0 IntroductionLeadership is all about influencing other people in the organization to accomplish a task. It involves directing an organization in that it becomes more coherent and cohesive. Leadership style can therefore be defined as approach for providing direction. It includes motivation.
There are various leadership styles that exist in management. They include authoritarian or autocratic, participative or democratic, delegative or free reign leadership. (Newstrom, 1997)Leadership is also described as directing people to do specific duties by influencing their personal behaviour through incentives and motivation, teamwork, individual dynamics and discipline. The core purpose of leadership is to channel all the employees’ behavior towards attaining the company’s objectives.
Leadership is thus essential in creating and maintaining a healthy organizational culture within any business organization. Leading does not necessarily come from that in power but from any individual who provides information and suggestions on the way forward.Decision making within organizations rests on the shoulders of the managers and leaders in the institution who usually take risks whenever an issue that requires to be addressed arises. Leading aims at bringing change in an organization.
It also involves giving inspiration to people. In leadership there is a lot of motivation that is carried out. In any job, there comes a time when one feels like giving up, the drive to work is not there. At such moments employees need to be motivated to work.
Leading is quite interpersonal in nature. It is not just the manager in an organization that is supposed to lead. It can even exist between employees. It has to do with mutual influence.
All these are normally based on different theories and assumptions. Any style that is incorporated in management can be based on combination of preferences, values and beliefs. Organizational culture also plays a big role in influencing the leadership style used by management. Leadership style used by management plays a big role in affecting the success of the organization.
A leader has to clearly understand the different types of leadership styles and their impacts on the organization. Good leadership always includes incorporation of all the leadership styles. Bad leadership just sticks to one style.2.
0 Authoritarian (Autocratic)This is also called formal type of leadership. In this type of leadership, the leader simply tells employees how he or she wants the work done and what he wants employees to do without getting their views. This type of leadership is effective when the leader has all the information that is important or necessary to solve the problem. This style of leadership is not all about threatening employees or using abusive power.
It does not also involve the use of demeaning language. When this is done, it can be termed as bossing around. Leaders’ repertoire need not include this. (Newstrom, 1997)This style should just be used on rare occasions because when it dominates, the results are normally not the best.
When the leadership style has command and control, it always drains off the employees’ ambition. They simply become less motivated. This makes employees perceive manager as being bossy. This leadership style is used when managers in an organization want to have full power in decision making.
This leadership style is very essential especially when the time at hand is very minimal to incorporate employees’ views. Authoritarian leadership also includes leaders making all decisions. This means that it includes dominance on the part of the leader. Sometimes the leader gives detailed orders.
The followers or employees in this case are simply required to obey. (Newstrom, 1997)In autocratic leadership, there is high level of supervision. It follows polices very strictly and is characterized with authority motivation. There is instilling of fear in employees when this type of leadership is used.
This also creates a culture of dependency on the leader. According to research, when this leadership style is used, there is very low efficiency. There are various instances when autocratic leadership can be used in an organization. For example, it can be used on an employee who is new in an organization and is still learning more about the job.
In this case the leader has got more experience than the employee and therefore can make the best decision. On the other hand the employee has the desire to learn more and therefore can carry out all the instructions given by the leader. In such a situation, authoritarian leadership works very well. In the survey carried out, Mr.
Grant applies authoritative kind of leadership.This is very evident from his answer given to question as to whether he allows the group to share his leadership power. His answer was that he is only willing to share a small amount of his leadership power. This shows that most of the decisions are made Mr.
Grant who was former Fleet manager. When asked how he would allow group members to decide what needs to be done, his answer shows his leadership style. He says that he is a decider. That he has learned over the years that one cannot go kick himself for decisions made.
He makes his decision based on information he has at the time.In case he makes a decision and then finds out that there was a better choice, he is willing to change his mind. This shows that his leadership style is quite autocratic in nature. This is because he makes decisions first and then later on he can seek for the second opinion.
The research shows that Mr. Grant scored thirty four points for being authoritative in his leadership. According to the survey Mr. Larry Davis scored twenty points in authoritarian.
This shows that he can incorporate some minimal authoritarian leadership. For instance, he is comfortable allowing employees making decisions depending on their competency. This shows that he is not so much of an authoritarian but incorporates it on minimal basis. This can lead to positive results in the school or the organization.
3.0 Participative (Democratic)Participative leadership involves other people on the decision making process. The leader in this case can include one of the employees when making decisions for the organization. (Newstrom, 1997)This involves making decisions concerning what should be done and how the tasks should be done in the organization.
This does not mean that the employees make the final decision. It means that the leader considers the contributions of the employees but comes up with a final decision. Research shows that using this style doesn’t mean that the manager or leader is weak. In most cases employees respect this kind of leadership.
This type of leadership is very essential when the leader or the manager doesn’t know everything concerning the situation. In most cases actually the manager doesn’t know everything. He or she may know part of the information and the employees have the other part. .
(Newstrom, 1997)Research shows that this leadership style always has better results or effects on an organization. This style of leadership normally comes along with mutual benefits. This is because it allows the employees in an organization to actually be part of the team. On the other hand the leader or the manager is in a position to make better decisions.
In such a case the leader feels he did the best at hand having had employees’ contributions and hence there is little room for regrets. (Kotter, 2000)In participative leadership, there is involves stakeholders like investors, superiors, peers and even subordinates. This mostly depends on the manager concerning who to consult in the specific decision making. (Newstrom, 1997)Different people can be consulted at different times.
The degree of influence on the decision making is mostly influenced by the leader himself. Sometimes a leader can give the employees full delegation of decision making depending on the situation at hand.Participative leadership can involve the leader simply selling the idea to the employees in the management. For instance the goals of an organization can be elaborated to the employees.
. (Newstrom, 1997) They in return help in giving tentative solutions on how the goals can be implemented. Participative leadership has got very many benefits as compared to the autocratic leadership. When leaders ask for views from employees they should not just do it for the sake of it, then fail to work upon it.
This is because it can lead to cynism. It can also perpetrate feelings of betrayal on the employees’ side. This type of leadership has its own disadvantages. This is very evident when there is wide range of opinions to be considered.
In this case coming up with the final decision becomes quite hard. (Sparrow and Hilltop, 1998)According to the survey carried out, all the respondents incorporate participative leadership. One of the respondents- Dr. Phyllis Luciano a Social Studies Content Leader showed her leadership style is highly participative.
. (Newstrom, 1997)For instance, when asked whether she can allow the group to share her leadership power, her answer reveals this. She answers that she can allow others in the group to share her leadership power. The answer shows that she can allow group members to come with a solution for the situation but she evaluates the decision and in case she is not satisfied with it then she carries out the decision making on her own.
. (Newstrom, 1997)Dr. Phyllis Luciano allows group members to decide what needs to be done. This statement clearly shows that she includes participative leadership.
Her answers show that she allows group members to decide how to accomplish a task. This she explains helps or provides the group members with the ownership of the task. She uses this type of leadership because it gives the group members a sense of self worth. This according to her helps employees to also feel respected and valued as part of the organization.
. (Newstrom, 1997)Table below shows the relationship between participation in an organization and decision making. < Not participativeHighly participative >Autocratic decision by leaderLeader proposes decision, listens to feedback, then decidesTeam proposes decision, leader has final decisionJoint decision with team as equalsFull delegation of decision to teamLeadership styles; retrieved from; personality100.com; accessed on 20-08-07.
The above table shows how participative leadership allows delegation of decision making to the group. In this table it is clearly illustrated that leadership can be highly participative or not participative at all. When it is highly participative the decision making is fully delegated to the group which can consist of employees in the organization. .
(Newstrom, 1997)An analysis of Dr. Luciano’s leadership shows that it is highly participative. Participatory leadership is highly determined by the maturity of the group or the employees. When the employees are mature and experienced, participatory leadership can be highly incorporated by the management.
In participative leadership, the manager’s role is more of facilitative than directive in nature. Another positive effect of using this type of leadership is that it leads to cohesiveness in the team. The whole group works together rather than as individuals.Just like explained, different leadership styles can be incorporated in an organization.
From the results of the survey, it is very clear that all the respondents use various leadership styles in the organizations. (Newstrom, 1997) The degree to which Phyllis uses participatory leadership is higher than areas she uses authoritarian leadership. In this case the chances of coming up with better results is very high.This leadership style is also used by Dr.
Victoria Pettis. When asked whether she would allow group members to decide what needs to be done, she says that she uses a mixture of both. This is because, she explains that some decisions are best made at administrative level while there are others that she would need the employees’ perspective. In this case this answer shows that there instances when employees are consulted by Dr.
Victoria Pettis.4.0 Delegative (Free Reign)This is also another leadership style that is always used by managers and leaders in organizations. This involves allowing employees to make the decisions at the work place.
Decisions that are normally made are usually very diverse. They could include arrival time at the work place etc. This method is highly used when employees are in a position to analyze the situation at hand. (Kotter, 2000)This does not mean that the manager is not responsible for the decisions made.
He or she is actually responsible for decisions carried out even if the delegative style of leadership is used. Employees in this case are also able to solve the situation and they have the experience to carry out the decision making. In most of the instances, one finds that the employees are very skilled and quite qualified. Such employees could have worked in the organization for a good period of time.
They have the experience with the situations at hand. (Newstrom, 1997)In most of the instances where delegative or free reign leadership is used, the employees have gone through organizational learning and training and therefore they are fully equipped in handling most of the issues arising. Research shows that this method is very effective when the task is delegated to a specific group of people. This creates accountability than if it is so open to everyone.
This is because research shows that a manager or a leader in an organization cannot do everything by him or herself. (Newstrom, 1997)It is very clear that this leadership style is not incorporated for reasons of shifting blame for instance on the employees when things go wrong. On the other hand, it is a leadership style that is incorporated when there is confidence in the employees. This is whereby the manager or a leader for that case has trust that whatever responsibility will be handled to the best of ability by the stakeholders.
Any leader who uses this type of leadership however has to use it very wisely since there are cases when it is really misused. When used to a large extent could lead to failure in an organization. (Newstrom, 1997) In delegation style of leadership, there is self motivation in employees. It allows much creativity on employees’ side because it actually gives opportunity to try out new ventures or solutions in accomplishing the tasks assignedResearch shows that this leadership functions well when incorporated with other leadership styles.
This leadership style acknowledges that the leader is never an expert in all areas or all fields. There are always employees who are more qualified in an area or so. (Kotter, 2000) In situations where manager is not exerting sufficient control, then it can also be referred to free reign leadership style. This leadership style is also referred to as Laissez fair leadership.
This is a French term that means leave it be. This implies that a leader lets the employees or the team to work on their own. This is without supervision etc. This type of leadership works when a leader in an organization has many duties and he or she is not always in the organization.
This also plays a major role in allowing employees to take ownership of the job. Employees in this case will always feel that they are part of the organization where they are working unlike when the vice versa is carried out.The graph below shows the relationship between leadership styles and management control. It also includes the relationship between leadership styles and employee control.
(Newstrom, 1997)This graph helps to clearly explain these relationships in a visual manner. Leadership styles; retrieved from; www.leadershipletters.com Accessed on 20-08-07The graph shows that when the autocratic style of leadership is used, there is used, there is high management control compared to employee control.
In the participative leadership, the employee control takes half the percentage while management control also takes half of the control. In the free reign style of leadership, there is high employee control in decision making. On the other hand, there is no management control or if it exists it is normally on a very minimal basis. This graph therefore gives a clear picture of the relationships between these leadership styles and employee and management control.
There is also the paternalistic style of leadership that is illustrated though this paper is not tackling this style of leadership. (Newstrom, 1997)According to the survey carried out, Dr Victoria Pettis uses delegative style of leadership. This is used in Hillsman Middle school. When asked whether she entrusts tasks to other members or she does it herself, she says that she entrusts tasks to other members in the school.
This shows that she incorporates delegation type of leadership. The survey research shows that Terry Grant also uses delegative type of leadership. This is evident from the answers given by this fleet manager. (Newstrom, 1997) She understands that one delegates then it doesn’t mean that he or she has given up control.
She concurs that in order to enhance time management then delegating tasks and responsibilities is very important. She understands the importance of teaching employees how to do various tasks in an organization. This fleet manager understands that delegation is a long term investment. (Newstrom, 1997)5.
0 ConclusionLeadership is a very important aspect in any organization. This is because it greatly determines the success therein. There are various leadership styles that can be incorporated in overall running of an organization. There is authoritarian leadership which involves telling the employees what needs to be done and how the task should be done.
This is very effective when employees are still new in an organization and they have no experience. In participative leadership, employees or other stakeholders are incorporated in the decision making process. It is normally very effective and makes employees to feel important in an organization. In delegative style of leadership, a leader entrusts decision making to employees.
This is effective when employees have experience and are qualified. Good leadership always incorporates some authoritarian, participative and delegative style of leadership. 6.0 References:Davis, L.
; Head Counsellor; Hilsman Middle School; 706 548 7281Grant, T.; Former Fleet Manager; 404 516 0525Leadership styles; retrieved from; www.leadershipletters.com Accessed on 20-08-07Leadership styles; retrieved from; personality100.
com; accessed on 20-08-07Luciano, P.; Social Studies Content Leader; Bethune Middle School770 354 3352Maundy, L. (2001): An Introduction to Human to Human Resource Management: TheoryAnd Practice: Macmillan, PalgraveNewstrom, W. (1997): Organizational Behavior; Human Behavior at Work; New York: McGraw-HillPettis, V.
; Assistant Principal; Hilsman Middle School; 706 548 7281 ext. 29202Sparrow, P. and Hilltop, J. (1998): European Human Resource Management inTransition: Prentice Hall, New YorkThomson, C.
and Rampton, L. (2003): Human Resource Management. Melbourne press, NewYorkKotter, J. (2000): A Force for Change; How Leadership Differs From Management; the FreePress