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Disseratation on Energy Performance Certificates (EPC’s)

Energy

Greenhouse effect

Words: 10943 (44 pages)

Abstract This dissertation considers the government’s recent implementation of the Energy Performance Certificates (EPC’s) and its impact on the rental property market. A critical review of literature is included in chapter 2 of the dissertation. The review is structured into 11 different sections including; Introduction Climate change Conventions and Protocols European Climate Change Programme Stern…

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What is Climate Change

Climate can be defined as the average of all-weather events at a location over a long period of time. Climates has been shown to change naturally. Humans have also been able to modify environments, by clearing forests for agriculture, domesticating animals, manufacturing goods, damming rivers, and spreading waste throughout the air and seas and across the land. All of these different factors have played a part in why climate goes through its changes. Due to climate change, infectious diseases that are transmitted by insect vectors were able to spread around different parts of the world causing many injuries and long-term health issues.

Changes in temperature, rainfall and humidity levels allow vectors like mosquitoes to migrate, bringing infectious diseases along with them. Malaria is one of the deadliest vector borne diseases, killing thousands of people. The development of malaria parasite ceases when temperature exceeds 33°–39 °C. Second, rising temperature can influence the reproduction and extrinsic incubation period (EIP) of pathogens.

However, unusual precipitation after a long drought can result in an increase of pathogens, causing a disease outbreak. Humidity change also impacts the pathogens of infectious diseases. As temperature continues to rise, the insects in low-latitude regions may find new habitats in mid- or high-latitude regions and in areas of high altitude. Adult Anopheline, vector of malaria, reproduce in small natural ponds of clean water; droughts may limit the quantity and quality of breeding sites for these mosquitoes, resulting in reduction in vector population and disease transmission.

Climate change will continue to affect the health risk for human infectious diseases, limiting some disease transmission but creating opportunities for others. There is widespread concern about the potential impact of global climate change on the distribution and burden of these and other infectious threats in the developing world. Change of Climate is something that is inevitable, its something that will always occur. Humans have to be more responsible and their actions to adjust this issue. Public health actions, preparedness can protect people from the effects of climate change. Another example would be international travelers will take more precautions. Better preventions, detections and responses will be required by organizations and states as infectious diseases spread to new areas.

To portray the impact of climate change on a more worldwide scale, the World Health Organization (WHO) has discharged information with respect to the assessed consequences for wellbeing of civilians as of the year 2000. What is promptly evident from this information is that creating districts of the world have been excessively influenced by climate change with respect to created locales. This lopsidedness remains as an unmistakable difference to the awkwardness in ozone depleting substance outflows, which are for the most part owing to created nations, for example, the United States, and nations with quickly creating economies, for example, China and India.

Causes of Climate Change

Throughout time, seasons have begun to become more intense with colder winters and hotter summers. Many may agree that climate change is the cause of it at a more rapid pace and with negative effects, as climate change can be considered natural and has been happening since the beginning of time. So many things can be done to try and solve this issue but so little has been actually done. I believe that this issue should be attacked from a business standpoint. Little things like switching from plastic to recycled paper/plastic at the grocery store can make a huge impact that can ultimately lower the amount of factories making plastic or the amount of it being made as plastic pollution is one of the major issues that is very harmful to the environment.

As stated previously, Climate Change is nothing new in society as “ global and regional climates have been changing since Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago”(Gilman 200) but the problem associated with climate change is what’s new. The issue is the rate that climate change is going at, with many different affects all over the world but why is this actually happening and it’s because of human activity. Levels of atmospheric concentration of CO2 has grown over a third since the mid 1700’s as well as the global average surface-air temperature advancing by 1.3 degrees Farenheit because of human activities (Gilman 200).

Plastic is made from fossil fuels like oil and natural gas and these are the things that are being emitted into the air during production causing problems like sudden wildfires in the west coast and and rising sea levels which leads to flooding. According to Nicholas Kristof in his article “ The Greatest Hoax Striked Florida” he says,” Flooding actually causes more hurricane deaths than wind, and climate change amplifies flooding…” So the biggest question is with all of this knowledge why aren’t people putting their foot down to try and stop this issue, especially business owners. Surprisingly enough, even with all these disasters that take place there are still parts of society that don’t believe that climate change is the problem today and is in fact real.

Leah Stokes says, “ For a long time, we assumed that climate policy was stalled because it was a problem for the future” and because of that not enough is being done to prevent this issue from escalating to a much greater complication. Many of those that don’t want to acknowledge the issue are the ones contributing to it the most. So as members of all communities all over the world, we can take a stand and start to boycott businesses that are using plastic or to even try to encourage these businesses to use recycled plastic as that alone limits greenhouse gases being emitted into the air.

Issues like these should be brought into schools and work environments to really advocate for what’s going on today in the world. Just because it doesn’t make it to your social media timeline, does not mean it’s not imperative.We as people shouldn’t be scared to speak up and social media is something that really can be used and should be used to our advantage to spread the word and educate people about what’s going on.

Information like, eight million metric tons of plastic pollution is being tossed into oceans annually (Tugend) is something that people should be aware of and should not be something you have to read in newspapers that people barely read anymore in order to know but should be brought up in daily conversations or seen on all of your favorite pages. We should also be aware of the fact that this isn’t only affecting us humans that can actually protect ourselves to a certain extent but also affecting defenseless animals in such a horrid way.

Climate Change and Natural Destruction

Planet earth faces many challenges that contribute to the environment. This affects everyone from all ages because climate change is affecting our home, planet earth. The climate change and natural destruction that occur on Earth cause not only humans and animals but natural resources to suffer in a very unique way. These affects include mental, physical and emotional state being. Change happens every day whether we see it or not and the question we should be asking is, how is climate change affecting our world? Better yet, how is climate change affecting you? It is very crucial to understand the magnitude of climate change. Climate change goes way beyond just your local news weather report. There are far more details and contributions that play a key role to the climate change we see every day.

Health improvements have evolved because of climate change. Researches have shown that many individuals are more mentally stable with climate change reaching their homes. People living in colder regions have now experienced more sunlight and warm temperatures, allowing them to have less social deprivation. Since climate change has many negative outcomes in our environment, new innovative ideas are put in action.

Strategies on how to improve and innovate the environment around us are discovered. If these drastic changes had not occurred, our fine creator of solar panels would have never thought of these life changing modifications. The lack of natural resources has inspired many artistic creation in visual, written and dramatized media. Because of climate change many people have a different perspective of the world around them and want to improve it by sharing their inner thoughts. There is a more personal and emotional effect that makes people want a better change in their environment. Once their artistic ideas are shared, others combine their suggestions and create powerful resources that help improve the world we live in. These ideas have a powerful impact for generations to come.

Impact of Climate Change

Humans have a significant environmental impact on the world that we live both positively and negatively. There is much research and discussion regarding climate change in our world today. Countries have worked together to implement and sign agreements to try and counter the impact of the human effect on climate change.

Media outlets focus stories on how humans and our consumption negatively impacts the environment, depleting the ozone layer, and causing the climate to change. It is interesting however to consider how the change in climate impacts the carrying capacity on our planet earth. The impact of climate change affects underdeveloped nations more harshly than developed ones, it can cause people to abandon their land and change their careers, and it decreases human security which could lead to violent conflict.

Climate change impacts the underdeveloped countries heavily. There are many environmental events that occur which certain countries are not able to overcome. There have been many stories in the news where countries were basically destroyed by strong hurricanes. While wealthy countries like the United States have the resources to rebuild, citizens of lesser developed countries may be forced to abandon their homes and migrate to another part of the country or another country altogether.

It is even more disturbing that the people who live in poorer countries are most likely not even contributing significantly to climate change, yet are forced out of their homes and communities. These countries are not capable of handling the climate change disasters which results in the migration to a safer environment. Additionally, women and children are especially affected negatively by climate change. When women depend on natural resources for their livelihoods and they are not available, it makes the living situations more difficult. Some main reasons why the people of underdeveloped countries are moving to developed countries is because they are in the search of new jobs, shelter, food and water.

As previously stated, climate change affects peoples’ living spaces. The ozone layer, which protects the earth from the sun, has depleted which has caused temperatures to rise. The rise in temperatures have sped up the melting of glaciers and ice caps causing the sea level to rise. Those who live near the coast in various parts of the world are forced to leave. One current example of migration due to climate change occured in the Pacific Islands. The rising sea level has already engulfed eight islands, and continues to flood the remaining ones. The warming of oceans and seas has also made coastal storms more damaging.

Fish migration patterns have changed leaving certain areas scarce with food and the rising sea level has eliminated once fertile lands that were once farmed. The migration to another country results in the loss of jobs for those who are migrating. Climate change forces families from their homes and can force many people into poverty. If a large number of people migrate, the destination of these people can be impacted as well. These destinations may not have enough food, shelter, or healthcare to support the influx of people.

The underlying result of the effects of climate change is a basic lack of human security. This insecurity can escalate to violent conflict which can also negatively impact the carrying capacity in certain parts of the world. When people are unable to provide for their most basic needs for survival and a government is unable to help, these individuals become desperate. It has been discovered that one common reason why people join armed groups is because they are seeking a better life and improved social status.

This is especially true of young men. Again, this is more likely to occur in underdeveloped nations where the government does not have the resources to help their people. The risk of violent conflict would likely increase within groups with large socio-economic disparity. While the effects of climate change are not the sole factor in this imbalance, it can have a significant impact. Areas of violent conflict can cause migration of the citizens who want to avoid the destruction and danger.

While some of the effects of climate change on our world are obvious, such as the change in weather patterns, the increased storm intensity, rising sea levels, these are physical effects that lower the resources of the impacted parts of the world for human survival. The wealth of a nation and that nation’s ability to provide for its citizens also play a role in carrying capacity. Additionally, desperation of people lacking the essentials to survive, may cause violent conflict. All of this results in the likelihood that people will migrate to find a better life. Their new communities may not be prepared to host the influx of people straining the resources available to those who most need them.

Conclusion

Finally, accepting the effects of climate change bears no harm. Understanding that climate change is a matter of concern and trying to fix it would encourage close cooperation between countries and international societies, encouraging the sharing of resources, knowledge and technological advances. This would result in better relations within countries, and financial resources could be shared to relieve countries and societies of poverty. Consequently, societies will get to enjoy better infrastructure and will be able to educate themselves on the impact of climate change and how to effectively counter it.

In conclusion, it is ironic how almost everybody contributes towards the greenhouse effect, but only some understand the true severity of its impact and change in climate it causes. Therefore, we often face the arguments and debates about whether it is something one should be concerned about or not. What is crucial for one’s knowledge is that even if everybody in the future agrees with the existence of the adversities of climate change, taking correct and required actions then may not be enough as a lot of the damage has already been done.

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