Erik Erikson Stages of Human Development Essay
Erik Erikson phases of human development with a peculiar attack of the Identity crisis of adolescence and deductions for young person policy and pattern.
Erik Erikson`s developmental phases: The Adolescence Identity Crisis attack.
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“They say is human to see a long childhood - Erik Erikson Stages of Human Development Essay introduction. but is besides civilised to hold an even longer childhood as it leads the individual to accomplish more proficient and mental abilities known as ace ; at the same clip it can besides go forth a long residue of immatureness and emotional confusion” ( Erikson. 1994- Erik Hamburger Erikson. 1902-1994 ) .
In the gathered plant there was a research worker who spent a batch of clip analyzing about human development and his name was Erik Erikson ; most of Erikson`s work is based on existent life state of affairss such as the war and human depression which could act upon the behavior of one individual. the writer believed that the civilization one person lives in is besides act uponing their behavior as an illustration of such statements is Erikson`s survey Sioux Indians investigated in a reserve. Erikson argued that the human behavior is influenced by the organic structure interactions. by the human head and the overall cultural influences ( Marcia. 1966 ) . Erikson developed a theory which states that there are eight major phases in the human development spliting the maturity developmental phases into immature grownups. in-between age grownups and older grownups experience.
The first phase Erikson described is the Infancy get downing from birth up to 18 months besides called the Oral Sensory phase and the chief construct of the phase is underscoring the importance of love and care given to an baby by their female parent every bit good as the ocular contact and touch as the signifiers of communicating and emotional exchange ; this phase is besides known as “Trust versus Mistrust” which stands for the infant`s basic needs achievement as when the infant`s demands are fulfilled by the female parent as the function theoretical account the kid will organize trust and assurance where as if the basic demands such as ocular contact are non offered by the female parent it can take the baby to develop misgiving in the closest individual due to the deficiency of positive communicating ( Oswalt. 1995-2012 ) .
The 2nd phase starts at 2 and continues up to 4 old ages old is besides known as the “Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt” which stands for the fact that the kid is really inquiring if their individual is all right and accepted by the others due to the fact that he starts to research the close environment and additions motor abilities ; at this phase the kids are developing their first involvements and the parents still play a cardinal function in promoting and back uping the child`s liberty and independence accomplishments ( Erikson. 1970 ) .
The 3rd phase is besides known as the Preschool phase “Initiative versus Guilt” get downing at 4 until the kid reaches 5 old ages old and although is a short phase the kid development is important as they start to get the hang the nearest environment by accomplishing basic larning accomplishments of life for case the kid learns that the things are falling down and non up. At this phase the kid develops a certain degree of independence and bravery but at the same clip they can develop some negative behaviors such as defeat. discourtesy or aggressive purposes ( Erikson. 1993 ) .
Between 5 and 12 old ages old is the phase of “Industry versus Inferiority” when the kid is inquiring if they have a topographic point in the universe and becomes more cognizant of the fact that they are persons. go more responsible. start to portion more and to collaborate better in certain state of affairss as they understand the significance and sense of life to a deeper extend. at the same clip the kid discovers new endowments and involvements ( Erikson. 1980 ) . The 5th phase is the Adolescence get downing at 13 up to 19 old ages old besides known as “Identity versus Role Confusion” which stands for the crisis the adolescent might see when placing their ain personality ; it is the most critical period as it could act upon the person` s life as it is characterised by confusion in most instances. it will be critically appreciated in the last portion of the essay.
The 6th phase is the immature maturity get downing at 20 up to 40 old ages old besides called “Intimacy versus Isolation” . period governed by the struggle of love. Although. at this phase the individuality crisis is coming to an terminal. the immature grownup can insulate because of the familiarity demand and the fright of being rejected by the groups. overall the phase refers to the person`s demand of happening the right spouse for life ( Erikson. 1990 ) .
The in-between maturity starts at 40 up to 64 old ages and is besides known as “Generativity versus Stagnation” and is characterised by the grownup purpose and concern of assisting and steering the younger coevals so the chief focal point of the grownup is to lend towards society development by offering support to the new coevals ( Erikson. 1980 ) .
The last phase described by Erikson is called the late maturity get downing at 65 boulder clay decease besides known as the “Ego Integrity versus Despair” when the grownup is chew overing upon their life events and what they have achieved throughout the life. if they realise that their life has been successfully will organize unity if non it can take to desperation and the feeling of failure ( Erikson. 1980 ) . One of the Erikson`s most talked phases of human development is the Adolescence which chief focal point is the teenager`s concern about how they look. how they are interpreted and accepted by their equals. friends and groups ( Marcia. 1976 ) .
Erikson claims that in the late phase of adolescence the adolescent develops a sexual individuality which will specify them as a individual for their future life ; the adolescent makes a passage from the kid to adult life which will really tag their hereafter functions in the society. The first phase of the passage is marked by the confusion of who the adolescent wants to go. who they are at the minute and how will they be accepted by the society as an illustration of such uncertainness is the teenager`s preoccupation to suit into little occupations. they will seek different functions such as baby sitting or providing helpers until they will make up one’s mind what they want to go in the hereafter.
Erikson claimed that finally the adolescent achieves a sense of individuality but before that there is a crisis and a confusion phase which influences the teenager`s hereafter determinations and involvements ; the period is critic as it can take the adolescent into bad groups. drugs. force and other dangers since they are truly baffled and easy influenced so the parents must back up and steer them towards the right way ( Marcia. 1980 ) .
Erikson believes the passage is marked by the individuality crisis which makes the phase alone as it becomes a synthesis of earlier phases and a sort of expectancy for the adulthood life as the young person phase is a span between kid and grownup experience ( Fletcher and Branen. 2009 ) .
The phase is a extremist alteration in footings of pubescence. ability to hunt and happen ain life waies. consciousness development of the society significances and functions ; the adolescent is challenged to set up boundaries for themselves and this is when their individuality crisis becomes difficult to cover with. but Erikson believes the society will assist and steer the stripling to happen their ain manner by offering different experiences which will impact the teenager`s involvements and will specify who they want to go as grownups ( Erikson. 1980 ) .
The theoretician claims the individuality crisis might be prolonged for some persons due to the society and because it takes clip to accomplish certain life accomplishments. personal involvements and organize a clear overview of the grownup life. so there is no exact deadline for the adolescent to make a life scheme. but Erikson thinks that by the age of 18 to 20 the stripling must cognize their ain involvements and caput to a certain way in life deriving a psychological and societal stableness ( Fletcher and Branen. 2009 ) .
Finally. Erikson thinks that the major impact and influence on a adolescent individuality crisis is the sociological environment the individual lives in and the youth civilization bing in that specific society. although the youth civilization might be peculiar from a state to another or from a race to another. overall the young person policy needs to be SMART which stands for systematic. mensurable. accomplishable. dependable and clip related so that it will assist the adolescent to set up their ain way more clearly and look into the chances they might hold within the grownup universe ( Kail and Cavanaugh. 2004 ) . The manner a adolescent experiences the passage period impacts the future psychological. sociological and youth developmental accomplishments. so Erikson believes it is cardinal what sort of “tools” the society and largely the young person environment offers to the stripling so they can take from and set up their future way in footings of calling chances. personality definition and overall topographic point in the society ( Oswalt. 1995-2012 ) .
As the essay showed. Erikson made a comprehensive initiation in the human developmental phases underscoring the significance and function of each phase ; the babyhood is governed by the love and attention offered by the female parent to the kid. as the kid grows up they become more independent and. hold bigger liberty but yet they are unsure about their topographic point in the universe as the 2nd phase described. at the age of preschool the kid learns the basic accomplishments and specify their self-importance in order to go more responsible with ain involvements and endowments towards the 4th phase.
The 5th phase is governed by confusion as is the adolescence individuality crisis when the adolescent decides their future way. as a immature grownup the individual will be interested in doing a household and guarantee they are loved ; the in-between age grownup will be concerned in offering counsel. support and advice to the new coevals of kids but towards the late grownup phase we saw that the retired individual is concerned about their life events and motivated to chew over upon their life rhythm.
Elkind. D. ( 2004 ) . Erik Erikson`s Eight Ages of Men. Module III Teaching Supplemental Handouts. Erikson. E. ( 1970 ) . Contemplations on the dissent of modern-day young person. International Journal of Psychoanalysis. 51 ( 11-12 ) . Erikson. E. ( 1980 ) . Identity and Life Cycle. New York: WW Norton and Company. Erikson. E. ( 1993 ) . Childhood and Society. New York: WW Norton and Company. 242. Erikson. E. ( 1994 ) . Biography: Lecture Notes and Ego Psychologists. PSY ( 345 ) . Kail. R. and Cavanaugh. J. C. ( 2004 ) . Human Development: a life span position ( 3rd Edition ) . Belmont CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. 16. Marcia. J. E. ( 1966 ) . Development and proof of self-importance individuality statuses. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 3 ( 551-558 ) . Marcia. J. E. ( 1976 ) . Identity six old ages after: a follow-up survey. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 5 ( 145-160 ) . Marcia. J. E. ( 1980 ) . Identity in Adolescence. Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. New York: Wiley. Oswalt. A. ( 1995-2012 ) . Erik Erikson and self individuality. Edited by Zupanick Psychology Department MSW.