Expanded Comparison Matrix Paper
In this paper there are three articles that we are going to examine, the first articles is review is Transformational Leadership the structure of an organization affects leadership within the public sector. The article tries to analyse the characteristics of the public sector with regard to the obstacles it represents towards leadership that is transformational. This way it is easier to see through the effectiveness and the performance within the municipal institutions. Comparison of Literature Review
This first article analyzes the effects that organizational structure has on leadership within the public sector. The article analyzes the leadership practices of municipal chief administration officers. The study carried out by Wright and Pandey the questions are used with the ends of determining the specific structural influences in how organizations incorporates transformational leadership styles within the public sector, and why public sector organizations exhibit a high level of transformational leadership than the benefit it is given by the mainstream management literature. The study relied on data picked from data that had been previously collected by national administrative projects, with the sample being 50,000 people.
The two categories of people sampled in the study were functional managers and general managers. The theme of literature in this study is transformational leadership and how it is affected by officialdom or bureaucracy. This forms the main departure between Wright and Pandley and the other two articles because the thrust of this study is not necessarily how transformational leadership affects an organization, but rather how an organization’s structure can affect a transformational leader. Wright and Pandley conclude that their finding for transformational leadership makes a case that structural constraints in the public sector does not necessarily stand in the way of superior performance (Wright and Pandey, 2013). The conclusion thus answers the question that was subject of the research that indeed structure does not matter as many perceive it. The second article The Effect of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles on the Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Contact Personnel by Emery & Barker. The article covers job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the context of transformational elements like charisma, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration and transactional elements like contingency rewards with an emphasis on the banking and food industry.
The Emery and Baker’s article used 77 subjects, from the banking industry and another 47 drawn from a single food chain. The ideas enumerated by the article suggest that job satisfaction and commitment to delivery are more pegged on transformational leadership than on transactional leadership (Emery and Baker, 2007). To as far as this article contend that the elements of transformational leadership are more connected to job satisfaction which is reflected on the attitude of the customer contact person towards the customer then it is in agreement with all the other there articles on the importance of transformational leadership. The parallel drawn in transformational and transactional leadership forms the conclusion which is in tandem with the research question, as hypothesized and confirmed by Emery and Baker that customer contact The third article Leadership practices of school counsellors by, Mason and McMahon elaborates that the quality of a leader determines the counselling practices that a school adopts. From the onset the article contends that it is very necessary for school counsellors to be endowed with the necessary leadership skills.
The Mason and McMahon article had a sample drawn from different schools at a state counselling event, it would be important to emphasize that it was one state. The problem with this kind of sampling is that it fails to satisfy the factor of external variables as it does not take into account the outside world which are other states and it would therefore be inapplicable in other states. Mason and McMahon argue that there are no established profiles in the realm of school counsellor leadership. However, Mason and McMahon introduce transformational leadership which they say is a vital component of school counselling in these times: “transformational leadership promotes school counsellors as visionaries who engage with others in a constant practice of change and development.” (108) This idea is the commonality in all the three articles where in Wright and Pandley article they examine the place of transformational leader in some of the very bureaucratic structures of the public sector.
However it is the other article by Emery and Baker that one can draw a common thread where transformation leadership according to the two articles impact on the experience of the people that the leader is dealing with; students in the case of Mason and McMahon and customers in Emery and Baker. Though concluding that leadership in school counsellors is vital, the conclusion leaves a window that needs to be pursues through further research in regards to answering the question of whether leadership need to be inculcated in school counsellors. Conclusion and Further Research Suggestions
The three papers provide some very insightful pieces of evidence with regard to leadership styles and their influence on the success of the respective organisations. However there is need for further research, especially where selection of personnel fits in with the theoretical frameworks of leadership (Charles & Katherine, 2007). There is also a need to expand the target area where counselling and leadership are concerned as well reviewing other techniques that can be used in the research. All three of the articles provide some fundamental pointers on the impacts of leadership. 1.In which study (ies) are the themes of the literature review similar? Different? All the three studies have a similar theme which is leadership styles have on the organizational effectiveness and success, however, the Emery and Barker and Wright and Pandey seem to have been wearing the same thinking cap in terms consistence in of their construction 2.
Who (if any) are the authors that you see in common to the literature review of all three studies? Emery and Barker and Wright and Pandey like stated above has common literature review since they seem to emphasize more on the factors of transformational leadership and how it affects an organization, however, Wright and Pandley have drawn a parallel between transformational and transactional leadership 3.In which study(ies) does the data support the conclusion? The data generated by all the three studies support the conclusions 4.In which study(ies) does the conclusion answer the research question? Wright and Pendley conclude that their finding for transformational leadership makes a case that structural constraints in the public sector does not necessarily stand in the way of superior performance. 5.What questions would you ask the author(s)?
How effective would transformational leadership be in a not-for-profit company? References Charles, E, R. & Katherine, B, J. (2007). The Effect of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles on the Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Contact Personnel. Retrieved from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/27436222/effect-transactional-transformational-leadership-styles-organizational-commitment-job-satisfaction-customer-contact-personnel. Mason, E.(2013). Leadership practices of school counselors. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/1309632/Leadership_practices_of_school_counselors. The Critical Thinking Community. (2013). Defining Critical Thinking. Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766. Wright, B. E & Pandey, S. K. (2013). Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector: Does Structure Matter. Retrieved from http://jpart.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/1/75.full.