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Expanded Comparison Matrix

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    One of the most important elements as a Doctoral Student is learning how to effectively manage your time and understanding the importance of empirical research. “Learning to strategically read empirical studies can help doctoral learners manage time more effectively (GCU Lecture 2, 2012 p. 1). In this paper, one will find a complete comparison of three articles that will review the different forms of research questions posed for the studies, sample populations used, the limitations, literature review, study conclusions, and recommendations for further research.

    Article one analyzed Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector: Does Structure Matter, written by Bradley Wright and Sanjay Pandey in April of 2003. The writer’s intent concluded that followers must be flexible in order for their leader to motivate them beyond satisfaction of their job performance. According to Wright and Pandey (2003), transformational leaders essentially direct, inspire, and empower their employees. Article two analyzed the Effect of Transactional and Transformational Leadership styles on the organizational commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service (Emery and Barker November, 2007).

    The writers intent points out those transformational leaders who are charismatic provide intellectual stimulation, and individual consideration will reap benefits of having greater employee commitment and customer’s satisfaction. Article three analyzed Sex Effects in Evaluating Leaders written by Kathryn Bartol and D. Anthony Butterfield in August of 1976. The writer’s intent implies that sex, males and females roles, have an effect on evaluations of a leaders behavior. Different Forms of Research Questions

    In order to have effective research questions, one must provide exceptional facts that are obtainable through research setting that goes beyond the group that participates in the research (Creswell, 2007). There are four different types of research methods a researcher can gather. They are qualitative, quantitative mixed and critical and action research. The articles that were examined were qualitative and quantitative research. Article one identifies five hypotheses to better understand the behaviors of transformational leaders Wright and Pandey (2003).

    The authors present the results of weak communication, valuing of extrinsic reward –performance, and use of organizational performance which can affect the behavior of the transformational leader. However, article two identifies only two hypotheses to better understand the characteristics of the transformational and transactional leaders Emery and Barker (2007). The author examines the differences between transactional and transformational leadership style and its affect of customer service and employees satisfaction.

    In contrast, article three identifies three hypotheses to better understand how gender can contribute in evaluating managerial behavior and leadership styles. Article one and two research questions are specify types of leadership styles, however article three does not specify a particular style of leadership. Article three references all leadership types as a whole. Sample Populations Used A “population” consists of all the subjects you want to study.

    By correctly drawing a sample from a specific population, a researcher can analyze the sample and make inferences about population characteristics (Yount, 2006). Article one provides a sample target of 1,322 high level public administrators in municipalities exceeding 50,000 residents. Having a sample size of this amount may provide substantial data. On the other hand, article two displays sample size of 77 branch members from three regional banking organization and 47 managers from a store from one national food chain.

    In contrast, article three sample sizes consisted of 312 students in management classes from the school of business all from the school of Business Administration at the University of Massachusetts. Article one is different from article two and three in that the sample sized used was larger, therefore article one was able to obtain and full assessment. Article two and three where similar in their small sample size and was determined that more data was needed in order to have a reasonable assessment. Limitations of the Studies As a researcher it is important that one can identify the weakness of one’s tudy. Limitations are the constraints of general and utility of the findings that are the direct result in which you chose to design the study and/or the method used to establish internal and external validity (Creswell, 2007). In all three articles limitations where identified. For example, article one sample size was large, however it restricted the age of the respondents, race age by 50 years, and many of the jurisdictions only having three respondents. Article one also concluded that transformational leaders may not be the result of hierarchical organizations.

    Article two limitations sample size was too small to create a full assessment. More qualitative research needed to be considered to explore the exact reasons why transformational and transactional leadership tend to lead companies with greater customer satisfaction (Emery and Barker 2007). Article three limitations where identified as student sampling was limited to one department of the university. In addition, more males would judge more favorable than females. Article three required more data to be gathered especially from the non student population from females.

    Literature Review

    One of the most important components of research is the literature review. According to educational psychologist John Creswell, author of numerous research design texts, the literature review does several things: (1) “It shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the study being reported”; (2) “It relates a study to the larger ongoing dialogue in the literature about a topic, filling in gaps and extending prior studies”; and (3) “It provides a framework for establishing the importance of [your] study as well as a benchmark for comparing the results of a study with other findings” (Creswell 29-30).

    Article one literature review is organized by explaining definitions and then moving to related theories. In contrast ,article two and three is organized by dividing the discussion into two sections and then moving to the hypothesis. Article one and two literature review both begins with explanations of the topic of interest and provides a framework for the reader to understand the importance of the study. In contrast, article three immediately explains why there have been limited studies on its topic rather than explaining the topic of study.

    In article one and two, both have similar themes as related to transformational leadership. Both articles make referenced to Bass and Riggo. Bass and Riggo are authors of who discuss transformational leadership. In addition, article one and two both mention J. M Burns, a political scientist who discuss the well-known theories of organizational behavior in transformational leadership. On the other hand, article three does not provide a clear projection of its themes and there are no authors who are similar just as in article one and two.

    Study Conclusions In order to have a conclusion the researcher must have good research questions. The question informs the literature review, which informs the methodology, which determines the results, which yield a conclusion (GCU, lecture 7, 2012 p. 1). The conclusion of the research discusses the results and authors findings from the study and determines if the original question answered from the hypothesis We find in all three articles the authors research provided evidence to support the data provided from their initial questions of the research.

    In all three articles the questions were either supports or unsupported by the data that was collected. After reviewing all three the article there are questions one may ask the author. Such as how challenging was it to decide which research method to such as qualitative, qualitative or mixed. Another question one would ask the author is how one does knows what to include in a literature review without over representing any single methodology. In conclusion, as doctoral learner it is vital to understand empirical research in order to effectively utilizing time management as one research.

    A critical element of completing an online graduate program is being proficient in reading and researching empirical articles (GCU Lecture 2, 2012). In doing so , one will know how to identify the abstract , dissimilarities of forms of research, sample populations, methods , instruments used and the limitations of one’s research . The doctoral journey is not an easy road, however with the proper tools the doctoral learner will travel through the process with less difficulty.

    Bartol, Kathhryn M. and Butterfield ( 1976). Sex Effects in Evaluating Leaders. Retrieved from

    John W. Cresswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches, 2nd ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: 2003).

    Creswell, J. W., and Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Emery, Charles R. and Barker, Katherine J. (2007). The Effect of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Styles on the Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction of Customer Contact Personnel.

    Retrieved from

    Grand Canyon University. Res 811 (2012). Foundations for Success: Time management and Emprical Articles. Lecture 2 Grand Canyon University. Res 811 (2012). Becoming a Practitioner Scholar Lecture 7 Wright, Bradley E. and Pandey, Sanjay K.(2009). Transformational Leadership in the Public Sector: Does Structure Matter? Retrieved from

    Yount, Rick (2006) Populations and Sampling: The Rationale of Sampling Steps Inferential Statistics: A Look Ahead The Case Study Approach

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