G. Misikova – Linguistic stylistics I. R. Galperin- Stylistics Crystal D. and Davy D. – Investigating English Style / for non-literary styles STYLISTICS Style and Styleme Stylistika je nauka o vybere a sposobe vyuzivania jazykovych a mimojazykovych alebo umeleckych prostriedkov a postupov uplatnovanych v procese pouzitia komunikacie. Jazykovy styl je sposob prejavu, ktory vznika cielavedomym vyberom, zakonitym usporiadanim a vyuzitim jazykovych a mimojazykovych prostriedkov so zretelom na tematiku, situaciu, funkciu, autorov zamer a obsahove zlozky prejavu.
Stylema prvok, pomocou ktoreho sa stylizuje, napr. slovo, veta alebo cast celku/ textu, ktory ma taku vyrazovu podobu, ze pri stylistickej typologii textu signalizuje jeho zameranie, napr. vulgarizmus v humornom texte. STYLE Style is a coherent, recurring set of expected features, which identify style of an individual or a larger, recognizable group. Style can as well be a variation in a person’s speech or writing and normally varies from formal to casual according to the type of situation, the person or person’s address, the location, the topic discussed etc.
Some linguists use the term variety other register. Native speaker has intuitive knowledge about linguistics appropriateness, foreign learners have no intuitive sense about linguistic appropriateness or weaker or no awareness of conformity, because they haven’t grown up in a relevant linguistics environment. Aim of stylistics is to study the varieties of a language in as much detail as possible, so that we can point to the formal linguistics features, which characterize them and understand the restrictions on their use. 3 practical aims in the stylistics: 1.
To identify and analyse language habits and those features of language, which are restricted to certain kinds of social contexts. 2. To explain, why these features have been used as opposed to other alternatives 3. To classify these features to categories based on the view of their function. Stylistics is a kind of roof of all levels of language, it is closely related to graphitic and graphology. Graphitic is the study of written or printed shape and graphology the study of the system. Colour, type, size of text can be stylistically relevant, even punctuation.
Stylistics and phonetics – the tone voice of a sermon man is different of TV advertisement, and different from businessmen. Stylistics and phonology – the suprasegmental features can as well report a degree of stylistic significance, like falling intonation for embarrassment or hesitation. Stylistics and morphology – the distinctive use of plural for exaggeration for example or the use of demonstratives in a derogatory function. Stylistics and syntax – in change of word order which doesn’t mean error, but stylistic significance: He was angry. Vs. Angry he was. – intensified Repetition is always accompanied by rhythm.
Stylistics and lexicology- in texts there are a lot of words, which don’t carry only pure meaning, but another added as well: Weakling – slaboch: -ling as suffix bears expressiveness; is closely related to stylistic significance. Other examples: Neutral thin, positive willowy and negative skinny. Stylistics and semantics – jokes based on homonymy or homophony, the use of pun is always stylistic signification. Our tasks throughout the semester: 1. The investigation of the inventory of special language media, which secure the desirable effect of the utterance. These media are called expressive means EM and stylistic devices SD.
When dealing with them, we will focus on the aesthetic function of language on the synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea, emotional colouring in language or the interrelation between language and thought. EM s and SD s we shall study on phonetic, syntactic and lexical level. 2. – study certain types of texts, which due to their choice and arrangement of language means are distinguished by pragmatic aspect of communication. They are called functional styles of language: 1. Belles letter style or the style or style of fiction Subjective 2. Vernacular style, the language of conversation
Subjective- objective publicist style The style of official documents, administrative Objective The scientific and technical style Expressive means EM of a language are those phonetic, morphological and word building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms, which exist in a language as a “system” for the purpose of the logical or emotional intensification of the utterance. Stylistic device SD is a conscious and intentional intensification of some typical structural and semantic property of a language unit, promoted to a generalized status and thus becoming a generative model.
Most linguistic devices display the application of 2 meanings: O Primary, or ordinary, it is the lexical or structural meaning that has already been established in the lexicon as a system O Special or contextual meaning, which is superimposed / navrstveny on the unit by the text. This appears in language-in-action. Example: The night has swallowed him up. The second meaning has presidency over the first meaning. If the contrast is clear, our mind perceives both meanings simultaneously. PHONETIC EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC DEVICES The stylistic approach to the utterance or text is not limited to their structure and sense.
Another important phenomenon is the way a word, a phrase or a sentence sound. The sound of most words taken separately will have no aesthetic value. It is in combination with other sounds/words that a word may acquire a desired phonetic value. The way phrases sound may create a new phonic impression from stylistic point of view, but this is purely a matter of individual perception (therefore subjective). Most common expressive means: · Onomatopoeia o It is a combination of speech sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature (sea, wind), by things (machines, tools), by people (groans, laughter, caugh) and by animals We distinguish: § Direct onomatopoeia · Imitate natural sounds (buzz, ping pong, dang…) · Can also be used in transfer meaning (ding-dong struggle-bezrozmyslu) o Becomes a stylistic device § Indirect onomatopoeia · Combination of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound an echo of its sense (echo writing) o Ex. And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain. o In this example the repetition of the sound –s produces the sound of the rustling of the curtain · Unlike alliteration demands some mention of what makes the sound as rustling in this example · Ex.
Mostly he moved in urgent, precise, clipped movements – go, go, go – and talked the same way – staccato sentences · The acoustic effect in this example is achieved by the repetition of the word go (unonomatopoeic) o One theory – language comes from sound the people make… o These words can be indicators of particular style or register (children’s comics) · Alliteration o Phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting melodic effect to the utterance o Based on the repetition of similar or identical sounds particularly at the beginning of successive words o Several patterns of alliteration: “Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before” (E. A. Poe) o In titles of novels (Pride and prejudice, Sense and sensibility) o In news paper headlines and ads (Guinness in good for you) o Tongue twisters · Assonance o Used in poetic language as an aspect of sound patterning o The same vowel sound is repeated in words but with different final consonant (vowel are identical, consonants differ) § Fish and chips o Mainly used for expressive effects · Rhyme o The repetition of identical or similar terminal sound combinations usually placed at the end of the corresponding lines We distinguish: § Full rhyme · Presupposes identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sound § Incomplete rhyme · Vowel rhyme o Vowel of the syllables of the corresponding words are identical but consonants may differ o Flesh-fresh-fres? · Consonant rhyme o concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels o tail-tool-trouble · Eye rhyme o Flood-brood(flad – bruud) o Only in written text · Internal rhyme o Rhyming words are not placed of the line but also within it o “I bring the fresh showers for the thirsting flowers” (Shelley) Today, poets prefer free verse · Rhythm o Deliberate arrangement of speech into regularly recurring units intended to be grasped as a definite periodicity which makes rhythm a stylistic device o In poetry it is based on alternation of stressed, unstressed, high, low but we can come across it in other styles as well o If it occurs in prose it’s usually based on the repetition of particular syntactical pattern SYNTACTIC EMS AND SDS O Aposiopesis: is a sudden breaking of an utterance, before it is completed. It arises usually in the moment of emotion: If you continue, I’ll…
In written texts it is usually labelled by suspension points, or by dash. In the spoken variety it is usually caused by unwillingness to proceed, or by the supposition, that what remains to be said, can be understood by the implication embodied in what was said. Or by uncertainty as to what should be said. O Prosiopesis: the initial part is missing. In spoken variety examples are …sorry, in Slovak: … bry den O Break-in-the-narrative: is similar to aposiopesis, however the speaker makes pauses because of crying of passion… In written variety the dots are replaced by dashes.
Preryvana vypoved. O Ellipsis: is interesting because of cohesion, it contributes to the textuality by anaphora or kataphora. It is an expressive syntactic construction, an element is missing. O Stylistic inversion: aims at attaching logical stress, or additional emotional colouring, to the surface meaning of the utterance, through some changes in word order. The traditional sentence pattern S>V>O is ignored. The most typical patterns are: 1st O is placed at the beginning of the sentence. 2nd pattern arises when the attribute is placed after the V it modifies: With fingers knotty and… rd pattern arises when the predicate is placed before the S: A good film it was. 4th pattern: the predicative stands before the linking V and they are both placed before the S: Rude am I in my speech! 5th pattern: The adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence: My dearest daughter, at your feet I fall. 6th pattern: both modifier and predicate stand before S: Down dropped the coin. O Detached Construction (pricleneny vyraz) Sometimes one of the secondary parts of the sentence, by some specific consideration of the writer, is placed so that it seems formally independent of the word it logically refers to.
Such parts are called detached and being torn away from its referent assumes a greater degree of emotiveness and is given prominence by intonation and in written variety punctuation. She was beautiful! All of her – delightful. O Parenthesis: is a variant of a detached construction, and it is a qualifying, explanatory or appositive word or phrase, sentence, clause; which interrupts a syntactic construction, without otherwise affecting it, having often a characteristic intonation, and indicated in writing by pair punctuation marks, commas, dashes or quotation marks O Apposition: Scholes, an explosive talent, back on the pitch.
O Parallel constructions: can be observed in longer paragraphs, it is based on similar or identical syntactical structure, in two or more sentences or parts of a sentence by enclosed succession. Logically, parallel constructions are often backed up by repetition and analogically it usually creates rhythm. O Chiasmus: is a reversed parallel construction, reversed parallelism, is based on the repetition of the syntactical pattern, but it has a cross order of words and phrases in their meaning: As high as we have mounted in delight in our dejection do we sink as low.
This device is effective, as it helps to lay stress on the second part of the utterance, due to sudden change in the structure. O Repetition: is used when the speaker is under stress of strong emotion. When used as a stylistic device, it aims at logical emphases when it is necessary to fix the attention of the reader on the key word of the utterance. Repetition can be classified according to the compositional patterns: anaphora – repetition at the beginning, epiphora- repetition at the end of the sentences, anadiplosis – repeated word is placed at the end of one sentence and at the beginning of the following.
Sometimes repetition is criticized as something useless. There are 2 typical patterns of repetitions, considered waste of time: pleonasm – is the use of more words in a sentence, than are necessary to express the meaning, redundancy of expression. Tautology is the repetition of the same statement usually as a fault of style: It was a clear, starry night, and not a cloud was to be seen. O Enumeration: is a stylistic device by which objects, properties, qualities, actions are named one by one, so that they produce a chain, the links of which being syntactically in the same position, are forced to display a kind of semantic heterogeneity.
O Suspense: is based on the arrangement of the matter of communication in such a way, that less important descriptive or subordinate parts are stated at the beginning, the main idea is stated in the end. Suspense has a kind of psychological function, because it keeps reader’s attention in a state of uncertainty or expectation. Sometimes whole poems are based on this and can only be perceived in longer passages of text. O Climax: tylistic device, an arrangement of sentences or of the homogenous parts of a sentence, which secures a gradual increase in significance, motional tension or importance, each successive unit is perceived stronger than the preceding one. There are 2 types of climax: emotional and quantitative. Quantitative climax is called gradation. LEXICAL EXPRESSIVE MEANS AND STYLISTIC DEVICES This is closely related to Polysemy. Polysemy arises when 2 relative meanings are associated with the same group of sounds within one part of speech.
A lot of words in combination with other words or in context, in situation acquire new meanings, which are in certain extend related to their primary dictionary meaning. When the deviation from the primary meaning is so significant, that it causes an unexpected turn in the recognized meaning, the word, phrase or expression becomes a stylistic device. We perceive both meanings simultaneously. O Simile and metaphor. He ate like a pig. > Simile: common sign. He was the pig at the table. > Metaphor: transposition of one feature to another.
Metaphor is often exploited visually and linguistically in the register of advertising: cornflex associated with sunshine> as well metaphor. Metaphor is not particular to literary language, we use and hear hundreds of metaphors in everyday life: the euro recovers, war against inflation… O Metonymy is a substitution of one name for another name: read Shakespeare; it is very productive stylistic device in the language of advertising. In everyday language: crown for British monarchy. There are several types of metonymy, the most significant one is synecdoche.
The first type is the synecdoche pars pro toto: it names the part, when the whole is meant: The guitar was missing in the orchestra. …to have one’s head under the roof. Second is synecdoche totum pro parte: names the whole, when a part is meant: Chicago won the Stanley cup. Third type is synecdoche singularis pro plurali, this introduces a group of people as represented by a single representative: Your parent you must obey. O Periphrases: is a use of a longer phrasing in place of possible shorter and planer form, or expression: My better half / instead of wife.
In everyday speech periphrases are often associated with politeness, the wish to avoid offence; it is often characteristic of euphemism and jargon, when unpleasant associations can be avoided: Young Offenders Rehabilitation Center. It is characteristic of formal or elevate speech or writing. O Litotes: Is based on the principle no + no is yes. My mum is not bad cook. This trope is as well common to ordinary speech, in social terms, litotes is often a useful indirect strategy for reasons of modesty or politeness, if we wish to understate the bad; in testimonial references, reviews: The applicant’s academic report is not over impressive.
The opposite of litotes is O Hyperbole: it intensifies one certain property of a given object. It is a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential of this object or phenomena. O Irony: is an expression that implies the opposite of what is actually said: How “clever” of you! meant ironically. The word containing the irony is strongly marked by intonation in speech, in writing punctuation marks are used. Irony is generally meant to convey a negative meaning. O Oxymoron: s a combination of two words, in which the meanings of the two words clash, being opposite in sense for witty or striking effect: sweet –sorrow, horribly beautiful, deafening silence, rich beggars… O Antonomasia: is intended to point out the leading, most characteristic feature of a person or event at the same time pinning this leading trait as a proper name to the person or event concerned. In written language is written in capital letters: The Iron Lady. Mister Zero STYLISTICS SIGNIFICANCE OF SET EXPRESSIONS: There are 2 approaches at the study of stylistic significance of set expressions.
In the analytical approach the aim of stylistic is to study the components said expressions consist of, in order to get at some communicative effect sought by the writer. In the synthetic approach we study the word combination as a whole, its meaning, the degree of stability, its variance and so on. O Cliche: an expression that is hackneyed and trite, so it lost the originality it once had: The rosy dreams of view, rising expectations… When we use cliche, there is always a contradiction between what is aimed and what is actually attained.
When analyzing texts we must be aware of the writers aim, the situation in which the communication takes place and possibly the impact on the reader to decide whether or not a phrase is a cliche or the right word in the right place. Sometimes the borderline between cliche and metaphor is very thin. O Proverbs and Sayings: Proverbs are brief statements showing in condensed form the accumulated life experience of the community and serving as conventional practical symbols for abstract ideas. Typical features are rhythm, alliteration, brevity and ellipsis.
If proverbs are used appropriately they will always be original. Advert creators sometimes use proverbs in such a way, that they change one word, or part of it and retain the rest. O Epigrams: are similar to proverbs, the only difference is that the author is known. Epigrams are coined with individuals, whose names are well known. When we use an epigram, we mean as well the author. Epigrams are witty, pointed statements showing the indigenous term of mind of the author. The main features of epigrams are: the degree of independence, generalizing truth, brevity, can be expended in their replication.
There are special dictionaries of quotations – epigrams. The most typical syntactic stylistic device of epigram is chiasmus. O Quotations: We tend to think of quotations as academic as they are citations of words from other authors or sources of reference to highlight or confirm some viewpoint. A text with quotations is clearly polyphonic or multi voiced, the voice of author is interwoven with voices of his resources. Quotation is intra-textual, since the text with quotation depends on the writer’s knowledge of previous discourses.
Unattributed quotation in modern scholarship is regarded an offence and is called plagiarism. SPECIAL COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY Colloquial means are characteristic of the spoken language or to writing that seeks the effect of speech or informal relating to conversation. · Slang: the special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low or disreputable character. It is a language of a highly colloquial type considered as below the Standard English and consists of either new words or of current words employed in some special sense.
Slang changes with time, for example slang of teenagers, slang of prisoners, drug edicts, vagabonds: in Slovak is used the term argot, it is a language, which uses various symbols based on the fact that the letters in a word are mixed: castle – prison in a capital city, solid dude – a prisoner imprisoned for a long time and has high status among other prisoners, jeffer – a new comer, prisoner… Argot je subor nespisovnych pomenovani, ktore pouzivaju pri vzajomnom dorozumievani ludia uzavretej socialnej skupiny s cielom utajit pred verejnostou obsah internej komunikacie. Mistrik. Ide o tajny jazyk. Slang Mistrik definuje ako subor nespisovnych pomenuvani, ktore pouzivaju pri vzajomnom beznom dorozumievani ludia istej zaujmovej sfery. Nie je to samostatny jazyk ani socialne narecie, ani subor utajovanych vyrazovych prostriedkov ako argot, ani subor prostriedkov, ktorymi sa chce jedna spolocenska skupina diferencovat od inej – zargon. · Jargon: is used with professional terminology. Like slang, it is a sociolect a variety of language used by special social group, and as such identifies a member of its group.
Unlike slang, it does not convey rebellion or informality: NAD non acute distress – medical jargon. Medical slang: bell ringer – a patient who rings the bell unnecessary. Bed blocker- old person in hospital waiting for death. Features of Jargon: such words are often of Latin origin. Slang is euphemism. Jargon likes to use vogue words, trendy at the moment. These vogue words change in time: interfaces, facilities, image… Jargon uses tricks for stretching the language, nouns become noun phrases, verbs become verb phrases: investigate – to perform an investigation.
This feature is closely related to redundancy. The jargon is strongly redundant. There are as well empty phrases and fillers: at this point in time – now. Last feature is the use of passive voice, because passive is a good tool how to avoid responsibility. Jargonises don’t like to be quoted. They sometimes can positively mislead the listener. · Professionalisms: ide o spisovne pomenovania v jazyku istych pracovnych oblasti, ktore sa z praktickych pricin pouzivaju namiesto uzko odbornych terminov. Profesionalizmy stoja na pomedzi spisovnej a nespisovnej slovnej zasoby.
According to Gelperin, professionalisms are used in a definite trade by people connected by common interests, both at work and home and the main feature of professionalism is its technical character. Professionalisms are characteristic for spoken language, terms for written language. They have in common the fact, that they both don’t allow Polysemy. They are strictly monosemantic. Professionalisms don’t aim at secrecy, they fulfil a socially useful function in communication, facilitating a quick and adequate grasp of the message, meaning. It has to do with economy of speech.
Examples: block buster, thin fish – an equivalent of a submarine, hyper – a specialist who decorates pastry with cream pipe. · Dialectal words: they are generally confined in use to certain locality. · Vulgarisms: are expletives and swear words, which are of an abusive character: damn, bloody, these words are considered obscene; the use of them is banned in any formal intercourse as being indecent. In English all of these words are of Anglo-Saxon origin. Although vulgarisms have gained legitimacy in modern English fiction, they will never acquire the status of Standard English.
Their function is to show or express strong emotions, mainly annoyance, anger and can only be found in direct speech of characters in emotive prose. Vulgarizmy su slova, ktorymi nekulturni pouzivatelia jazyka priamo, bez okunania pomenuvaju chulostive a nechutne fyziologicke javy v suvislosti s jazykom: grcat. – Mistrik. VERNACULAR STYLE (STYLE OF LANGUAGE CONVERSATION) It is the most commonly used kind of English and the least marked kind of situational influenced English. Conversation has no comparable situational specificity and it is a very convenient kind of English.
In informal conversation there is a great flexibility of usage, there are fewer restrictions of structures and there is a wider variety of contrasts. There are 3 essential features of language of conversation: 1. Inexplicitness of the language which is due to the participant’s extreme reliance on the extra linguistic context. There are many ambiguities that can be dangerous. There are lots of anaphoric features: substitute one and frequent incompleteness of utterances. There is a large amount of phonologically obscure utterances, due to the participant’s lowering the voices to an inaudible mumble.
Inexplicitness is also derived from the participant’s common personal background. 2. Unpredictability – the language of conversation is characterized by randomness of subject matter and a general lack of planning. At any place of conversation one may change the subject without this being felt to be linguistically inappropriate. The informality of conversation means that any kind of language may occur, including complete switches in accent or dialect for humorous effect. Very formal language may be used from time to time as for argument, humorous situation. The only functional style in which the comparable flexibility can e found is the style of literature. 3. Non-fluency – high proportion of errors, hesitations, overlapping, simultaneous speech. It is not they occur in the language that is significant, but their distribution. Hesitancy in the conversation is influenced by periods of creative thinking. However the really significant fact is the toleration of these features in this variety of English. The language of conversation at the level of phonetics Phonetic features which regularly occur in this style are: – The use of a wide range of sounds of different air stream mechanism or configurations of the vocal tract.
These include various whistles, coughing for irony and other snorts and snips to communicate disgust and adversities. – There is a greater occurrence of onomatopoeic words and a very frequent use of assimilations and elisions. – The variation in loudness to suggest the relative importance of what the speaker is saying. The language of conversation at the level of grammar Utterances are shorter in this style, they are incomplete accompanied by reduced loudness and there is a frequent absence of end-of-utterance pauses.
Utterances become longer when topics are introduced, or when an argument develops. There is a large number of loosely coordinated clauses, the coordination being structurally ambiguous. High proportion of parentheses: you know, I mean, you see… they mean nothing. It is fairly common in vernacular style, that there are 2 participants A ends the utterance for B or they finish the utterance simultaneously. Frequently question tags are used and interrogative kind of sentences are more frequent than in other styles. The language of conversation at the level of vocabulary
Avoidance of specialised terms and terminology is closely related to the lack of decision. Difficult lexical items are replaced by completely non-specific prop words: you – know- what- I-mean. It consists of colloquial idioms, occasional cliche, the use of informal you, slang, abbreviation… SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL STYLE Its main objective is to prove a hypothesis, to create new concepts or to disclose the internal relations between different phenomena. The language means used therefore tend to be objective, precise, and unemotional, devoid of any individuality. Main features: . The logical sequence of utterances, with clear indications of their internal relations and interdependence. In no other functional style do we find such a developed system of connectives and cohesive markers as in this style. 2. The use of terms and terminology. Terms are specific of each given branch of science, however due to the rapid dissemination of scientific and technical ideas we may observe the process of determinisation. It means that originally purely technical terms pass to the wide usage of ordinary people: catalyze, gravity of the situation, focus on 3.
Sentence patterns: they are of 3 types: postulatory, argumentative, formulative. A hypotheses must be based on facts already known, systematized and defined. Therefore every piece of scientific prose will begin with postulatory pronouncements, which are taken as self evident and needing no proof. The references to these facts are only preliminary to the exposition of the writer’s ideas and are therefore summed up in precisely formulated statements, accompanied by references to sources. 4. Use of references, footnotes and quotations. Direct quotations should not exceed 30 pro cents of one page.
Other references should be paraphrased. 5. Impersonality – is a typical feature, characterized by the use of passive, with words like suppose, assume, presume, conclude, infer, point out… Instead of I we use plural we or passive constructions. Naucny styl podla Mistrika: vlastnosti: pisomnost, monologickost – pevna kostra vety a nad vetnych celkov, verejnost, ziadne subjektivne, expresivne ani familiarne vyrazy. Slovnik je nocionalny = vecny. Dalej su to pojmovost, prevladaju substantiva, nominalne frazy, informacna nasytenost a vysoky index opakovania slov, presnost (slova s uzsim vyznamom).
Hypotezy nesmu byt vagne. Exaktnost a odbornost. Caste su prevzate slova, neologizmy, parentezy. THE STYLE OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS The main aim of this style is to state the conditions binding two parties in an undertaking, and to reach an agreement between them. These two parties may be the state and the citizen, two or more enterprises, company and customer, governments… This style has 4 sub styles: 1. The language of business documents 2. The language of legal documents 3. The language of diplomacy 4. The language of military documents.
All sub styles have their own system of interrelated language and stylistic means. For this style is typical the use of cliche terms and set expressions, by which each sub style can be easily recognized. Second feature is the use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and contractions: THKS, PLS – thanks, pleas YRS – yours, best rgds – regards… T/T – telegraphic transfer, FOB- free on board (cena tovaru bez dopravy) CIF – cost insurance and fright. -The use of words in their logical, dictionary meaning. No emotive words. – Definite composition of pattern
The form of majority of this documents is purely informative, as it tells something about the matter. As far as the language of legal documents is concerned, these texts are written for lawyers, they are full of legal jargon and terminology, majority of terms is of Latin and Norman origin. In English this is an archaic style. Mistrik: heslovitost (hlavne dotazniky, formulare a tabulky), schematickost, stereotypnost, pisomnost, enumerativnost, situovanost, zarazky, verejnost. Zanre admin. stylu: Dokumentarne: Zapisnica, protokol, zmluva, potvrdenka, zmenka a sek Oznamovacie:
Vyhlaska, oznamenie, obeznik, sprava, hlasenie, ziadost, prihlaska, staznost, pozvanka, dotaznik Heslove: Zoznamy, inventare, pravidla, stanovy, tlaciva ako faktury, diplomy, vysvedcenia, bankove a postove tlaciva. THE BELLES-LETTRES STYLE Of all the functional styles of language, the most difficult to define is the belles-lettres style. Franz Kafka defines this style as “organised violence done on ordinary speech”. Literary works create their own world. Each is a unique entity. Just as a painter uses paint to create a new image, a writer uses words to create a text.
An important thing to recognise about literary works is just how carefully and consciously they are crafted. Words are the raw material of literature and literary writers stretch them to their limits. D. Crystal (1996) said that the literary language is the art in making the unnatural appear natural. For example, a playwright or novelist may write a dialogue which is naturalistic – i. e. it employs colloquialism, dialect words and so on – but this dialogue is very different from spontaneous speech. It will contain no non-fluency features, it will probably be less repetitious and more dramatic than ordinary speech.
Other forms of literature make no attempt to appear natural – in fact they deliberately surprise the readers? expectations. They might use familiar words in unfamiliar ways as e. e. cummings does, or they might coin new words as Gerald Hopkins does. Perhaps we expect poets to use deviant language, but prose writers like James Joyce do it too. The belles-lettres style is a generic term for three substyles in which the main principles and the most general properties of the style are materialized. These three substyles are: 1. the language of poetry 2. emotive prose 3. the language of the drama
Each of these substyles has certain common features. First of all comes the common function which may be called “aeshetico-cognitive”. This is a double function which aims at the cognitive process and, at the same time, calls for a feeling of pleasure. This pleasure is caused not only by admiration of the selected language means and their peculiar arrangement but also by the fact that the reader is led to form his own conclusions. So the purpose of the belles-lettres style is to suggest a possible interpretation of the phenomena of life by forcing the reader to see the view point of the writer.
Nothing gives more pleasure and satisfaction than realizing that one has the ability to penetrate into the hidden tissue of events, phenomena and human activity and to perceive the relation between various seemingly unconnected facts brought together by the creative mind of the writer. From all this it follows, that the belles-lettres style must select a system of language means which will secure the effect sought. The belles-lettres style rests on certain indispensable linguistic features which are: 1. genuine, not trite, imagery, achieved by purely linguistic device 2. he use of words in contextual and very often in more that one dictionary meaning 3. a vocabulary which will reflect to a greater or lesser degree the author? s personal evaluation of things or phenomena 4. a peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax, a kind of lexical and syntactical idiosyncrasy 5. introduction of the typical features of colloquial language. The belles-lettres style is individual in essence. Individuality in selecting language means and stylistic devices is one of its most distinctive properties. 1. LANGUAGE OF POETRY The first substyle we shall consider is v e r s e.
Its first differentiating property is its orderly form, which is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic aspect calls forht syntactical and semantic peculiarities which also fall into a more or less strict orderly arrangement. Both syntax and semantics comply with the restrictions imposed by the rhythmic pattern, and the result is brevity of expression, epigram-like utterances, and fresh unexpected imagery. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical and fragmentary sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, asyndeton and other syntactical peculiarities. . EMOTIVE PROSE The substyle of emotive prose has the same common features as have been pointed out for the belles-lettres style in general. , but all these features are correlated differently in emotive prose. The imagery is no so rich as it is in poetry, the percentage of words with contextual meaning is not so high as in poetry, the idiosyncrasy of the author is not so clearly discernible. Apart form metre and rhyme, what most of all distinguishes emotive prose form the poetic style is the combination of the literary variant of the language, both in words and syntax, with the colloquial variant.
It would perhaps be more exact to define this as a combination of the spoken and written varieties of the language, inasmuch as there are always two forms of communication present – monologue (the writer? s speech) and dialogue (the speech of the characters). It follows then that the colloquial language in the belles-lettres style is not a pure and simple reproduction of what might be the natural speech of living people. It has undergone changes introduced by the writer. The colloquial speech has been made „literature-like. This means that only the most striking elements of what might have been a conversation in life are made use of, and even these gave undergone some kind of transformation. Emotive prose allows the use of elements from other styles as well. Thus we find elements of the newspaper style in Sinclair Lewis? s ”It Can? t Happen Here“, the official style in the business letters exchanged between two characters in Galsworthy? s novel „The Man of Property“, the style of scientific prose in Cronin? s “Citadel” where medical language is used.
But all these styles under the influence of emotive prose undergo a kind of transformation. Passages written in other styles may be viewed only as interpolation and not as constituents of the style. Present day emotive prose is to a large extent characterized by the breaking-up of traditional syntactical designs of the preceding periods. Not only detached construction, but also fragmentation of syntactical models, peculiar, unexpected ways of combining sentences, especially the gap-sentence link and other modern syntactical patterns, are freely introduced into present-day emotive prose. 3. LANGUAGE OF THE DRAMA
The stylization of colloquial language is one of the features of plays which at different stages in the history of English drama has manifested itself in different ways revealing, on the one hand, the general trends of the literary language and, on the other, the personal idiosyncrasies of the writer. Thus the language of plays is a stylized type of the spoken variety of language. The analysis of the language texture of plays has shown that the most characteristic feature here is to use the term of the theory of information, redundancy of information caused by the necessity to amplify the utterance.
This is done for the sake of the audience. The language of plays is entirely dialogue. The author? s speech is almost entirely excluded except for the playwright? s remark and stage directions. The language of the characters is in no way the exact reproduction of the norms of colloquial language, although the playwright seeks to reproduce actual conversation as far as the norms of the written language will allow. This variety of belles-lettres style has used the norms of the literary language of the given period. So 16th century drama is much different from 20th century drama.
PUBLICISTIC STYLE It’s central function is to inform, to influence, to help people build their opinions, as here the style and the choice of the right words play the key role. Publicist style became a separate style in the middle of the 18th century, and was very formal in both grammar and vocabulary. Publicist style falls in 2 varieties or sub-style. The first is oratorical sub-style and radio and TV commentary, second is moral, philosophical and literary essays, news papers style and various journalistic, politic, social articles and the language of press advertisements.
NEWSPAPER STYLE Language at newspaper report: A newspaper is always eclectic. It includes all sorts of articles from news, main news stories, reports, editorials, various comments, reviews, imaginative writings, and competitions. 1. Popular press – besides giving information also has the intention to give pleasure and to entertain. Its stories are mainly of human interest and focus on people’s feelings. 2. Quality press – is more aching prone to reportage, to the actual transmission of the information and its content is more factual, designed to appeal to more educated audience.
The difference between them lies in the emphasis and priority they both assign to their particular news items. They have in common, that they both want to persuade the reading public and to present their news items as interesting as possible. In both varieties, there is the need for compression of information in a limited space, the need of clarity and the avoidance of ambiguity. Popular and Quality press, there graphitic and graphological variation plays an important role. They use different sizes and shapes of the font, some paragraphs are more emphasized than the others, and typical feature is the highlighting of the headline.
Its functions are complex; the headline has to contain a clear and interesting message, in order to grasp the attention of the potential reader. The skill of eye-catching effect created by various graphitic contrasts is of big importance. Main features of the headline (grammatic point of view): 1. Simple present tense usually refers to a recently completed past action. Peace talks fail. 2. The infinitive expresses future: Tonny Blair to resign. 3. The past participle expresses the passive: Hostage released. 4. In articles the V to be and personal pronouns are generally omitted. (ellipsis)
Lexical point of view: Words gain unusually functions and strange combinations of words appear: Mercy killing Another important visual is the paragraphing. In popular press, they tend to split the narrative into smaller units and short paragraphs are of a few lines each. The use of the sub-heading in the centre of the column of print is typical. In quality press, paragraphs are long, what makes them relatively monotonous. Newspapers are known to create their own punctuation style. Generally we can observe a tendency to omit commas, due to the fact, that they are considered to disturb the tempo of reading.
Grammar gives sufficient indications of breaks between thoughts and sentences. On the other hand, there is a frequent use of inverted commas. Journalists use them for direct or indirect quotation, to indicate the speech of a person in the language of reporting, or to indicate a term that is being used in a new or technical way. The inverted commas are also used for drawing of attention, as they help to add immediacy and extra interest. THE USE OF DASHES They replace commas, the effect of it being the creation of greater independence to a parenthetic phrase.
Apart from this, dashes link the expansion of thoughts and after-thoughts with the main part of the sentence. It gives the impression of informality. Grammatical structure: 1. Sentence structure: 2. Paragraph structure: a bigger number of paragraphs, comprising of 1 or 2 sentences are to be found in the popular press, whereas fewer paragraphs consisting of complex sentences can be found in the quality press. In popular and quality press the sentence types are mainly statements with the normal order of elements. Occasionally a question or an imperative will appear in the headlines or in the language of reporting.
Adverbials are extremely common; through changing their position in a sentence: putting a post verbal adverbial to an initial position a quality press offers a variety of coordinative devices in its structure such as apposition, parallelism, grammatical subordination. From the point of view of hyper-syntax: In order to keep the overall clarity of a text the connectedness of a discourse has to be well organized, logically organized and the text has to form a closely knit passage, which reads extremely smoothly. This is accomplished by the use of inter-sentence coordination through various types of sentence-linkage.
Focusing on the vocabulary, the lexical choice is. Popular press is very emotional; this is closed to the choice of words. Popular press is hyperbolized; they use idioms and colloquial words. Quality press has rather formal vocabulary, and restrained with the use of more careful phraseology, words with Latin origin and jargon. THE LANGUAGE OF PRESS ADVERTISEMENT It is the sub-style of publicist style, the position of advertising in contemporary society is evidently strong. It has become part of our everyday life influencing our decisions through different forms of media.
The main aim of the copywriters is to create an advert, which will attract attention and evoke interest in buying the promoted product. One of the main tasks of the study of style of adverts should be to identify the linguistic and rhetorical means used in particular adverts. Most essential linguistic patterns and techniques in advertising: 1. To attract attention and unorthodoxies of spelling and syntax and the use of various semantic oddities: Pampers: kissmeter – coinage 2. Making an advert easy to read, is an essential strategy, authors use expressions and words, we are familiar with. It is informal, colloquial language. . Memorability – it is often enhanced when the situation presented is itself familiar or amusing, the one that the reader can identify with. 4. An intimate interacting addressing with the reader with a wide use of interrogative and imperative forms. Imperatives are usually softened. As well repetition and contrasts. 5. Abandoned use of superlatives and hyperbole, particularly in the characterization of the product, they provide a remarkably positive description of the product. Analogizing between personality and product. 6. Evaluations and comparatives only in indirect reference to rival products. Common detergent … HEADLINES
It is what strikes our attention first, therefore it has to attract attention, engage the audience, be quickly understood and lead the audience into the body of an advertisement. It usually occupies the entire top half of the advertisement and is written in large letters – capitals. One picture is worth a thousand words. It has to be attractive, catchy and funny. Headline and slogan is what stays in mind. If written with rhyme, rhythm, and other phonological means, it is very effective. Slogans are shorter and stay the same way for ever. Slogans have 2 main purposes: 1. To provide continuity to a series of advertisements in a campaign. . To reduce an advertising message strategy to a brief repeatable and memorable statement: Let’s make things better. The most essential EMs and SDs in advertisement: Phonological level: The main focus in analyzing phonetic stylistic devices is placed on the sound effect of syllable, word or word phrase. This is expressed through alliteration, rhyme and rhythm. Lexical level: They want to sound popular and familiar > Head and shoulders: You’ll never have the second chance to make the first impression. They use slang words, students slang, colloquial words, idioms, the use of proverbs and sayings.
Another device is foreign words, quotations… French language is very popular in English advert. Tropes are very popular as metaphor, metonymy, hyponymy, epithets. Some say, the language of advertisement is semi-literary language. Grammatical level: Although grammatical means are generally considered to be stylistic neutral, yet they offer the advertisement a lot of possibilities that can change its stylistic features. Incomplete sentences, ellipses, verb less sentences, dynamism… Second feature is preference for present simple tens, simple predicate structures, and the reliance on the most common verbs.
Can is the most powerful verb, it expresses that we are able to do anything we want > ability and possibility. Often used are as well adjectives, compound adjectives, nouns functioning as modifiers. Sentences are often opened with an if, or when- close, these are means of identifying a specific situation. Preference for achieving coherence of text through lexical cohesion, elegant repetition, there is a careful neglect of the standards of explicit textual linkage, we expect in public written English.
The intended consequences of this incompleteness or obscurity include fostering a tone of conversation informality. Abundance of adjectives which are nominal in nature: best, fresh, delicious, safe, organic, natural. STYLISTIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY From stylistic point of view, it is important to classify the English vocabulary, as many stylistic devices are based on the interplay of different stylistic aspects of words. According to Galperin, the vocabulary of the English language can be divided into three main layers: 1. the literary layer 2. the neutral layer 3. the colloquial layer
The literary and neutral layers contain a number of sub-groups each of which has a property it shares with all the sub-groups within the layer – this common property is called aspect. The aspect of literary layer is its markedly bookish character. This layer is more or less stable. The aspect of the colloquial layer is its lively spoken character – it makes this layer unstable and fleeting. The aspect of the neutral layer is its universal character – it is unrestricted in its use, – it can be employed in all styles of language, – it can be employed in all spheres of human activity, – it is the most stable layer.
Ad 2) NEUTRAL, COMMON LITERARY AND COMMON COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY These are grouped under the term standard English vocabulary. a) Neutral Words are used in both literary and colloquial language. They are the main source of synonymy and Polysemy (productive in the production of new meanings). The wealth of the neutral words is often overlooked due to their inconspicuous character but their faculty for generating new stylistic variants is amazing. Unlike all other groups, the neutral words cannot be considered as having a special stylistic colouring, (whereas both literary and colloquial words have a definite stylistic colouring). ) Common Literary Words are mainly used in writing and in polished speech. It is not difficult to distinguish between a literary word and a colloquial word as the literary units, they stand in oposition to colloquial units. This is especially apparent when pairs of synonyms (literary and colloquial) can be formed which stand in contrasting relation: colloquioal neutral literary kid – child – infant chap – fellow – associate get out – go away – retire go on – continue – proceed go ahead – begin – commence As you can see, these synonyms are not absolute as they differ stylistically.
Stylistic difference may be of various kinds: – it may lie in the emotional tension connoted in a word – it may lie in the sphere of application or in the degree of the quality denoted Colloquial words are always more emotionally coloured than literary ones. The neutral stratum of words has no degree of emotiveness. Both literary and colloquial words have their upper and lower ranges. The lower range of literary words approaches the neutral layer and the same can be said of the upper range of the colloquial layer so it can very easily pass into the neutral layer.
The difference in the stylistic aspect of words may colour the whole of an utterance. In the example from the “Fanny? s Frist Play“ (Shaw), the difference between the common literary and common colloquial vocabulary is clearly seen: Ex. 1: G. B. Shaw DORA: Oh, I? ve let it out. Have I? But he? s the right sort: I can see that. You won? t let it out downstairs, old man, will you? JUGGINS: The family can rely on my absolute discretion. Commentary: The Words in Juggin’s answer are on the borderline between common literary and neutral X words used by Dora are clearly common colloquial, not bordering on neutral.
Ex 2: from David Copperfield (Dickens) illustrates the use of literary English words which do not border on neutral: “My love,“ said Mr. Micawber, much affected, “you will forgive, and our old and tired friend Copperfield will, I am sure, forgive the momentary laceration – in other words, with a ribald Turncock attached to the waterworks – and will pity, not condemn, its excesses. c) Common Colloquial Vocabulary is represented as overlapping into the standard English vocabulary and is therefore considered part of it.
It borders both on the neutral vocabulary and on the special colloquial vocabulary. Just as common literary words lack homogeneity, so do common colloquial words and set expressions. Some of the lexical items belonging to this layer are close to the non-standard colloquial groups such as jargonisms, professionalisms, etc. These are on the borderline between the common colloquial and the special colloquial or nonstandard vocabulary. Other words approach the neutral layer of the English word-stock. E. g. teenager, hippie, are colloquial words that have passed into the neutral vocabulary.
They have lost their non-standard character and have become widely recognized. However they haven? t lost their colloquial association and therefore still remain in the colloquial stratum of the English vocabulary. Other examples: take – in “as I take it“ = as I understand to go for – to be attracted by = You think she still goes for that guy? guy – young man to be gone on = to be madly in love with pro = professional (boxer) ad = advertisement The spoken language abounds in set expressions which are colloquial in character: e. g. ll sorts of things, just a bit, so-so, to hob-knob (= to be very friendly, to drink together, to be sick and tired of, etc). On the other hand, certain set expressions have been coined with literary English and their use in ordinary speech will inevitably make the utterance sound bookish, e. g. : in accordance with, regard to, speak at great length, to lend assistance, by virtue of , etc. Ad 1) SPECIAL LITERARY VOCABULARY a) Terms Terms arose due to the necessity of reflecting in language the cognitive process maintained by scholars in analysing different concepts and phenomena.
One of the most characteristic features of a term is its direct relevance to the system or set of terms used in a particular science, discipline or act. Term is directly connected with the concept it denotes – directs our mind to the essential quality of the thing, phenomenon or action. Terms mostly and predominantly belong to scientific and technical style but they may as well appear in other styles – newspapers (publicistic). When using in the style of fiction, a term may acquire a stylistic function and consequently becomes a stylistic device. (e. g. he stylistic effect of the medical terminology used by Cronin in his novel the Citadel) Moderate use of special terminology in fiction is bordering on common literary vocabulary. Ex: (T. Dreiser: The Financier) “There was a long conversation – a long wait. His father came back to say it was doubtful whether they could make the loan. Eight per cent, then being secured for money, was a small rate of interest, considering its need. For ten per cent Mr Kuzel might make a call-loan. Frank went back to his employer, whose commercial choler rose at the report. ” Commentary:
Such terms as loan, rate of interest, to secure for money are widely known financial terms which need no explanation. The main task of the writer in this passage is not to explain the process of business negotiation, but to create the environment of business atmosphere – the use of terms is stylistic as they serve the purpose of characterizing the commercial spirit of the hero – however they are not a stylistic device. The following is an example where a term is used as a stylistic device: Ex: “What a fool Rawdon Crawley has been,” Clum replied, “to go and marry a governess. There was something about the girl too. “Green eyes, fair skin, pretty figure, famous frontal development,” Squill remarked. (Thackeray) Commentary: The combination “frontal development” is terminological in character (used sometimes in anatomy). But being preceeded by the word famous used in the sense indicated by the dictionary as a strong expression of approval (chiefly colloquial), excellent, capital the whole expression assumes a specific stylistic functions due to the fact that frontal development is used both in its terminological aspect and in its logical meaning” the breast of a woman” – twofold application of meaning.
Final remark: With the increase of general education, many words that were once terms have gradually lost their quality as terms and have passed into the common literary or even neutral vocabulary = determinization: e. g. radio, television, laser, software, etc. b) Poetic and Highly Literary Words – have a marked tendency to detach themselves from the common literary word-stock and gradually assume the quality of terms denoting certain definite notions and calling for poetic diction. Poetic diction occurs when words are selected and arranged to arise aesthetic imagination.
Being drawn into the system of literary styles the words are selected and arranged in groups of definite images, in phraseological series, which grow standardized and are becoming conventional symbols of definite phenomena or character or of definite ideas of impressions. From stylistic point of view poetical words in an ordinary environment may have a satirical function. Ex: But Adeline was not indifferent: for (Now for a common-place! ) beneath the snow, As a volcano holds the lava more Within – et cetera. Shall I go on? – No, I hate to hunt down a tired metaphor, So let the often-used volcano go! Byron: Don Juan) Commentary: The satirical function of “tired metaphor”, “the often used volcano” lies in Byron? s estimating of the value of conventional metaphors and stereotyped poetical expressions. The striving for the unusual is close to the sensational and can therefore be found in may other styles (not only in fiction). A modern English literary critic has remarked that in journalese a policeman never goes to an appointed spot – he proceeds to it, the picturesque reporter seldom talks of a horses, it is a charger.
The sky is the welkin, the valley is the vale, fire is the devouring element. It should be noted here that the overuse of poeticisms and their constant repetition gradually make them hackneyed like anything that lacks freshness it fails to evoke a genuinely aesthetic effect and eventually call for protest on the part of those who are sensitive to real beauty. c) Archaic, Obsolescent and Obsolete Words The word-stock of a language is in an increasing state of change. Words change their meaning and sometimes drop out of the language altogether.
We distinguish 3 stages in the aging process of words: 1. The beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarely used. Such words are called obsolescent, i. e. they are in the stage of gradually passing out of general: e. g. a pallet = a straw mattress, a palfrey = small horse, garniture = furniture – mainly French borrowings. 2. The second group of archaic words are those that have already gone completely out of use but are still recognized by the native speakers, e. g. methinks = it seems tome, nay = no. These words are called obsolete. . The third group which may be called archaic proper, are words which are no longer recognizable in modern English, words that were in use in old English, e. g. troth = faith, a losel = a worthless, lazy fellow. There is still another class of words which denote objects, customs, institutions and events of historical period. They are historical words/terms and they name things and phenomena which passed into oblivion and therefore have no synonyms in modern English X archaic words on the other hand, have been replaced by modern synonyms.
From stylistic point of view, these groups of words can be found in the style of official documents, in legal language, in all kinds of statutes, in diplomatic documents, e. g. aforesaid, hereby, therewith, hereinafternamed etc. in poetry ,in historical novels (they maintain “local colour”) d) Barbarisms and Foreignisms Barbarisms are words of foreign origin which have not entirely been assimilated into the English language. They bear the appearance of a borrowing and are felt as something alien to the native tongue. E. g. chic = stylist, bon mot = a clever witty saying, en passant = in passing, ad infinitum = to infinity.
It is very important for purely stylistic purpose to distinguish between barbarisms and foreign words proper. Barbarisms are words which have already become facts of the English language. They are part and parcel of the English word-stock, though they remain on the outskirts of the literary vocabulary. Foreign words used for some stylistic purposes, do not belong to the English vocabulary and are not registered in dictionaries. In a written language they are often italicized. Both foreign words and barbarisms are widely used in various styles to supply local colour.
Ex: In press advertising The French say that wine has “de la robe du bouquet, dela cu ise”. Ex: The use of foreign word to describe the peculiarities of the German menu. (Thackeray: “Vanity Fair”) “The little boy, too, we observed, had a famous appetite, and consumed schinken, and braten, and kartoffeln, and cranberry jam… with a gallantry that did honour to his nation. ” Commentary: By introducing several German words, the author gives and indirect description of the peculiarities of the German menu and the environment on general.