Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years. In the table below I have given an explanation of the sequence and rate of each different aspects of development from birth to 19 years of age. Age Group| Physical| Social| Emotional| Language| Cognitive (intellectual)| 0-6 months| There are many physical developments that a child starts to develop by 6months.
Some of these include; being able to turn their heads when they hear sounds or see movements, when they are being fed they can stare at the adult’s face, when they hear a familiar voice they will smile, put whatever they have into their mouth and be able to hold and shake a rattle.
| At this stage they don’t do much as they are mainly helpless, tries to avoid social interaction and is fed by the mother 5-8 times a day. The baby can after a couple of months smile at a face and is able to recognise the mother’s face.
Between these ages the baby is able to respond to adults, mainly the mother’s voice and face, whilst being fed they will stare at the adult’s face and depend a lot on the adult for support and comfort. This is important for them because they know that they are safe with the carer. They also like to be cuddled a lot. | From birth the baby would be able to make a variety of happy noises, are able to respond to a range of music and other sounds and the baby will also stare at the mother or carers face, mainly the mouth, to try and copy their movements.
At this age the child is able to clearly see within 13inches, keep focus on and follow objects, including a person’s face, see different types of colours and differentiate shade and brightness, as well as distinguish the pitch and volume of sound they hear, be able to respond with facial expressions and is able to begin to anticipate event, such as suck when they are being fed as well as respond to a familiar sounds. 6-12 months| Between these ages, the child would be able to sit with support to without, roll over from their tummy to their back, be able to crawl or shuffle on their bottoms, raise their arms to be lifted, turn when they hear their name, looks for things hidden from them and reach towards basis of food. | At these ages the baby enjoys playing peek-a-boo and the company of others to be able to have fun and they are affection to carer and be shy to a stranger they don’t know.
The baby is able to respond to their own name when called, wave good bye-bye when someone says bye, gives and takes objects and understands when no is being said to them. | Here the baby will give out a lot of emotions to get the carers attention; they would usually start to cry if they need to be fed or want something and they would be laughing if they are having a good time. The child usually shows a lot of emotional attachment when separated from the mother. The baby by these months will be able to make babbling sounds, they are able to make 4-5 different noises and turn to the source of sounds, when showing feelings they will begin to scream or shriek with excitement and are also able to laugh and chuckle to show happiness. | By this age the child is able to see the difference among pictures which show different numbers of items, they begin to understand that an object is still in existence even when it is not seen and be able to respond to simple directions and questions with signs.
The child is also able to copy signs and actions and like looking at books with a lot of colourful pictures. | 12-24 months| By 1-2 years old they would be able to walk, be able to sit alone, eat food themselves, wave goodbye to people, able to crawl upstairs, are able to build a tower with a couple of bricks, shake their to say ‘no’, they are able to point or make noises if they want something and finally are able to bang objects together. | The child is able to feed themselves, understand and obeys limited commands, is able to repeat a couple of words and loves to look at themselves in the mirror image.
Kids also like to please adults and to perform in front of them and they are also able to play alongside with other children. | The child can get upset and anxious when they are separated from people that they know, for example mother, father, grandparents, etc. , they will have a favourite object to make them feel safe and from the age of one they will start to get tantrums. | By this age range the baby will be able to start using single words and put them together as a phrase, they will begin to understand the main words in a sentence, by two years they will begin to copy the carer and they will be using at least 50 – 120 words. At this age the child spends a lot of time seeing and copying the actions someone does. They would begin to imitate the adult’s action and language, begin to match similar objects and recognize words as well as commands and respond appropriately and see the difference between “you” and “me” adding on they are able to identify familiar objects in story books with an adult assistance. | 2-3 years| By the age of three the child is able to kneel down when playing, is able to throw and kick a ball and is also able to use a pencil to make scribbles. They are also able to walk properly and run. From the age of two the child will want to do things by themselves and have an own identity and the child around this age will like to play with an adult or older child who gives attention and after a short period they will play with children of their own age. | The child is independent in the different house routines and is very loving towards the parents.
By this age the child needs more attention and dislike the attention given to others (this may include siblings older or younger to them) as well as disposed to bursting out in emotional tantrums. Between the ages 2-3 the child will be able to put words into sentences, ask questions like what? and why? etc. , for a well-known song they will begin to sing along with it and are also able to use over hundreds and hundreds or words by age 3. | By this age the child likes to begin to explore and they are able to respond to the simple directions that they are given, can group objects by category, are able to stack rings on pegs in the order of the size (big to small), able to recognize themselves when looking in the mirror and finally they still like imitating more complex adult actions for example housekeeping play. 3-4 Years| At the age of three the child is able to stand in one leg, jump up and down and is able to draw circles and crosses. Also the child prefers to play more games as they want to do something new all the time. There are many other physical things that I child can do at this age; throw a ball with aim, pedal, use scissors, climb with confidence, be able to paint, thread beads on a lace and is also able to catch a ball thrown gently towards them. During this stage the child begins to feel more secure and is able to cope with the different surroundings and unknown adults around them for a certain period of time, they become more willing with their teachers and love to help out in class and are sociable and friendly with other children of the same age and are more able to play and share with them. | The child becomes more independent, energetic and enthusiastic and also begins to acknowledge the needs of others and also show concerns for others.
The child will begin to use pitch and tone, could start to use past tense, marks that are done with crayons are more controlled and the vocabulary extends to 1000-1500 words. By the age of four the child’s grammar becomes more accurate, they begin to ask more questions and are able to use language to communicate their own ideas. Finally they find that reading is source of happiness and that they will use the pictures to follow the story, would be able to recognise their name from a few often seen words and is able to hold a pencil steadily to copy shapes and form letters as well. At the age of three the child is able to understand up to 3 simples tasks that they may be given to do, for example; getting a glass of water, give it your mother and take the glass back into the kitchen and they are able to sort out objects according to the type and size; such as animals or shapes. The child is also able to tell his or her name in full and give their age as well, being to ask questions such as why and how and show consciousness of the past and present. 5-7 years| Between these ages the child becomes more confident and is able to do more things physically, such as hop, kick a ball with aim, is able to write some letter and copy shapes, skip, be able to ride a bike and by the age of seven the child is able to write. | During the age of 5-7 are able to make friends however they would need help on resolving the arguments and they would begin to understand the rules, but would still have difficulties in understanding doing things in turn.
They would get more understanding of the world and how it works, about people and relationship and they also are making friend’s mainly short term and play group games more often. | At this age group children enjoy helping out and also taking responsibility in the stuff they may be doing in school or at home, need structure and a routine so that they feel safe and also they can understand that if they have behaviour which is ‘over the tope’ they will know the limits that may have been set.
At this age they begin to develop a fear of ghosts and monsters under the bed and are worried that they will be disliked by other. | From this age they are able to speak fluently and are able to make up stories, can handle books, and they can understand that texts carries meaning as well as they can identify an increasing number of letters and being able to link them to sounds. | A child at this age is able to understand the similarities and differences in the number of aspects in life.
Also they are able to see the different views on the same subject, for example the same amount of water looks different in different types of containers. | 8-12 years | By this age the child is able to improve on the physical skills that they have been doing over the years, for example they are able to throw a ball properly and more accurately as well as kick a ball. They enjoy riding a bike and learn to tie laces and untie them. At around the age of 10 puberty starts for girls with a growth spurt and the body strength begins to increase. The child is able to form a secure friendship by this age and the friendship would become very important (usually would be the same sex friendship) is able to play in groups however they would play with people that are the same sex, for example boys with boys and girls with girls. | At this age they are fairly independent and confident in being with others however they would have concerns at thoughts that other people may have about them and sometimes when they are unsure about stud then they will have different mood swings. The child would need support in tackling the difficulties of spelling a few words during these years, their vocabulary will start to grow if the adults introduce new words and new ways of using language, being able to read out loud as well as know the difference tenses and grammar fluently and being able to describe complicated activities. | The child by this age would be able to read to themselves and enjoy reading it as well as becoming fonder of certain subjects that they may have in interest. 13-16 years| For the girls the puberty stage would be over at about 14 when period starts and for boy’s puberty is between these age ranges and they will be stronger than girls. Boys by this age would grow tremendously in height and would also acknowledge muscle growth as well as starting to grow facial hair. For girls their breast would start to grow during these ages and their body becomes more rounded and starts to develop curves of motherhood as well as their body being physically mature. | The child at this age prefers to spend more time with friends rather than family.
The reason why they would like to spend more time with friends is because they are preparing for independence. | The child’s body changes can distraught confidence and peer pressure a significant influence around this age. Finally they need to resolve the changes into adulthood. | As they have now become teenagers, the constant use of sarcasm and supposed witticisms can become irritating to family members and teachers as well as class mates. The reason why they are doing this is because they start to test their mental abilities. Their consistent thinking is also maturing and they would begin to like to enjoy debating formally or informally. The child’s brain is developing with the increase in co-ordination and reaction times. They would also become less worried about what their parents may say and so they would turn to their friends instead for approval and finally having the same labelled items and collecting them as well as playing the same games is very important at this age because the child will feel approved by friends. | 17-19 years | Physically the child is able to run and swim long distances as they have a better stamina (especially boys as during the breaks and lunch they would play sports such as basketball or football).
Also most boys or girls would start to worry about their body weight and would work out more often by going to the gym. By the age of 19 the female body stops growing (height). | The child had the ability to become independent and make decisions on their own, becomes more comfortable being with friends around parents and becomes interested and committed in serious relationship as well as can mix both emotional and physical tenderness in a relationship and has developed a vibrant sexual identity. During these years the child has a better sense about their selves, becomes more emotional about situations, shows concerns for other people as well as beginning to have thoughts for his or her life and shows and has pride in the work he or she does. | By this age children would speak broken English, so they would say the full words they would break it down, even when writing a message, they would use slang words, such as, ‘omg-oh my god’, ‘lol-laugh out loud and many more. This is common but most parents would find it difficult to understand.
However it is one of the ways they start to communicate with their friends. In most of the courses they may do at this age, they will have to presentations in front of the class, which some enjoy to do and some don’t. | The child is now able to think of idea thoroughly and express them to other people as well as being able to set goals for themselves. By this age they have established a deeper viewpoint of life and many would be more involved and concerned about the community issues such as the environment, homelessness and world hunger. |
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Explain the Sequence and Rate of Each Aspect of Development from Birth – 19 Years. (2016, Sep 30). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/explain-the-sequence-and-rate-of-each-aspect-of-development-from-birth-19-years-2/