Employee Motivation Essay - Part 2

Theoretical Background

This chapter discusses the most important human resource management theory related to the satisfaction and motivation of employees in the orgainzation - Employee Motivation Essay introduction. It also includes definition and concept of motivation, importance of motivation, motivation theories and satisfaction and importance of employee satisfaction as a literature review.

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2.1 Definition and concept of motivation
Many researchers have developed the concept of motivation based on the existing knowledge. Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits,controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal.(Encyclopedia) . Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. (BusinessDictionary.com). Motivation is the arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour. Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to persue a certain course of action. (Daft, 2008).

2.2 Importance of motivation
In any organization, the greatest untapped resource, and the most expensive, is its people The greatest potential for growth, productivity, performance, achievement, and profitability lies within the skills and abilities of the average person.Motivation is an essential factor for the development of employees of any organization.According to theories, by removing the obstacles that stop people from motivating enhances motivation.Understanding and appreciating the influency effect of Herzberg dual factor of motivation on employees job satisfaction helps the organization to increase morale, effectiveness and productivity among the employees.

The best way to satisfy customers in service business is by viewing employees as internal customers and by understanding and meeting employees needs, wants, expectations and concerns their levels of satisfaction will lead to better quality service to external customers.

2.3 Motivation Theory
Motivation theories have been examined to understand different motivators. These theories can be implemented to the company’s human resource policies to get the best out of the employees.The process of motivation really starts with someone recognition an understand need. Then a goal is established to be reached and that way to satisfy need. As the needs of individuals differ a lot, it is important to concentrate carefully on the attachment of goals and incentives given when goals are accomplished.

There are content theories, process theories and reinforcement theories which can dominate employee motivation.The literature review will be discussed with reference to factors of Herzberg’s theory of motivation, namely, hygiene and motivation factors and how these factors could influence satisfaction of employees.In this paper, Herzberg’s theory of motivation will be utilized as the theoretical framework .Then employees satisfaction on the motivational factors provided by the chosen organization is analyzed as analytical portion of this study.

2.3.1 Two-Factor Theory
The two-factor theory is developed by the psycologist, Federick Herzberg in 1959.It follows Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs of particular motivational theory. Herzberg did the survey about 200 accountants and engineers during 1950s. Herzberg found out that there are two different things about job related factors lead to extreme satisfaction of the job and extreme dissatisfaction of the job. The factors that need to be present to show extreme dissatisfaction is called hygiene factors and motivational factors contribute a great deal of satisfaction in the work place.According to Herzberg, hygiene factors can eliminate dissatisfaction and motivational factors can lead satisfaction.

Figure 1.1 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

2.3.1(a) The Hygiene Factors
Hygiene factors are extrinsic factors that are part of the job need to be present to ensure a reasonable level of satisfaction. If these factors are not present ,it leads to be dissatisfaction.Working conditions, pay and security, company policies, supervisors and interpersonal relationships are typical hygiene factors.These factors are also similar to physiological needs, safety needs and belonging needs of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

Working Conditions
The place where employees are working should be comfortable, safe , neat and tidy , hygienic and convenient. The apparatus should be modernized and well-maintained.This could make employees feel good and increase intentions to stay.

Pay and Security
The organization should have clear policies about salaries, raises and bonuses. Eventhough salary is not a motivator but employees will be happy if their salaries are seemed to be reasonable. Employees are always worried about the job security because of recession in the economy. If the organization provides job security , the employees will be reduced the level of dissatisfaction.

Company Policies
Policy is an overall plan which contains the general principles of the organization. Policies should be fair, applied equally to all, easily accessible and updated regularly. Policies should be compared with practices to make appropriate amendments. The organization should have clear policies for each department in the organization.

Supervisors
A good supervisor can enhance employees’ levels of job satisfaction. All supervisors should
have good leadership skills as poor leadership can decrease employees’ level
of job satisfaction.

Interpersonal relationships
Friendliness and a good team work of employees can eliminate job dissatisfaction.Therefore the relationship of the employees among peers, supervisors and subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable.

2.3.1(b) The Motivational Factors
Motivational factors contribute a great deal of satisfaction in the work place. If these factors are present, they could be the source of motivation in particular workplace.There are achievement, recognition, responsibility, work itself and personal growth which can increase satisfaction and motivation level. These are also called satisfiers.These are similar to esteem needs and self-actualization needs of Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory. Motivators increase employee satisfaction and better performance in the organization.

Achievement
Employees need challenges and are happy if they are allowed to utilise their expertise.The organization should have definite, achievable goals and standards that each employee should understand. Regular feedback and assessment to employees are essential to maintain and improve their performance levels. Recognition

Showing interest and recognition encourage employees to be happy and meaningful for their existence in the organization. Employees should be praised by recognition programme like “employee of the month and customer service awards”.

Responsibility
Responsibility implies having control over and being accountable for an allocated duty. Autonomy and empowerment are important to employees as these enhance ownership of the work. More challenging and meaningful responsibilities could be added to matured employees while avoiding work overload.

Work-itself
Employees feel that the work in the organization is meaningful and their contribution is essential to the success of the organization those will lead motivation.Reducing employees’ workload by eliminating or reducing unnecessary jobs could enhance levels of job satisfaction.

Personal Growth
Employees have their own goal and they want to fulfil their goal for personal development which will contribute to organizational goals.The driving force is a powerful tool for individuals, groups and organizations to reach their true potential. The training and the education are the other factors to fulfil their personal growth.

Herzberg was able to clarify that both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors are needed by the organization, for they fulfil different purpose,though the lack of one could send a negative message to the organization.(Shipley & Kiely,1986). Herzberg was able to establish and show the difference between motivation and job satisfaction, he defines motivation as the process at which behaviour is created or initiated and job satisfaction is the attitude of the mind.It means that employees can be satisfied with their work without being motivated: also they can be motivated and not attain job satisfaction.

2.4 Definition and Concept of Satisfaction
Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and needs at work.Factors contributing to employee satisfaction include treating employees with respect providing regular employee recognition, empowering employees, offering above industry-average benefits and compensation, providing employee perks and company activities, and positive management within a success framework of goals, measurements, and expectations.

2.5 Importance of Satisfaction

Chapter 2
Theoretical Background

This chapter discusses the most important human resource management theory related to the satisfaction and motivation of employees in the orgainzation. It also includes definition and concept of motivation, importance of motivation, motivation theories and satisfaction and importance of employee satisfaction as a literature review.

2.1 Definition and concept of motivation
Many researchers have developed the concept of motivation based on the existing knowledge. Motivation is a psychological feature that arouses an organism to act towards a desired goal and elicits,controls, and sustains certain goal-directed behaviors. It can be considered a driving force; a psychological one that compels or reinforces an action toward a desired goal.(Encyclopedia) . Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. (BusinessDictionary.com). Motivation is the arousal, direction, and persistence of behaviour. Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to persue a certain course of action. (Daft, 2008).

2.2 Importance of motivation
In any organization, the greatest untapped resource, and the most expensive, is its people The greatest potential for growth, productivity, performance, achievement, and profitability lies within the skills and abilities of the average person.Motivation is an essential factor for the development of employees of any organization.According to theories, by removing the obstacles that stop people from motivating enhances motivation.Understanding and appreciating the influency effect of Herzberg dual factor of motivation on employees job satisfaction helps the organization to increase morale, effectiveness and productivity among the employees.

The best way to satisfy customers in service business is by viewing employees as internal customers and by understanding and meeting employees
needs, wants, expectations and concerns their levels of satisfaction will lead to better quality service to external customers.

2.3 Motivation Theory
Motivation theories have been examined to understand different motivators. These theories can be implemented to the company’s human resource policies to get the best out of the employees.The process of motivation really starts with someone recognition an understand need. Then a goal is established to be reached and that way to satisfy need. As the needs of individuals differ a lot, it is important to concentrate carefully on the attachment of goals and incentives given when goals are accomplished.

There are content theories, process theories and reinforcement theories which can dominate employee motivation.The literature review will be discussed with reference to factors of Herzberg’s theory of motivation, namely, hygiene and motivation factors and how these factors could influence satisfaction of employees.In this paper, Herzberg’s theory of motivation will be utilized as the theoretical framework .Then employees satisfaction on the motivational factors provided by the chosen organization is analyzed as analytical portion of this study.

2.3.1 Two-Factor Theory
The two-factor theory is developed by the psycologist, Federick Herzberg in 1959.It follows Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs of particular motivational theory. Herzberg did the survey about 200 accountants and engineers during 1950s. Herzberg found out that there are two different things about job related factors lead to extreme satisfaction of the job and extreme dissatisfaction of the job. The factors that need to be present to show extreme dissatisfaction is called hygiene factors and motivational factors contribute a great deal of satisfaction in the work place.According to Herzberg, hygiene factors can eliminate dissatisfaction and motivational factors can lead satisfaction.

Figure 1.1 Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

2.3.1(a) The Hygiene Factors
Hygiene factors are extrinsic factors that are part of the job need to be present to ensure a reasonable level of satisfaction. If these factors are not present ,it leads to be dissatisfaction.Working conditions, pay and security, company policies, supervisors and interpersonal relationships are typical hygiene factors.These factors are also similar to physiological needs, safety needs and belonging needs of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

Working Conditions
The place where employees are working should be comfortable, safe , neat and tidy , hygienic and convenient. The apparatus should be modernized and well-maintained.This could make employees feel good and increase intentions to stay.

Pay and Security
The organization should have clear policies about salaries, raises and bonuses. Eventhough salary is not a motivator but employees will be happy if their salaries are seemed to be reasonable. Employees are always worried about the job security because of recession in the economy. If the organization provides job security , the employees will be reduced the level of dissatisfaction.

Company Policies
Policy is an overall plan which contains the general principles of the organization. Policies should be fair, applied equally to all, easily accessible and updated regularly. Policies should be compared with practices to make appropriate amendments. The organization should have clear policies for each department in the organization.

Supervisors
A good supervisor can enhance employees’ levels of job satisfaction. All supervisors should
have good leadership skills as poor leadership can decrease employees’ level of job satisfaction.

Interpersonal relationships
Friendliness and a good team work of employees can eliminate job dissatisfaction.Therefore the relationship of the employees among peers, supervisors and subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable.

2.3.1(b) The Motivational Factors
Motivational factors contribute a great deal of satisfaction in the work place. If these factors are present, they could be the source of motivation in particular workplace.There are achievement, recognition, responsibility, work itself and personal growth which can increase satisfaction and motivation level. These are also called satisfiers.These are similar to esteem needs and self-actualization needs of Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory. Motivators increase employee satisfaction and better performance in the organization.

Achievement
Employees need challenges and are happy if they are allowed to utilise their expertise.The organization should have definite, achievable goals and standards that each employee should understand. Regular feedback and assessment to employees are essential to maintain and improve their performance levels. Recognition

Showing interest and recognition encourage employees to be happy and meaningful for their existence in the organization. Employees should be praised by recognition programme like “employee of the month and customer service awards”.

Responsibility
Responsibility implies having control over and being accountable for an allocated duty. Autonomy and empowerment are important to employees as these enhance ownership of the work. More challenging and meaningful responsibilities could be added to matured employees while avoiding work overload.

Work-itself
Employees feel that the work in the organization is meaningful and their contribution is essential to the success of the organization those will lead motivation.Reducing employees’ workload by eliminating or reducing unnecessary jobs could enhance levels of job satisfaction.

Personal Growth
Employees have their own goal and they want to fulfil their goal for personal development which will contribute to organizational goals.The driving force is a powerful tool for individuals, groups and organizations to reach their true potential. The training and the education are the other factors to fulfil their personal growth.

Herzberg was able to clarify that both the intrinsic and extrinsic factors are needed by the organization, for they fulfil different purpose,though the lack of one could send a negative message to the organization.(Shipley & Kiely,1986). Herzberg was able to establish and show the difference between motivation and job satisfaction, he defines motivation as the process at which behaviour is created or initiated and job satisfaction is the attitude of the mind.It means that employees can be satisfied with their work without being motivated: also they can be motivated and not attain job satisfaction.

2.4 Definition and Concept of Satisfaction
Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desires and needs at work.Factors contributing to employee satisfaction include treating employees with respect providing regular employee recognition, empowering employees, offering above industry-average benefits and compensation, providing employee perks and company activities, and positive management within a success framework of goals, measurements, and expectations.

2.5 Importance of Satisfaction

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