydro-meteorological, geodesic and volcanically origin tend to have greater effects on developing countries than on developed countries.
Second, because several factors associated Ninth a low level of development exacerbate such effects. Thirdly, the impact of natural phenomena on the prospects for long-term development is considerably greater in less developed countries (BID, SEPAL, 2000).
Emergency Management or Disaster Management is the effective and efficient organization and management of resources and responsibilities when dealing with all aspects of emergencies, disasters or terrorist attacks. Emergency management involves plans, structures and arrangements established to engage government, volunteer, businesses and nonprofits in a comprehensive and coordinated way to mitigate the implications of a disaster, terrorist attack or emergency (Coleman 2005).
Emergency management is divided into three distinct phases. Three Phases of Emergency Management are: Planning Response Recovery Following a disaster, certain steps have to be taken in order to initiate a response to the crisis, and ultimately ensure recovery of the infrastructure. This response requires intergovernmental relations (as discussed in Module 4 in class). These interactions are necessary in order for the roles and responsibilities of the different evils of government to be carried out effectively.
Activating necessary local governments and organizations that are signatory to mutual aid compacts. Activating response agreements with State and Federal departments or agencies. Using local resources, expending local funds; and waiving the usual bidding process for goods and services. Requesting the State Emergency Management Agency (SEEM) to provide State and/or Federal assistance. Provides the initial emergency response through its service agencies. Activates the Emergency Operations Center (EEOC) and the Emergency Operations Plan (POP).
Coordinates the response with public and private organizations. Notifies State emergency management of the scope of the situation. Activates mutual aid. Requests assistance from the State A vast majority of these roles require endorsement from the state and federal governments, which is characteristic of the Dildo’s Rule that gives preeminence to the federal government, and regards the local government as a creature of the state, ND by extension, a creature of the federal government also.
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