Chapter 1 Outlook 1. Explain the five parts of an information system, 2. Distinguish application software from system software, 3. Distinguish four types of computers, 4. Explain computer connectivity. 1. 1 Introduction: People who use microcomputers are called “end users”. Today: • Microcomputers are common tools in all areas of life. Writers write, artists draw, engineers and scientists calculate – all on microcomputers. • With the aid of computers, new forms of learning have developed – now distant learning is possible. • New ways to communicate, to find people with similar interests, and to buy goods are available.
All kinds of people are using electronic mail, electronic commerce, and the internet to meet and to share ideas and products. 1. 2 Information Systems: A microcomputer is not just an equipment, i. e. not just a monitor and a keyword. Actually it is part of an information system. An information system has five parts: i. People: Microcomputers make people like us, end users, therefore more productive ii. Procedures: are rules or guidelines for people to follow when using software, hardware, and data.
e. g. User manuals written by specialists. iii. Software: Software is another name for a program or programs.
A program is the step-by-step instructions that tell the computers how to do its job. The purpose of software is to convert data (unprocessed facts) into information (processed facts). It is the software that processes the data to create information. [pic] iv. Hardware: It is the collection of equipment, e. g. keyboard, mouse, monitor, system unit, and other devices. Hardware is controlled by software. v. Data: Data consists of the raw, unprocessed facts, including text, numbers, images, and sounds, e. g. your quiz, midterm and final marks are raw facts.
After data is processed through the computer it becomes information that is your final grade. To be competent end users, you must understand the essentials of information technology (IT), including software, hardware and data. 1. 3 Types of Softwares: Software is another name for programs. Programs are the instructions that tell the computer how to process data into the form you want. Two major kinds of software are: System software and Application Software. System software includes all the programs needed for a computer and its peripheral devices to function smoothly.
The most important system software program is the operating system, which interacts with the application software and the computer. Popular operating systems (OS) are: • Microsoft Windows • Macintosh OS • DOS • Linux • Unix Each has their strengths and weaknesses. Application software generally refers to all of the programs that enable us to use the computer for our work. , e. g. word processing, data analysis, navigating on internet by using browser. 1. 4 Hardware: There are four types of computers: i. Supercomputers: Most powerful type; high processing capacity. For example used in NASA and research. ii.
Mainframe computers: Although not nearly as powerful as supercomputers, they are capable of great processing speeds, and data storage. iii. Minicomputers: Known as midrange computers. For example some compainies use them for specific purposes, i. e. production departments to monitor certain manufacturing processes and assembly-line operations. iv. Microcomputers: Most widely used and fastest growing type of computers, e. g. desktop, notebook and Personal Digital assistant (Palm Pilot). 1. 5 Connectivity and the Internet Connectivity is the capability of your microcomputer to share information with other computers.
Anetwork is a communications system connecting two or more computers, e. g. the largest network in the world is the internet. Tutorial Questions A. Match each numbered item with the most closely related item. Information systems, Supercomputers, Mainframe, Microprocessor , Data, Information, Internet, Microprocessors, Operating system, Minicomputer, Mainframe, Connectivity. 1. The largest network in the world. ____________ 2. Used to describe facts about something. _________ 3. Most important system software program, interacting between application software and the computer. _____________ 4.
It has five parts: people, procedures, software, hardware, and data. _________ 5. Large powerful computers capable of great processing speeds and data storage. ________ B. True/False 1. Microcomputers are common tools in all area of life. ______ 2. Windows 200 is an application software. ______ 3. Hardware consists of a monitor, a keyboard, and software. ______ C. Write short answers for each of the following questions. 1. Describe the five parts of an information system 2. How would you distinguish between system software and application software? Chapter 2 Outlook 1. Data Representation and Instruction 2. Encoding Systems 3.
Inside The PC a. System Board b. The Microprocessor c. Memory i. RAM ii. ROM iii. CMOS d. System Clock e. Expansion Slots and Cards f. Bus Lines 4. Ports and Cables 1. Data Representation and Instruction: Computers do not speak to one another in English, Spanish or French. They have their own languages that are better suited to electronic communication. Endless potential of computers is based on only two electronic states – on and off. By combining these electronic states letters, numbers, colours, sounds, images, shapes and much more can be represented. An “on” and “off” electronic state is represented by a bit, short for binary digit.
In the binary numbering system (base 2), the on-bit is 1 and the off-bit is a 0. Bits may be fine for computers, but human beings are more comfortable with letters and decimal numbers (the base-10 numerals 0 through 9). We like to see colours and hear sounds. Therefore, our inputs in to a computer system such as letters, decimals, colours and sounds must be translated into 1s and 0s for processing storage. The computer translates the bits back into letters, decimal numbers, colours and sounds for output on monitors, printers, speakers, and so on. 2. Encoding Systems:
The use of encoding systems enables the characters to be represented as 0s and 1s in the computer. ASCII and EBCDIC are two of the most important binary coding systems. These systems use eight bits to form each byte. A recently developed code, Unicode, uses sixteen bits. • ASCII: The seven-bit ASCII code can represent up to 128 characters (2*2*2*2*2*2*2 or 2^7). ASCII is a seven-bit code, but the microcomputer byte is eight bits. There are 256 (2^8) possible bit configurations in an 8-bit byte. ASCII is the most widely used binary code for microcomputers. • EBCDIC: It is used preliminary for large computers and it was developed by IBM. Unicode: In order to support international languages (e. g. Chinese and Japanese) the Unicode designed which is 16-bit code. |Ex: When you tap the B key on the keyboard, a binary representation of that B is sent to the processor. The processor sends the | |encoded B to the monitor which interprets and displays a B. | |[pic] | | | |All instructions and data have to be converted into binary data before they can be executes. | | |Ex: ASCII code for 3 + 5 | |3 + 5 ( 0011 0011 (3) | |0010 1011 (+) | |0011 0101 (5) | 3. Inside The Computer: a. System Board -The mother of all boards It is also called as mother board or as main board.
In personal computer the following attached to the system board, a single circuit board: • Microprocessor (main processor) • Support electronic circuitry (for example, one chip handles input/output signals from the peripheral devices) • Memory chips (RAM, DRAM, ROM, flash memory etc. ) • Bus (the path through which the processor communicates with memory components and peripheral devices. ) • Expansion slots for linking other circuit boards and peripheral devices to the processor Instructor: May talk about the flat shape of the system board and mentions that in any PC, the system board is installed first, and| |then everything else inside the system unit (power supply, disk drivers, and so on. ) is connected to it. | b. The Microprocessor The microprocessor is a small processor that embodies all elements of its cousins in larger mainframe computers. There are two types of microprocessors: CISC and RISC. The central processing unit or CPU is to take place on the microprocessor chip and has two fundamental sections – the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit.
Random-access memory (RAM) also plays an integral part in the internal operation of a processor. These three – RAM, the control unit, and the arithmetic and logic unit – work together. • Control Unit: The control unit is the nucleus of the processor. The control unit has three primary functions: 1. To read and interpret program instructions 2. To direct the operation of internal processor components 3. To control the flow of programs and data in and out of RAM. Arithmetic – Logic Unit (ALU): The ALU performs all computations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) and all logic operations (comparisons – =, ). • Microprocessor Chips: Chip capacities are often expressed in word sizes. A word is the number of bits (such as 16, 32 or 64) that can be accessed at one time by the CPU. The more bits in a word, the more powerful- and the faster- the computer is. Microcomputers process data and instructions in millionths of a second, or microseconds.
There are two types of microprocessor chips: o CISC chips:(Complex instruction set computer) chips. The most common type of microprocessor chips. Offers a wide variety of instructions – addition, multiplication, comparison, move data, etc. ) o RISC chips: (Reduced instruction set computer). Risc chips use fewer instructions. (leave this job to software). c. Memory Three types of memory are RAM( Random Access Memory), ROM (Read Only Memory), and CMOS(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) i. RAM
Random-access memory (RAM) chips hold the program and data that the CPU is presently processing. RAM is temporary or volatile memory and can be changed by the user. ii. ROM Read-only memory (ROM) chips have programs built into them at the factory. ROM chips are not volatile and cannot be changed by the user. iii. CMOS Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chips provide flexibility and expandability for a computer. They contain essential information that is required every time the computer system is turned on.
The following table indicates four commonly used units of measurements to describe memory capacity: |Unit |Capacity (approximately) | |Kilobyte (KB) |1,000 bytes | |Megabyte (MB) |1 million bytes | |Gigabyte (GB) |1 billion bytes | |Terabyte (TB) |1 trillion bytes | d. System Clock The system clock controls the speed of operations within a computer. This speed is expressed in megahertz (abbreviated MHz). e. Expansion Slots and Cards
Expansion slots provide an open architecture. Machines that have closed architecture are manufactured in such a way that users cannot easily add new devices. Most microcomputers have open architecture. They allow users to expand their systems by providing slots on the system board. Users can insert optional devices known as expansion cards into these slots. Expansion cards are also called plug-in boards, controller cards, adapter cards, or interface cards. f. Bus Lines Bus Lines—also known as a data bus or simply bus—connects the parts of the CPU to each other. It also links the CPU to various other components on he system board. Three principal types are: 1. Industry standard Architecture (ISA) was developed for the IBM Personal Computer. 2. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) was originally developed to meet the tremendous video demands of today’s graphical user interfaces. 3. Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is the newest bus and over twice as fast as the PCI bus. AGP is dedicated to the acceleration of graphics performance 4. Ports and Cables: A port is a connecting socket on the outside of the system unit. 1. Serial ports connect a mouse, keyboards, modem, and many other devices to the system unit.
Serial ports send data one bit at a time and are very good for sending information over a long distance. 2. Parallel ports are used to connect external devices that need to send or receive a lot of data over a short distance. 3. Universal serial bus (USB) ports are expected to gradually replace serial and parallel ports. They are faster and one USB port can be used to connect several devices to the system unit. 4. FireWire ports are the newest type. They are faster than USB ports and are used to connect high-speed printers and even video cameras to the system unit. 5.
Accelerated graphics ports (AGPs) are used to connect monitors. B. Cables are used to connect input and output devices to the system unit via the ports. Chapter 3. Input, Output and Storage Devices Outlook i. Input devices; giving commands ii. Direct entry; mouse and other pointing devices iii. Output devices iv. Storage; holding data for future use v. Memory versus storage 1. Input and Output Devices People understand language, made up of letters, numbers, and punctuation marks. However, computers can only understand the binary machine language of 0s and 1s. We can see input and output devices as translators. pic] 1. 1 Input: refers to any data or instructions that you enter into the computer. Input devices function as the sense of computers, e. g. much like your own eyes and ears function as input devices to your brain. Input Devices: • Keyboard: is one of the best way to put data into the computer. A keyboard provides a set of alphabetic, numeric, punctuation, symbolic, and control keys. How do keyboard works? When you press a key, the keyboard sends a digital impulse through a cable to the computer. When the computer receives the impulse, it displays a character.
Direct Entry: Direct entry is a form of input that does not require data to be keyed by someone via keyboard. Direct entry devices create machine-readable data, that can go directly to the CPU. Advantage: reduces the possibility of human error being entered through a keyboard. e. g. bar code readers. The Mouse and Other Pointing Devices • Mouse: controls a pointer that is displayed on monitor. The standard mouse has a ball on the bottom and is attached with a cord to the system unit. Other forms are : trackball, touch surface, pointing stick. • Joystick: most popular input device for computer games. Touch screen: is a particular kind of monitor screen cover with a plastic layer. Behind this layer are crisscrossed invisible beams of infrared light. Enables someone to select action/command by touching the screen. e. g. Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) • Light Pen: is a light sensitive, pen-like device. Placed against monitor. This closes a photoelectric circuit and identifies the spot for entering or modifying data. Used by engineers for design purposes. • Digitizer: is a device that can be used to trace or copy a drawing or photograph. Digitizers are often used by designers, architects, and engineers. Digital camera & Digital video camera: Scanning Devices Direct-entry scanning devices record images of text, drawings, or special symbols. The images are converted to digital data that can be processed by a computer or displayed on a monitor. • Image scanner: also known simply as a scanner, copies or reproduces images. There are two basic types: i. flatbed scanner ii. portable scanner • Fax machines: scan the image of a document to be sent. • Bar code readers: • Voice-input Devices: convert a person’s speech into a digital code, e. g. ; microphone. 1. 2 Output Devices
Data that is input to and then processed by the computer remains in machine-readable form until output devices make it people-readable. • Monitors: most frequently used output device. • Printers: three types are; ink-jet, laser and thermal. • Plotters: are special-purpose drawing devices • Voice-Output devices: makes sounds that resemble human speech but actually are prerecorded vocalized sounds. 1. 3 Storage and Storage Devices Secondary storage: Computers can save information permanently, after you turn them off. This way, you can save your work for future use, share information with others, or modify information already available.
Secondary Storage vs. primary Storage. Data stored in RAM is internal and temporary. Once the power is turned off or interrupted, everything in internal storage disappears. Such storage is therefore said to be volatile storage. Thus we need external, more permanent, or nonvolatile storage for data and programs. • Floppy disks: are removable storage media. Today’s standard is 1. 44MB. Data is recorded on a disk in rings called tracks. These tracks are closed, concentric circles. Each track is divided into wedge-shaped sections known as sectors. What is formatting? Some disks are manufactured without tracks and sectors in place.
You do this using a process called formatting, or initializing. • Hard Disks: compared to floppy disks, hard disks are able to store and retrieve information much faster and have a greater storage capacity. Optical Disks Optical disks use laser technology. CD and DVD are optical disk formats. Unlike floppy and hard disks, which use magnetic charges to represent 1s and 0s, optical disks use reflected light. In optical disks, 1s and 0s are represented by flat areas called lands and bumpy areas called pits on the disk surface. Compact Disc • CD-ROM: compact disk-read only memory, eg.
Commercial music CD, cannot be written. • CD-R: CD-recordable, also known as WORM (write once read many). • CD-RW: Optical disk rewritable (erasable optical disk). Digital Versatile Disc (DVD Very similar to CDs except that more data can be packed into the same amount of space. Solid-State Storage devices A solid-state storage device consists of nonvolatile memory chips. Advantage over mechanical storage devices are that they are small, light weight, highly reliable, and portable, e. g. PC Cards (PCMCIA), Flash Memory Cards, USB key devices (flash memory stick). [pic] Memory Versus Storage |Access Speed |Cost per MB |Storage Capacity | |Memory | | | | |Cache Memory |Fastest |Highest |1MB | |RAM |Fast |High |1GB | |Storage | | | | |Hard Disk |Medium |Medium |400GB | |CD-ROM Disc |Slow |Low |650MB | Tutorial Questions A. Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is a popular input device? a. synthesizerb. monitorc. plotterd. mouse 2. Which term best describes computer hardware equipment that is capable of retaining data even when the electrical power is switched off? a. storage mediab. storage devicesc. Input devicesd. output devices 3. These are microscopic indentations that absorb the laser’s light in certain areas of a disc. a. landsb. clustersc. pitsd. sectors 4.
This type of storage device retains its information, even when the power is switched off. a. secondary storageb. nonvolatile storagec. Solid-state storaged. Volatile storage B. Fill in the Blanks 1. A(n) ____________ is a circular band on a disk. 2. ___________ is a type of input in which the computer recognizes spoken words. 3. ______________ is an area on a disk that is a pie-shaped wedge. C. Write Short Answer 1. What is the difference between memory and storage? 2. What is the difference between a magnetic storage device and an optical storage device? Give one example to each. Chapter 4 Outlook i. System Software a. Operation Systems i. Windows ii. Mac OS iii. Unix b.
Utilities c. Device Drivers d. Language Translators ii. Programming Languages iii. Application Software i- System Software: System software deals with the physical complexities of computer hardware. It consists of four kinds of programs: Operating systems, utilities, device drivers and language translators. • Operating systems are programs that operate your microcomputer. They coordinate computer resources, provide an interface between users and the computer, and run applications. Every computer has an operating system and every operating system performs three basic functions: managing resources, providing a user interface and running applications.
For end users, the most important operating systems are those for microcomputers. These include Windows, Mac OS and UNIX. a. Windows Windows is the most widely used operating system today. The name Windows comes from the rectangular boxes (windows) used to display information and run applications. Multiple windows can be open to multitask or work with different programs simultaneously. The desktop is the user interface provided by Windows. Icons are often used to interact with the Windows operating system. Another common way is to use the Start menu. b. Mac OS The Mac OS runs on Macintosh computers. Although not as widely used as Windows, it is very powerful and easy to use.
Mac OS 8. 5 includes Sherlock, an innovative search feature for locating information on the Web or on your hard drive. c. Unix The Unix operating system was originally designed to run on microcomputers in network environments. Linux is one version of Unix that is receiving a great deal of attention. • Utilities, also known as service programs, perform specific tasks related to managing computer resources or files. They include programs to help users identify hardware problems, locate lost files, and back up data. The most essential utility programs are: troubleshooting, uninstall, antivirus, backup and file compression programs. a. Windows utilities:
The Windows operating systems come with several utility programs. These utilities can be accessed from the System tools menu. Three such utilities are: • Backup – to back up your hard disk. • Disk Cleanup – a troubleshooting utility for monitoring storage capacity. • Disk Defragmenter – to locate and eliminate unnecessary fragments, rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. b. Utility Suites: Utility suites combine several programs into one package. E. g. Norton SystemWorks and McAfee Office. • Device drivers are specialized programs designed to allow particular input or output devices to communicate with the rest of the computer system. Language translators convert the programming instructions written by programmers into a language that computer understand and process. ii- Programming Languages: We create software with programming languages. The design of program or its programming logic is completed before the program is written. Each language uses several types of instructions, including input/output instructions, computation instructions, control instructions, assignment instructions, and format instructions. All programming languages are ultimately translated into machine language in order to be executed. In procedure-oriented languages programmers code the instructions in the sequence in which they must be executed to solve the problem.
Ex: COBOL and FORTRAN Object-oriented languages, such as Smalltalk and C++, emphasize the object of the action. The hierarchical structure of object-oriented programming (OOP) makes programs easier to design and understand. In fourth-generation languages (4GLs), the programmer need only specify what to do, not how to do it. One feature of 4GLs is the use of English-like instructions. In visual programming, text-based instructions are replaced with symbolic icons, each pf which represents a common programming function. Visual BASIC is an example. Natural Languages are programs that permit a computer to accept instructions without regard to format or syntax in the native language of the end user. iii- Application Software: Basic applications: Type |Description | |Word processor |Prepare written documents | |Spreadsheet |Analyze and summarize numerical data | |Database management system |Organize and manage data and information | |Presentation graphics |Communicate a message or persuade other people | |Browser |Navigate, explore, and find information on the internet | |Information manager |Maintain electronic calendars, address books, and to-do lists. | Specialized applications: Type |Description | |Multimedia |Integrate video, music, voice, and graphics to create interactive presentations | |Web publishers |Create interactive multimedia Web pages | |Graphics programs |Create professional publications: draw, edit, and modify images | |Virtual reality |Create realistic three-dimensional virtual or simulated environments | |Artificial intelligent |Simulate human thought processes and actions | |Project agers |Plan projects, schedule people, and control man-resources |
We’ll discuss word, excel, and power point in the following lecture. Tutorial questions: – Match each numbered item with the most closely related lettered item. 1- User interface in Windows. Desktop 2- Operating system designed to run on only Macintosh computers. Mac OS 3- Convert the programming instructions written by programmers into a language that computers understand and process. Language translator 4- Make copies of files to be used in case originals are lost or damaged. Backup process b- True/false 1- System software deals with the physical complexities of computer hardware. T 2- Disk Defragmenter is a utility program that rearranges files and unused disk space to optimize operations. T c- Write short answer for the following questions – Discuss the most important three operating systems that are for microcomputers. 2- Discuss the generations of programming languages. [pic] ———————– Instructor: Emphesize here the difference between data and information. Instructor: Spent some time on explaining the following fundamental concepts. What is a Computer? A computer can be described as an information pro??????????????????????????????????? cessing machine. Information is what we see, hear, speak, draw or write down. It can be in the form of letters, numbers, drawings, sounds or any combination of these. Information is the raw material of computers. Processing is what a computer does with information.
It includes sorting, selecting, combining and re-arranging information and doing calculations. Computers can also make simple decisions based on information. Using the word machine means that computers can be grouped with car engines, washing machines, sewing machines, etc. Machines are devices which do useful work. Like all machines computers need to be controlled carefully, and can break down. You can also describe a computer as a digital electronic device which can be programmed. Digital means that a computer works with numbers, letters, sounds and pictures represented as digits. Pictures are stored as grids of dots, like a television picture. The colour of each dot is coded as a number. Sounds are stored as sequences of numbers.
Electronic describes the way that computers are made from microchips (also called integrated circuits or IC’s). Microchips contain very small electric circuits where information is stored and processed. They are made from silicon, which is found in sand. They work very fast and have no moving parts. A program is a set of instructions which make the computer do a task. For example, if you want to use a computer for word processing, you first load a word processing program. Once a program has been loaded into a computer, it carries out the instructions automatically, at great speed. In this book you do not have to know how programs are produced, nor how they work. The aim is to teach you how to use them.
Programs are also known as software, to distinguish them from the electronic devices which make up a computer, which are called hardware. B 01000010 01000010 B Input devices Input 010010 Process Output devices Output Abc981 e. g. keyboard, mouse, Scanner e. g. Monitor, printer, sprakers Sequential And Direct Access: An important consideration in both the design of an information system and the purchase of a computer system is the way that data and files are accessed. Magnetic tapes can be used for sequential access only. Magnetic disks have random or direct access capabilities as well as sequential access capabilities. You are quite familiar with these concepts, but may not realize it.
Operationally, the magnetic tape is the same as the one in home and automobile audio tape decks. The magnetic disk can be compared to a compact disk(CD). Suppose you have Paul Simon’s album, The Rhythm of the Saints, on CD. The first four songs on this CD are:(1) “The Obvious Child,” (2) “Can’t Run But,” (3) “The Coast,” and (4) “ Proof. ” Now suppose you also have this album on a tape cassette. To play the third song on the cassette, “The Coast,” you would have to wind the tape forward and search for it sequentially. To play “The Coast” on the CD, all you would have to do is select track number 3. This simple analogy demonstrates the two fundamental methods of storing and accessing data- sequential and random.
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