Ethical dilemma As is known to us, the moral dilemma in the usual case refers to the two answers, which you are likely to decide on the case, you need to make a difficult choice; usually this option is to focus on the choice between the result and process, which is more important at all.
In our normal lives, there are a lot of issues which we need to adopt an different attitude to face, even should do, however sometimes, we are unable to determine, especially in the areas of morality, the choice is really difficult for itself to judge right or wrong, on the hand, you can say these two options are right if both of them are beneficial to people in different situations, on the other hand it can also be said that both of the two options are wrong because the choice we made will make people feel confused, and moral tools of human behavior, and so had to say it a little ironic feeling.
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Also morality is a social ideology, after many years living out of the correct value orientation. Sometimes people will be confused, I think this confusion is mainly caused by two aspects, one is process-oriented, and the other is a results-oriented. Let me illustrate: The first case I want to tell is as follows.
A train was fast moving, the driver in the cab of the train was drinking a leisurely cup of coffee, at this moment, he suddenly found that five people were working on the front of the train, but the safety alarms didn’t work, he forced brakes, but the brakes did not work either, a high-speed train was closing to the five people, but the five didn’t know what would happen to them.
At this time the driver found a fork in front of train, unfortunately a person standing on the fork of the road. Train was still running at a high speed, is it heading to the five people as usual? Or the one person was killed in the fork steering fork? Choose between five people or only one person, if you are the driver, which one do you choose?
For this particular scene, I think most of the people will choose the answer which killed that one person instead of five , that is turned to the fork in the road, after all the amount of five person are digger than one person, the five person were survive, in the result, one person become the finally victim in this accident, although the hapless person did not know why he become the unlucky one, but if the driver do not choose turn to the other way, what will happen is that he use the expense of five human lives to save a human life, apparently, the five person survive is correct.
This only concerned with the ethical principles of the results, and I called consequentialism, after all, five human lives are greater than a human life. The second case changes to another scene, but they are very similar. A train at a high speed, at the beginning is exactly the same, but this time, the road doesn’t have a fork, but still have five person in front of the train, at this time, if you are not the driver of the train, you’re just a passer who stand in the side of the road, a very fat man is next to you, if you push the fat man onto the road, his weight can make the train stop, in the result the fat person will die.
In the meanwhile, you need to make a decision immediately, what will you do? Push the fat man in front of the train to make it stop although he will lose his life, or turn a blind eye to the train crashed on the five people? If we use the first scene concluded, our choice is certainly to push the fat guy, the expense of a human life, it can save that five human lives, so the result is same, but we imagine this fat man is your best friend, are you still choose to push him to the road?
The same result is to sacrifice one person and save five people lives, but the second situation will feel something inappropriate and difficult, why? I call the second case is process doctrine. That is mean we will not only focus on the results, but also focusing on the process, if we do not want results that our behavior is not right, this practice is not ethical.
This process doctrine is that our behavior itself is wrong, whatever the outcome is good or bad, are not correct. The fat man is innocent, we cannot aim at saving more lives and victimizes a good man, so in the second case, we are use process-oriented, and then the five person lives are gone. It’s not make people shocked? In those two cases, choose to sacrifice one person so as to save the other five people, the results are the same, but the process is different.
At this time there will be two kinds of behaviorism, result and process, they cannot be confused with, that is to say we cannot because of the interest of the majority, on the contrast ignoring the few the interests of the people, because this practice is immoral, two types of behavior can not be superpose , they exist independently. In fact these two things can be said to be one thing, but different choices will lead to the opposite results, use this thinking, let’s look at another case, may make two choices become more obvious.
Imagine that you are a doctor, you need to take care of six people who get injured in the traffic accident, In the same time there is a people get more serious injury was sent to the hospital, the other five people were injured are lighter, if you spent all the time on the five injured people were sent in former, the result is the five people’s lives will be saved successfully, In the result, just as an old going says that, you cannot have your cake and eat it too, the other person is going to die.
On the contrast, if you spent all of the time on the more serious people who was sent latter, then this serious condition person will get the treatment well, that is to say the state of an illness will be recovered, but the other five people will going to die, because of the rescue is not prompt. Now you must to make decide, would you choose to save the five people’s lives? Or decide to save another people’s life?
I think most people would choose to give up the more serious people, and decide to save another five people’s life; this is a moral to help us make the choice. However, If the five people has a body organ injury, transplant by the line, but you cannot find the organ you need , at this moment, there is a healthy boy stay in the next room of the sickroom , quiet lying in bed, in order to save the five people’s life, are you will remove the organs from this young man?
So you will be able to save the five people’s lives, perhaps this problem does not need to ask, we already know the answer. Everyone should know that the process doctrine tells us to do so is very immoral, we cannot kill an innocent life, it is so immoral for us to do it, whether saved many lives are immoral this case tells us that no matter how the results, the act itself is immoral is wrong. This is how we can probably come to the conclusion that our behavior selection is correct, we need to look at two spects, one is results, the other one is a process, if you just look at the results, do not concern about the process, this is something that can be called unscrupulous talk, the results may appear that the idea is right, but things will get worse. When we reduced a few people interests in order to increase the interests of the majority, then we are choosing the consequentialism. Consequentialism and process doctrine, in different circumstances have different meaning to us, but which is the most appropriate under certain given circumstance?
At present, this is really a problem that we need to solve that something about the moral dilemma. There is no doubt that, the doctrine has its own advantages and its own disadvantages, either. if let me be do a comparison, I am likely to choose the process doctrine, although the result may be wrong in the final, but the process did not violate ethics, our aim should be good at the beginning, sacrificed part, but the moral effective protection, which is a must advocated performance, remember that no matter what the results will happen, if the process is immoral, our result is the violation of morality.
The question I talk about above is the same as our exams, grades are really something important for most students, forced by this expectation, and many students try to cheat during the exam to get higher . They always think that the mark more important than the self-understanding from the exam. If you cheat and copy, you will never know what knowledge you have know well and what things you need to consolidate and enhance, do you just want the exam to get a higher score to select the results doctrine? Not really find a reason? This causes we encounter more and more problems in the afterlife.
Sometimes when our moral theory to examine these things we “take for granted” for granted “, will make us feel in the past the normal things become abnormal, make us feel “take for granted” for granted “slowly fades, this is not a moral theory provides us with new information, this guide we went to a new perspective or way to think about these issues, moral theory which will enable us to make some changes, we have the familiar things, ways of doing things, the judgment on the behavior not the same, familiar things become unfamiliar, it is never the same and did not.
But we have to face such a situation, so we live in choice behavior change, the change here is very important, we change to make the results are our real life, so moral theory on the growth of life is very important. Make sure we are in the right direction, so the road to success. In my opinion, process is more important than a result.
A process means that we have devoted our energy and time even money to the work; we don’t feel sorry for ourselves although a result is not gained. We can control our work, our time or even our money, which makes up the process. What the matter is, we can learn many things in the process and enjoy ourselves in the meanwhile.