EVENTS OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENTI. IntroductionA. Why it beganB. What happened II. Emmett TillA. Said “Bye-Baby” to white womanB. White woman brother and husband kill EmmettC. Both men found not guilty of their crimesIII. Little Rock NineA. Gov. Faubus denies entryB. Pres. Eisenhower ordered troops to integrate Central High SchoolC. Ernest Green first black graduate of Central HighIV. James MeredithA. Denied by the University of Mississippi after being acceptedB. Pres. Kennedy ordered troops to escort Meredith to campusC. Meredith graduates two years laterV.
COFO MembersA. Arrested on false charges of speedingB. Murdered by the KKKC. Pres. Johnson had FBI investigateD. A few men were charged with charges of violating civil rightsVI. ConclusionA. Not able to share all B. Hope you liked it———————————Events of the Civil Rights MovementThe United States Civil Rights Movement of the 1960’s was the centerfold of the1900’s. The Movement came about because not all Americans were being treated fairly. Ingeneral white Americans were treated better than any other American people, especially blackpeople.
There were many events of the Civil Rights Movement some dealt with black peoplenot getting a fair education. Some events came about because people were advocating thatpeople should be able to practice their American rights. The term paper that you are about toread is composed of events that occurred as apart of the Civil Rights Movements. The eventsare all in chronological order with the brutal murder of Emmett Till first in order. After that is thestory of Arkansas’ Central High School’s integration. Keeping with the idea of equal education,you will be able read how the University of Mississippi was integrated by James Meredith withthe assistance of the U.S. Government. Lastly you will see the power the Ku Klux Klan had inthe deep South, especially Mississippi, with the murder of three members of the Council ofFederated Organizations (COFO). These events are just a glimpse of what the Civil RightsMovement truly was. Now here is the strory of young Emmett Till.
Emmett TillNot knowing the customs of Mississippi was the downfall for young Emmett Till. Whilevisiting family near Money, Mississippi, Emmett Till, age 14, was murdered. Emmett grew up onChicago’s South side, where he was a fun loving child with a bit of a smart mouth. Living inChicago, Emmett knew of segregation but had white play mates. On one occasion he hadshowed his cousins a picture of a white girl and had told them that she was his girl. His friendswere some what impressed and had dared Emmett to speak to a white woman who was insideof the store, that they were standing in front of. Emmett went in and bought some candy and ashe left, he said to the woman, “Bye-baby.” That would be the biggest mistake of his life. Whenthe woman’s husband got back from out of town, there was trouble for Emmett. The woman’shusband, Roy Bryant, and her brother, J.W. Milam, paid a visit to the cabin of Mose Wright,Emmett’s grandfather. The white men did not listen to Mose Wrights suggestion that sinceEmmett was not from Mississippi, that they may just whip him. Instead, the men kidnappedEmmett and took him to the Tallahatchie River. When they got to the River, they made himcarry a 75 pound cotton gin fan to the river bank. The men ordered Emmett to strip, then theybeat him and gouged his eye out. After that, they shot him in the head and then threw his bodyinto the river. When his body was discovered, he was so badly mangled that his grandfatherwas only able to recognize Emmett by the ring that he wore, which bore his father’s initials. Theauthorities of Mississippi wanted Emmett’s body buried quickly in Mississippi, so that the newswould just stay in Mississippi. Emmett’s mother (Mamie Bradley) did not want her son’s bodyburied in the land that let his killers go free. Emmett’s body was shipped to Chicago, where hisfuneral was held. Emmett’s funeral was attended by thousands, at which his mother left thecasket open. A picture of Emmett’s distended corpse was published in Jet magazine. MamieBradley decided to have the funeral delayed because she wanted the world to see what “thoseanimals that call themselves men” had done to her son. In less than two weeks after the body ofEmmett was buried his murderers were put on trial in a segregated court room. The two wereacquitted of murder, because the jury claimed the state failed to identify the body. Blacks inother states saw Mississippi as the ultimate symbol of white supremacy for the ignoring themurder of black children. The public’s reaction was further fueled when Milam and Bryant werenot indicted on charges of kidnapping. Till’s murder is seen as an engine for the Civil RightsMovement, since it affected adolescents that were apart of the movement. Mamie Bradleylectured around the country calling herself a “nobody” and her son ” a little nobody that shook upthe world”. She used to believe that the business of blacks in the South was their own business,but then saw that it was everyone’s business. The murder of Emmett Till gave the first spark tothe civil rights movement. A few months later Mrs. Rosa Parks did not give up her seat.
Little Rock NineOn September 25, 1957, Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus was pushed to the side byPresident Dwight Eisenhower. Eisenhower, ordered federal troops to integrate Central HighSchool. Nine black students desegrated Central High School, after weeks of being turned awayby Governor Faubus and a mob of white people. The mob of nearly a thousand had threatenedto enter the school and lynch the black students a few days before the president had orderedtroops to let the students enter the school. September 3rd was the first day of school. DaisyBates, the president of Arkansas’ NAACP, escorted eight of the nine students to school. Elizabeth Eckford the student that Mrs. Bates was not able to pick up, was met by a mob andnational guardsmen who would not let her into the school. The guardsmen left her to the mobwho threatened her and spat on her. Elizabeth was able to get away from the crowd when anice white woman helped her get onto a bus. The other eight students who rode to school withMrs. Bates, also were turned away by the national guards. The students continued to try toenter the school, but each time they were turned away. On September 23rd, the nine were ableto sneak into the school and later left when being threatened with being lynched. Melba Pattillo,one of the students, remembers the day. She remembers that they were put into a car in thebasement of the school, and a police officer escorted them out. As they left they were told toput their heads down so that the mob of people would not be able to see them. The studentscould see hands going over the windows of the car as the car went through the crowd. Afterthat incident Mrs. Bates said the students would not be back until there is assurance from thepresident that the students will not be abused. Two days later the students were escorted bymore than a thousand paratroopers form the U.S. Army’s Airborne Division. That was the firsttime in eighty-one years that a president had placed American troops in the South to defend theconstitutional rights of blacks. The first year of integration at Central High School ended on May27, 1958, with the graduation of Ernest Green, the first black graduate of Central High School.
James MeredethSegregation at the University of Mississippi “Ole Miss” ended on September 30, 1962when James Meredith was escorted onto the campus of the University of Mississippi. TheUniversity of Mississippi was a quality university that was one of the best in the South but onlyfor whites. The university was not integrated with the slightest of ease at all. James Meredithbefore he had applied for admissions into the university severed on the U.S. Airforce for nineyears. Also James attended Jackson State University from which he wanted to transfer. Jameswas accepted into Ole Miss when he applied because he did not fill in the race section of theapplication thinking that it was irrelevant. When the University found out that he was black hisapplication was nullified, James sued the University and won in the 5th U.S. Circuit Court, withthe help of Thurgood Marshall. On September 3, 1962 President John F. Kennedy orderedthat the University of Mississippi be integrated. On September 30, 1962, arrived 123 deputymarshals, 316 border patrolmen, and 97 federal prison guards who stood in front of theUniversity. There was a mob of white people in front of the administration building expectingMeredith to enroll there. Instead Meredith was secretly taken to his dorm room. The presidenthad reserved backup enforcement but they were not able to make it to the University to stop theriot that broke out upon James arrival. Meredith was protected by twenty-four federal agentsfor about two weeks to ensure his safety. Two years later in 1963 James Meredith gratitudefrom the University of Mississippi.
COFO MembersMany activist of the Civil Rights Movement were harassed, beaten, and even killed. This was no different for three members of the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO). James Chaney, Andrew Goodman, and Michael Schwerner were members of COFO whodecided to go to Mississippi for the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project. The members of thesummer Project were not appreciated by the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. The WhiteKnights lived in the area in which COFO concentrated most of their operations. MichaelSchwerner really was not liked by the White Knights. Since, Schwerner was a Jew from NewYork he was seen as a target for the White Knights. The White Knights referred to him as a”Nigger loving agitator.” Knowing the dangers of their trips, on June 20, 1964, Chaney,Goodman, and Schwerner set out for Philadelphia, Mississippi. The three went there to checkout the remains of the Mt. Zion Baptist Church, which had been bombed by the White Knights. After leaving the church the three were arrested upon fabricated charges of speeding by DeputySheriff Cecil Price. While they were in jail a Klan pick team was formed. The three werereleased and were never seen alive again. Hours after the three were missing, COFO confirmedthe three as missing, but state authorities stated as a hoax. When news of the three reached theWhite House, President Johnson stated their disappearances as kidnappings. Soon afterPresident Johnson sent J. Edgar Hoover to Philadelphia, Mississippi to search for the missingmembers of COFO. In just one day they found the members car which had been badly burned. When Hoover saw the car he called the president and confirmed the three as dead. As a part ofthe FBI investigation, FBI agents acted as members of the White Knights and were able tolocate where the COFO members were buried. Twenty-one men, including Deputy Price werearrested. the FBI was able to put what happened the night the three disappeared together. Thethree left the jail and were forced over, on the highway, by Deputy Price along with two otherWhite Knight members. Price approached the car of the COFO members and ordered theminto his patrol car. Then they were taken to a secluded part of the woods. One of the Klanmembers dragged Michael Schwerner from the car and asked him, “Are you that Niggerlover?”, then shot him. Andrew Goodman was dragged from the car and was shot. One of themen yelled “Hey save one for me!” Chaney was dragged from the car and was shot. Thegunman said “You didn’t leave me anything but a Nigger but at least I killed me a Nigger.” Thestate of Mississippi refused to bring up indictments but the federal government did. Most of themen were found not guilty but some of them were convicted of depriving the three men of theCivil Rights.
There were many events that occurred during the Civil Rights Movement that I was notable to make apart of my paper. Like the story of the “Four Little Girls” who were killed in anAlabama church bombing. Also, I was not able to include the power that sit-ins had in theimpact of the Movement. I wanted to inform you on the story of the Freedom Riders and howthey rode through the South demanding equality. Also, I wanted to include how they wereallowed by the police chief to be beaten for about fifteen minutes in Anniston, Alabama. Furthermore, I was not able to mention the end of “separate but equal” with the U.S. SupremeCourt’s decision on the case Brown vs. Board of Education. Inclusion to this paper I hope thatyou have enhanced your knowledge of the Civil Rights Movement.
——————————-RESOURCES: Events of the Civil Rights MovementBooksJohnson, Jacqueline. Stokely Carmichael: The Story of Black Power. Silver Burdett Press, Inc., a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1990.
Hornsby and Straub. African American Chronology. Volume I: 1492-1972. Gale Research International Limited., Detroit, Michigan, 1994.
The Editors of Ebony. Ebony Pictorial History of Black America. Volume III: Civil Rights Movement to Black Revolution. Johnson Publishing Company, Inc., Chicago, Illinios, 1974.
Television Program”The Ku Klux Klan: A Secret History.” Narr. ?. Writ. and Prod.?. History Channel, March 11, 2000.
InternetLythgoe, Dennis. Desert News, February 26, 1997. Address: http://members.aol.com/deverysa/index.html.
Host of writers. http://cr.virtualscholar.com/cr10.htm
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