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Enrollment in the Institutions of Higher Education

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    The issue of concern here is that the university-level institutions mostly differ concerning their structures and coverage as the universities are sub-divided into different groups which are a state, private, deemed and central as well as the institutions of national importance which were built by the state and the central legislatures. Diversities in the institutions is apparent, and this constitutes to their differences (MHRD, 2016)

    Enrollment of Students

    Enrollment in the institutions of higher learning in India has experienced growth trends as shown in the data gathered from the secondary sources. Students enrolled in colleges and universities have risen compared to many other countries worldwide according to the available data.

    It is estimated that the enrolment into institutions of higher learning has grown by about 12 times in the previous years. Now the problem with the registration is that current capacity is full to the brim and cannot accommodate any more students finishing their secondary studies until others graduate to create the spaces (MHRD, 2016)

    There is limited space in these institutions of higher learning, and this has caused a massive mismatch between the supply and the demand frontiers. The growth concerning enrollment is somehow impressive, but considering the demographic and socio-economic conditions of India, there is still much to be done to enroll more students at once

    Enrollment in the institutions of higher education has increased considerably in the previous years in India thus posing significant problems in the institution’s facilities which are not expanding equally to accommodate the large population. This growth is apparent in various stages which include graduation, post–graduation, diploma or instead certificate as well as research institutions

    Enrollments in other institutions of higher learning have also dropped down due to underutilization of the present capacities in these institutions resulting in the few chosen ones being a constraint of space.

    More enrolments in most of the institutions have caused challenges to management due to the available infrastructures and teachers. Lack of enough amenities like the hostels especially for the girls become a significant challenge with many of them being forced to live in the challenging environments outside this institution (Offbeat Society, 2009)

    Gross Enrolment Ratio of Religious Groups

    The current study found out that the higher education of India lacks total inclusivity of students due to religion which is a significant issue of concern in the university due to its imbalance. The study observes that in aggregate levels, there are more Christians in the institutions of higher learning and they are ahead of every other religious group with Muslims being the least. Muslim women are very few while their Christians. The GER is lower for the Muslims with the Hindus coming third (Offbeat Society, 2009)

    It is evident that among all the religious groups in the institutions of higher learning, the Muslim brothers and sisters have fared less than the other groups and the tribes of the country. Despite the spatial and the regional backwardness, the Hindus have managed well regarding enrollments into the institutions of higher learning as they dominate in large numbers the professional and technical education.

    The reservation policies put in place has widely affected the situation in previous years. The government of India is battling with these challenges to make the higher education inclusive by setting multipronged strategies to establish new diverse institutions as well as new universities and colleges.

    Public Expenditure on India’s Higher Education

    The government of India usually allocates billions of money for higher education and pumps a lot of resources to improve the sector through many of the goals targeted have not been achieved yet as much of the resources are misused. The planned expenditure on higher education has been boosted up, and this fund needs to be spent exorbitantly to meet their targets (Prayatna, 2014)

    Private participation in the higher education system of India. Another issue is the privatization and commercialization of India’s higher education system is on an upward trend as the number of higher education learning institutions keep on mushrooming resulting in more enrollments.

    The record has gone up steadily in the previous years as growth in the number of private institutions countrywide. Many of these institutions are providing vocational pieces of training as well as professional programmes, and most of them offer sciences and art studies (Prayatna, 2014)

    Privatization and commercialization of the higher education in India is an issue of concern because it is retarding the development of human resource in the country by making education too expensive and only affordable for the rich while the multitude cannot afford (Prayatna, 2014)

    The privatized and the commercialized institutions of higher learning also have got misguided priorities made not on the grounds of the national needs as well as educational needs but following the requirements of those of the few minuscule minorities of blood-suckers trading with education in the country.

    Student Loans

    It has emerged that the government of India gives education loans its students is the primary source of funding higher education in the country as the costs of higher education continue to escalate. Student loans were started in 1995 by the SBI Bank to boost higher education, and other banks followed suit after that with self-financing institutions coming in handy, and they charge higher interests than those supported by the government.

    Despite the higher fees being charged by the private sector banks, many students wishing to pursue professional degrees continues to go for the education loans to finance their education (Sanyal, 2017)

    The issue of concern here is that the defaults may be too high at times for private sector banks to give out education loans. In this case, the public sector banks will continue to offer education loans to the meritorious students since the RBI extends supportive measures unto them so that they can reduce the risks arising from defaults.

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