Evolution as a fact and a theory Essay
Theory is popularly defined as imperfect fact that is part of a hierarchy of confidence running down hill from fact to theory to hypothesis to guess - Evolution as a fact and a theory Essay introduction. Scientifically we can define theory as structures of ideas that explain and interpret facts, these ideas or an explanation are less than a fact and lacks evidence and cannot be believed in the world of science, that is scientists have no confidence in them.
Evolution is a gradual process in which living forms like breeds of cats or even apes change with time into a different and usually more complex and better form .when Gould asserts that evolution is a fact he means that evolution as a fact cannot fade away just like most theories but it provides a foundation for scientists and theorist of debating rival theories to explain it. For instance human beings evolved from apelike ancestors whether they did so by Darwin’s proposed mechanism or by some other theories yet to be discovered it is a fact.
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Scientific creationism is a complete believe in ideas that greatly contradict the mode of main stream evolution mode of science. Scientific creationism is not scientific in several ways as highlighted below. To start with it asserts that the universe and everything in it were created by a supernatural power through a supernatural process, and the creation occurred simultaneously ten thousand years ago. unlike the scientific model of evolution, scientific creationism states that since creation the universe is virtually static; that is it does not change even today, although living things like breeds of dogs or diverse members of the horse family for instance may undergo slight change within its kind of organisms however no kinds give rise to other kinds because they were all created separately, hence there is no evolution of new species. Scientific creationism further asserts that titanic changed occurred within a very short period, the data collected and documented by the geological and fossils department contains events that occurred ten thousands years ago because of a single major worldwide catastrophe, that is the primeval watering cataclysm also know as the Noah floods. (Gould S. J. 1981)
There are three arguments for the fact of evolution; 1. There is abundant, direct, observational evidence of evolution in action, from both field and laboratory:-this argument(evidence) is supported by the massive experiments done on how fruit flies changed when subjected t artificial selection in the laboratory. In addition this argument is supported by the fact that the popular British moths become black when industrial soot darkened the trees upon which the moth rest. Surprisingly, creationists are obliged to affirm this observation but in the process of backing up their act, they claim that God only created basic kinds and allowed only limited evolutionary to spread within them. For example toy poodles and great Danes come from the dog kind and moth can change color, however nature cannot change a dog to become a cat or a monkey to become a man. 2. The imperfection of nature reveals evolution- Many people view this argument as ironical because they feel that evolution should be clearly and smartly displayed in the crossly perfect adaptation seen in some organisms. For instance the camber of the gulls wing, or butterflies that are hardly seen in ground little because they resemble tree leaves very precisely, but perfection covers the steps of past history and evolves by natural selection which is the evidence of descent as well as the mark of evolution .A history of descent is recorded by imperfection which plays the role of exposing evolution, this is evidenced by some questions about some facts like why should a rat run, a bat fly and a porpoise swim, why should all the large mammals of Australia be marsupials, unless they descended from a common ancestor isolated on this island continent. Marsupials are not better or ideally suited for Australia. This principal of imperfection extends to all historical sciences(Gould S. J. 1981)
3.Transitions are often found in the fossils record-In the fossils records it is where you can find transition but preserved transitions are rare(uncommon) although they should not be according to understanding of evolution but they are not entirely wanting as creationist often claim. For instance reptile’s lower jaw contains several bones; the lower jaw of a mammal consists of only one bone. The non-mammalian jawbone is reduced step by step in mammalian ancestor until they become tiny nubbins located at the back of the jaw. The hammer and the anvil bones of the mammalian ear are descendants of these nubbins. Another excellent example of transitional form is the oldest man Australopithecus afarensis with its apelike palate. Its human upright stance and a cranial capacity larger that that of an ape of the same body size but a full one thousand cubic centimeters below ours.
Gould’s and Eldredges theory of punctuated equilibrium have been used against them by the scientific creationist in various ways. The theory states that there are two outstanding facts of the fossils record; that is the sudden rise of new species and the failure to change there after (stasis) does not reflect the imperfection of the fossils record. They further argue that pervasive trends in the fossils record cannot be attributed to gradual transformation within lineages but must arise from the differential success of certain kinds of species, this argument lacks any scientific evidence hence scientific creationist have used it to down play this theory. Gould’s and partner further claims that fossils records does not have any transitional forms, they contradicts themselves by claiming that transitional forms are many between large groups, this double speak equips creationist with ideas to question the validity of this theory which has neither basis noe evidence at all .Harvard scientist confirmed this when they asserted that what Gould and Eldredge are forcing Darwin’s is what is in the bible. Additional criticism were echoed by scientific creationist who claimed that the theory of punctuated equilibrium is similar to the believes of Richard Goldschmidt, a great early geneticists, other creationists like Luther Sunderland compares this theory to a hopeful monster theory that admits that creationist are correct in arguing there is no fossils evidence supporting the theory that all life is connected t o a common ancestor.(Gould S. J. 1981)
Gould S.J. (1981). Evolution as a fact and a theory .W.W. Norton and company Inc.