Example of related literature and studies Essay

The previous chapter is all about the framework of the study - Example of related literature and studies Essay introduction. How the study was made possible and up to where the study bounds to are the points of the first chapter. This chapter presents survey of related literature and writing of recognized experts both of which have significant bearing or relation to the problem under investigation. The review focuses on the different materials that are needed on the solution of the study, what are the following points why these materials are necessary for the study.

The chapter begins with the introduction of the different materials primarily needed to make the study successful, followed by the history or methodology used by people from ages in making facial masks, and ended by different studies related or to be referred at by the researcher. Materials for the Research The main material of the study is Banana (Musa acuminata). It is an edible fruit produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plant in the genus Musa.

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The fruit is variable in size, colour, and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft fleshy rich in starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple or brown when ripe. Banana is one of the most popular fruit eaten by the whole world. Not because of its cost and agricultural plantation but because of its benefits. Vitamin A present in banana is the component of it that acts as a natural moisturizer. According to an article “19 Amazing Benefits and Uses of Banana for Skin and Hair” (Aparajita, Stylecraze. com, 2010), Banana fruit has nutrients that are essential for the skin.

They contain significant amounts of vitamin C and B6 which plays vital role in maintaining the integrity and elasticity of the skin. In addition, the large amount of antioxidants and manganese present in banana protect the body from damage caused by oxygen free radicals which lead to premature aging of the skin. So a major benefit from banana is younger looking skin. Banana has about 75 per cent water by weight in it. Thus banana helps hydrate your skin and prevents it from drying and peeling. Aparajita’s article also discusses about the anti-aging power of banana’s moisture.

“Nutrients in banana help in fighting wrinkles and keep the skin youthful. For an anti-aging facial mask loaded with vitamins A and E, mash together an avocado and a banana. Leave on skin for 25 minutes and rinse. Skin will be soft and youthful. The vitamins E in avocados combined with the nutrients in bananas fight free radicals and repair damage. ” However, banana’s moisturizing effect is not enough for the study to last and be more effective. Acne is the problem of the study, a natural cure is needed. Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.

The variety produced by honey bees is the most commonly referred to as it is the type of honey collected by most beekeepers and consumed by humans. (Wikipedia. com) “Honey can do wonders for your skin, no wonder you will find so many skin-care products in the market containing honey. Honey acts as an anti-aging agent, and moisturizer. Additionally, it contains anti-microbial properties and natural antioxidants which help to protect the skin from sun rays and facilitates the skin’s ability to rejuvenate and refresh exhausted looking skin, thus leaving it soft and silky.

Honey also has the ability to absorb and retain moisture and this helps in keeping the skin well hydrated, fresh and supple. It is known that ancient women used honey and milk to keep the skin youthful, radiant, and smooth. ”(stylecraze. com, 2011) Honey is a natural exfoliator that can clear blackheads with regular use. Acne can be also treated by honey with minimal and diluted solution. “Acne is a very embarrassing. Those who are bestowed with breakout of acne will definitely concur with me. Well there is hope, as honey can come to your rescue in curbing this problem.

Honey plays an imperative role in treatment of acne. Acne is caused by the build up of oil and dirt and since honey absorbs impurities from the pores on the skin, it is an ideal cleansing agent. Honey also is a natural antiseptic and soothes and heals your skin. Many women use honey to treat pimples. ” (stylecraze. com, 2011) Most of facial masks need milk or cream for emulsifying. But milk does not only act as emulsifier, milk has nutrients that contribute to youthful skin and moisturized face. Milk’s thickness and viscosity is not enough to make a viscous fluid or mask, instead we should make use of cream.

Cream is a dairy product that is produced of the high-butterfat layer skimmed from top of milk before homogenization. Double cream is the choice, which contains 48% of minimum milk fat that whips easily and thickest for pudding and desserts. (Wikipedia. com, 2008) According to the National Dairy Council (as of 2010), milk is filled with nine essential nutrients that benefit our health: •Calcium: Builds healthy bones and teeth; maintains bone mass •Protein: Serves as a source of energy; builds/repairs muscle tissue •Potassium: Helps maintain a healthy blood pressure

•Phosphorus: Helps strengthen bones and generate energy •Vitamin D: Helps maintain bones •Vitamin B12: Maintains healthy red blood cells and nerve tissue •Vitamin A: Maintains the immune system; helps maintain normal vision and skin •Riboflavin (B2): Converts food into energy •Niacin: Metabolizes sugars and fatty acids According to Dr. Brian Roy, milk does not only help in fitness and bone maintenance, but also in skin health and anti-aging agent. Facial mask There are different kinds of masks (e.

g. cactus, cucumber, etc. ) for different purposes: deep-cleansing, by penetrating the pores; healing acne scars or hyper-pigmentation; brightening, for a gradual illumination of the skin tone. Some masks are designed to dry or solidify on the face, almost like plaster; others just remain wet. The perceived effects of a facial mask treatment include revitalizing, healing, or refreshing; and, may yield temporary or long-term benefits (depending on environmental, dietary, and other skincare factors).

Masks are removed by either rinsing the face with water, wiping off with a damp cloth, or peeling off of the face by hand. Duration for wearing a mask varies with the type of mask, and manufacturer’s usage instructions. The time can range from a few minutes to overnight. Those with sensitive skin are advised to first test out the mask on a small portion of the skin, in order to check for any irritations. Some facial masks are not suited to frequent use. A glycolic mask can only be used once a month without the risk of burning the skin.

Masks can be found anywhere from drugstores to department stores, and can vary in consistency and form. Setting masks include: clay, which is a thicker consistency, and will draw out impurities (and sometimes, natural oils, too) from the pores; a cream, which stays damp to hydrate the skin; sheet-style, in which a paper mask is dampened with liquid to tone and moisturize the skin; and lastly, a hybrid/clay and cream form that includes small beads for removing dead surface skin cells. Non-setting facial masks include warm oil and paraffin wax masks.

These different forms are made to suit different skin types (e. g. , oily or dry), and different skincare goals or needs (e. g. , moisturizing, cleansing, exfoliating). Clay and mud masks suit oily and some “combination” skin types, while cream-based masks tend to suit dry and sensitive skin types. Homemade skin treatments aren’t a new idea. Thousands of years before commercial products were available, ancient Egyptians made powders, ointments and lotions by combining plant extracts with natural oils (Slapak, 2004).

In China, a combination of ground orange seeds and honey was used to help keep skin clear (National Honey Board). And in the 2nd century, ancient Romans combined animal fats with starches to make facial creams (Fountain). Egyptians used cosmetics regardless of sex and social status for both aesthetic and therapeutic reasons. Oils and unguents were rubbed into the skin to protect it from the hot air. Most frequently used were white make-up, black make-up made with carbon, lead sulphide (galena) or manganese oxide (pyrolusite) and green make-up from malachite and other copper based minerals.

Red ochre was ground and mixed with water, and applied to the lips and cheeks, painted on with a brush. Henna was used to dye the fingernails yellow and orange. Kohl was applied to the eyes with a small stick. Both upper and lower eyelids were painted and a line was added extending from the corner of the eye to the sides of the face, the eye brows were painted black. It was believed that the makeup had magical and even healing powers. Most people will have applied the make-up themselves, but for those who could afford it, there was the professional cosmetician, the zXA.

yt, the ‘face painter’ so to speak. Even after death one had to take care of one’s looks. When presenting oneself before the gods during the Judgment of the Dead one had best observe certain rules of dress and make-up in order to make the right impression: “A man says this speech when he is pure, clean, dressed in fresh clothes, shod in white sandals, painted with eye-paint, anointed with the finest oil of myrrh. ” (Chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead) Oil is the primary ingredient of every Egyptian cosmetic product.

Every King in the Dynasty of Egypt orders the finest oil from their capitol and from their workers. The King’s order addressed to the High Priest of Amen, king of gods, Ramses-nakht. The following: This royal order was brought to you with the words that I have sent (it) to you by the supervisor of the treasury of Pharaoh, l. p. h. , and the King’s butler Amenhotep, reading: Have excellent galena for the make-up of the Pharaoh, l. p. h. , taken where one (i. e. he) is, and you sent 15 deben of galena through him.

When it had been handed to the physicians in the place of physicians of Pharaoh in the residence in order to prepare it, it was found to be very bad galena and no make-up usable for Pharaoh, l. p. h. , was among it. Only a single deben of galena was found among it…. (Cairo ESP, Letter, New Kingdom) Now, modern cosmetic and facial care products are artificially prepared or made from factories. But every product may irritate your face so naturally prepared cosmetic care products are more needed and more demanding. Related Studies

According to a study of an unknown researcher from India, banana juice is nutritious but not necessary on facial treatment because it needs fermentation. Anonymous wrote: Banana is a tropical fruit, which is grown abundantly in India. It is mainly composed of soluble sugars, starch and other polysaccharides. The juice was extracted from the normal ripe fruits with the help of pectinase enzyme. Optimization of pectinase treatment was done by RSM method. Wine was prepared by using two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCIM 3283 & NCIM 3046.

The size of inoculum, effective pH, temperature, level of SO2 , level of DAP for both strains was optimized. It was found that NCIM 3046 gave better results compared to the other strain. Soluble solids (SS), pH and specific gravity decreased while titratable acidity (TA) increased with increasing length of fermentation of the juice. Sensory evaluation results showed that banana wine was acceptable in terms of flavor, taste, clarity and overall characteristics. The banana wine was generally accepted & could be popularized.

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