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Factors that Contribute to the Incidence of Tobacco Smoking

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Introduction
The use of tobacco is not a recent phenomenon. It has been said that tobacco plants have grown in North and South America since 6,000 B.C.1. It was also believed that tobacco had many healing qualities which made its use widespread2. In the 17th century, tobacco was said to be as valuable as gold that it was even used as currency to barter things with3. But during this time, it was also noticed that tobacco was hard to quit and had addictive properties4.

Still, it was not until the 1980s that masses started to realize and lawsuits were filed against tobacco companies for its ill effects and lack of warning for its consumers5.

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Nevertheless, tobacco use is still prevalent worldwide. Alarmingly, the use of tobacco has now been increasing in the youth6. This trend can potentially lower life expectancy and raise the instance of preventable diseases that are lifestyle oriented with tobacco smoke as one of its risk contributing factors (e.

g. hypertension, emphysema, lung cancer, etcetera). In an article written by Dela Cruz in the Manila Times last August 2012, it is said that the Philippines is the highest ranked tobacco smoking country. Furthermore, the country’s Health Secretary Enrique Ona was cited in stating that boys between the ages of 13 to 15 make up 28.3 percent of the smoking population while girls of the same age group consist of 17.5 percent7.

However, this should not be shocking news. In 1999 and later on published in 20008, the World Health Organization conducted a survey that exposed this alarming rise of teenage smoking in the Philippines. At that time, about 30 percent of adolescents that lived in urban areas smoked tobacco9. Moreover, 70 percent of those young people that smoked started between the ages of 13-15. This age group would equate to the ideal ages of secondary or high school level of education in the Philippine system.10 Also, the highest incidence of tobacco smoking can be found in Mindanao, then Luzon and lastly, in Visayas.11

In an effort to avert the extensive ill effects of tobacco use especially for the youth and non-smokers, the government of the Philippines passed
Republic Act No. 9211 or otherwise known as “Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003.”12 It is stated in this law that the sale of tobacco products to minors is illegal. Moreover, if one buys cigarettes or tobacco products for a minor, it should also be deemed unlawful. This law even holds the retailer accountable for the sale of tobacco products to minors. Also, Republic Act No. 9211 mandates a restriction on the sale of tobacco products within school perimeters13. They indicate a prohibition of sale within 100 meters from any point of the school, public playground and other areas frequented by minors14. Thus, it is evident that the Philippines recognize the need for regulation and prevention of adolescent smoking and it is trying to curb its propagation.

In a follow up study in 200715, using the same Center for Disease Control Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) as the World Health Organization did in 1999, there is a prevalence of 46.2% in students having experienced smoking cigarettes (male = 58.2% and female = 34.7%). This same study exposes the accessibility of buying cigarettes without being questioned of this age. Yet, it is promising to see that they found out that 86.0% of current young smokers do want to stop smoking16. This must be due to the fact that out of the students surveyed, 9 out 10 have seen anti-smoking media messages within the past month17. But ironically, 88% of the same students have seen pro-cigarette ads18.

Even more recently, Republic Act 1035119, which is meant to change the excise tax on alcohol and tobacco products and set to be implemented in January of 2013, was passed by Congress to discourage alcohol and tobacco use for the whole population. The lawmakers and supports of this law believe that over time, and as taxes are set to increase throughout the years, there will be a decrease in deaths due to the use of these products.

For now the Philippines finds its statistics rising and the incidence of teenagers smoking cigarettes and using other tobacco products increasing as years pass despite of the law. Cigarettes are still readily accessible in “sari-sari” stores and it is being sold within close proximity to schools. Therefore, we the researchers has recognized the need to investigate the possible use of cigarettes in a local high school, namely, Puntod National High School. The researchers want to see if the trends and information found in both the 1999 tobacco surveillance20and the 2007 Philippines: Global Youth Tobacco Survey21reflect the situation in the said local high school. In addition, the researchers not only want to examine the frequency of such events but also want to find the factors that contribute to teenagers smoking in the first place. Although still early in making sweeping generalizations, this survey can also perhaps catch a view of what is to come now that new taxes for alcohol and tobacco products have been imposed. This report could possibly show the effects of increased prices and its intentions of lowering sicknesses related to alcohol and tobacco use. In the end, after identifying the causes of teenage smoking, the researchers optimistically hope that the information accumulated in this study would be used by others in developing programs in order to deter teenagers from smoking. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of the Research

The schematic diagram (Figure 1) of the research includes the profile of the respondents, incidence of smoking among the students of Puntod National High School and factors that contribute to their smoking. The study will utilize an adapted questionnaire and interviews will be conducted to gather the outcome of this process in order to provide recommendations on preventative measures to deter teenagers from smoking. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

According to Sister Callista Roy, a well-acclaimed nursing theorist who developed the Roy Adapation Model22, persons are a product between interactions of his or her physiological, self-concept, role function and interpersonal conditions. Moreover, there is a continual process in which the person copes and changes as stressors or stimuli caused by the environment come and go. This is what Roy believes to the reason for change and adaptation in one’s behavior. Moreover, Roy categorizes stimuli into three different types: focal, contextual and residual—focal being the most pertinent and immediate to the person’s concerns; contextual being the other factors that adds on to the focal stimuli; and residual being the stimuli that influence the focal stimuli but its consequences are unclear.

Therefore, for this paper, this theory is believed to be best suited for its aims. The researchers want to shed light in the incidence of teenage smoking, therefore, it is essential to figure out what causes them and the factors that play a part for them doing so.In application of this theory, the researchers will need to determine what Roy states as the focal or the “most immediately confronting the person, it attracts the most attention23.” This is the aspect that causes a student, first and foremost, the biggest pull towards smoking. Then, there is the contextual or “all other stimuli that strengthens the effect of the focal stimulus24.” This is the contributing factor that makes one to continue their behavior, and in this instance, smoking. Lastly, there is the residual. This is what Roy defines as “those stimuli that can affect the focal stimulus but the effects are unclear25.” All together, this is what influences a change of behavior in the Roy Adaptation Model.

Thus, if the researchers of this study can find the focal, contextual and residual stimulus for the tobacco smoking students of Puntod National High School, their behavior can be better explained and the factors that lead to their habit can be identified. Undeniably, there is a complex interaction of different stimuli that results to teenage smoking. This theoretical recognizes the various entities that result to smoking and will produce an outcome that is well-rounded with a clearer picture of why teenagers are smoking.Already, this theory has been used to study teenage behavior and smoking. Ethylene Villareal26 has used the same theory to determine the stages and modes of adaption young women go through when they think about quitting smoking. Although on the other side of the spectrum, the researchers hope to accomplish the same thing. With the use of the Roy Adaptation Model, this study will aim to provide a progressive picture of the motivations of teenage smoking.

In addition, the method of investigating this problem will be patterned after the Center for Disease Control and World Health Organization Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). This has been planned to help countries monitor the use of tobacco by their youth. The aims of this method are listed by the GYTS are as follows:

1. Knowledge and attitudes of young people towards cigarette smoking.

2. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and other tobacco use among young people.

3. Role of the media and advertising in young people’s use of cigarettes.

4. Tobacco-related school curriculum.

5. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
6. Cessation of cigarette smoking.
Consequently, the researchers find this as the most reliable way to measure the needed information for this study.
Optimistically, this theoretical framework can provide a broad framework on how to go about answering the questions of this research.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The purposed of this research was to establish the incidence of tobacco smoking among the students of Puntod National High students and the factors that led them to smoke.
Specifically, this study would like to consider the answers of the following problems: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
a. Age
b. Gender
c. School year level
2. What are the extents of tobacco usage of the respondent?
3. What are the knowledge and attitudes of Puntod National High School Students regarding smoking? 4. To what extent does the respondents exposed to other people who smoked? 5. To what extent are the responses of the respondents regarding quitting/stopping smoking? 6. What are the current preventatives measures being implemented by Puntod National High School to decrease smoking among its students? 7. What action may be proposed that can be made to prevent further incidence of smoking among the students of Puntond National High School?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will benefit:
Students of Puntod National High School: This will help them see what the reality is regarding the incidence of tobacco smoking among themselves and their peers and what the contributing factors might be that contribute to their actions. Health care workers: As persons with the interest of promoting human wellness and health, this research will help them have a better perspective of why unhealthy behaviors exist. They will be able to use the information in catering their interventions for illnesses and counterproductive behaviors related to smoking. Puntod National High School: This will help them promote and create programs to prevent and stop the smoking habits of their students. For the nursing students: This will help them have a better understanding on how to apply the taught Roy Adaptation Model and also have a better approach in creating nursing care plans when it comes to illnesses that are caused by smoking.

College of Nursing:This information can be added to the library of knowing this institution has accumulated and can be put into use when trying to come up with programs that can deter the youth, particularly its students, from starting and quitting the habit. For the future researchers: They can use the information to supplement future research on teenage smoking. Parents: This will help them develop a parenting technique that can effective stop and/or prevent their child from smoking. School Clinic: They can work together with the different agencies of the school to make a preventative and cessation program for the students of their school. Guidance Councilor: This can help them better approach and deal with students that are smoking. They can also use this research to work with different agencies of the school to help with making preventative and cessation programs for the students of their school. DOH: This study can help them see if their national results can be applied to a local level. Local government units: This study can help them to know if policies need to be improved or if they are working to prevent the youth from smoking SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This study hopes to cover anappropriate and mathematically derived amount of first to fourth year students of Puntod National High School alone in order to provide a representative sample of the whole school’s population. Also, the study will be conducted from July to September of 2013 and only those who are officially enrolled during those months may be permitted to partake in the study. Then, the students that are chosen to answer the provided questionnaire will be given anonymity and will not be submitted to the institution’s officials for discrimination. Members of the school’s administration will also be interviewed to see policies are in existence when it comes to dealing with teenage smoking. The parents of the students taking part of this survey will not be taken into account when conducting interviews. The researchers believe this might compromise the student’s willingness to participate and might put them off from telling the whole truth regarding their smoking behavior. Through the presented scope and limitation, the researchers will attempt to provide a precise and accurate picture of teenage smoking by students of Puntod National High School DEFINITION OF TERMS

To give a clearer and cohesive characterization of the key concepts of this study, these are the following definition: Adolescent: According to Merriam-Webster, one that is in the state of adolescence; emotionally or intellectually immature27. High School Student:A person in the secondary/high school education level; usually in the age from 12 to 15 years old28. Cigarette: Refers to any roll or tubular construction, which contains tobacco or its derivatives and is intended to be burned or heated under ordinary conditions of use29. Lifestyle Disease: Diseases that appear to increase in frequency as countries become more industrialized and people live longer; diet and lifestyle are major factors thought to influence susceptibility to many diseases; drug abuse, tobacco smoking, and alcohol drinking, as well as a lack of exercise may also increase the risk of developing certain diseases, especially later in life30 Minor: Refers to any person below eighteen (18) years old.31 Non-Smokers:A person who does not smoke32

Preventable Disease:Any of a group of illnesses that can be averted through health care measures such as vaccination or healthful behaviors, such as hand washing33 Retailer: Refers to any person who or entity that sells tobacco products to individual for personal consumption34. Sari-Sari Store: A convenience store found in the Philippines; in Tagalog means “variety”35. School Perimeters: Within one hundred (100) meters from any point of the perimeter of a school36. Smoking: Refers to the act of carrying a lighted cigarette or other tobacco products, whether or not it is being inhale or smoked37. Teenager: a person between the ages of 13 and 19 inclusive38
Tobacco: Refers to agricultural components derived from the tobacco plant, which are processed for use in the manufacturing of cigarettes and other tobacco products39. Youth:The time of life when one is young; the period between childhood and maturity40.

CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Compiling the essential arguments and ideas concerning smoking behaviors was not easy. There is a wide variety of information on this topic. This clearly point out that there is great awareness regarding tobacco useand its ill effects. Many informational books have been made available to cater to an adolescent age group so that the discussion can be more relatable. One of which is Tobacco Use41, this book contains various quotations from adolescents that talk about their experiences with cigarettes and smoking. Being published in 2000, the teens quoted in this book talk about being influenced by pro-smoking ads in magazines and television. They say that these ads have influenced them in picking up the habit. Contemporarily, the tobacco industry is prevented from placing ads in mass media. Although they can still post promotional paraphernalia in store windows that sell cigarettes, television, newspapers, magazines and even billboards have been off limits in most developed countries. For the Philippines in particular, it is dictated in R.A. No. 9211 that as if July 1, 2008, “all forms of tobacco advertising in mass media shall be prohibited except tobacco advertisements placed inside the premises of point-of-sale establishments42.”

Nevertheless, this book also points out that a lot of ideas that continue to ring true. It is stated here that for many of the youth do not see the sickness and adverse effects of smoking, which do not show until later on in life after chronic use, as an immediate concern to their actions. Furthermore, the book argues that teens are in a stage in their life that makes them prone to rebel against authority and do questionable things like smoking cigarettes. This is supported by Erik Erikson43 and his developmental stage of identity versus confusion.

Other factors that contribute to teenage smoking cited by Graves are low self-esteem, a close friend that smokes (peer pressure), feelings of rebellion, depression and lastly, being a poor student44.

An entity in preventing and curbing teenage smoking are the schools they attend. What Schools Should Do To Help Kids Stop Smoking45 has enumerated several programs that have been developed all over the United States which were initiated in local, state and even a national level. An important contention made in this book is that many student smokers do want to stop smoking but are without support and lack intervention programs that teach them to abstain46. Also, Fibkins says that teenagers that smoke are not merely the disturbed or problematic students. There are also high achievers and “good” kids that fall to the habit47. This may be due to the pressure they are experiencing from parents and teachers that expect highly from them like getting to a good college and obtaining high grade point averages.

Moreover, there are alarming increases of incidences of smoking among the youth. According to a book called, Tobacco: A Reference Handbook48, tobacco companies will publicly renounce their support of underage smoking. But Cordry states that internal documents declare otherwise. It is quoted in this book a statement Philip Morris made regarding teenage smokers. “Today’s teenagers are tomorrow’s regular customers, and the overwhelming majority of smokers first begin to smoke in their teens. In addition, the ten years following the teenage years is the period during which average daily consumption per smoker increases to the average adult level… Furthermore, it is during the teenage years that the initial brand choices are made49.” In addition, Lorillard Inc., another big tobacco company that manufactures several brands of cigarettes found in the United States, said, “The base of our business is the high school student50.” This is under the principle that tobacco companies must replace the customers that either die or quit. Thus, it is undeniable that the youth are part, if not, the most important part of the tobacco industry’s target market.

This claim is further support by a study conducted by Page et al (2005). There was a call for transnational tobacco companies to gather in Malaysia to discuss the emerging Asian market for their tobacco products and the youth was targeted51. This same study found that youth cigarette smoking is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia52. Additionally, there is an expected increase in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among the youth as a response to the regions modernization, Westernization and economic development53. Lastly, the levels of smoking among young women in Southeast Asia is rising and fast approaching male levels54.

With the negative press the tobacco industry was receiving regarding their campaigns targeting the youth, Philip Morris, Lorillard Tobacco Company, and other big tobacco companies spent millions of dollars in televising commercials that were aimed to making teens stop smoking55. Furthermore, they emphasized the roles of parents in educating their children about smoking. In spite of this, a study entitled, Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company-Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior, found that adverse effects were happening. The message on these campaigns were for parents to talk to their kids about not smoking but there was no reason aside from the fact that they were underage that were being said as a reason for not smoking56.

An explanation for this phenomenon is said to be based on the developmental stage of the teenager. Because the source of offense is their age, the teenager tends to rebel against the message57. Moreover, teens between the ages of 15 to 17 years old view themselves as independent persons and no longer take the opinions and advice of their parents into consideration58.

A large part of the discussion in relation to cigarette smoking among the youth is its implications in future chronic disease problems when they reach adulthood. It is said, “Tobacco use is a leading preventable risk factor for many chronic disorders, which are expected to account for an increasing share of the global disease burden59.” If rates continue as they are, there is a doubling of death toll to 10 million by the year 2020 from tobacco use60. Moreover, second hand smoke is also found of be a big contributor to tobacco related deaths. The exposure for non-smokers is widespread and there needs to be better national policies in providing smoke-free environments to ensure the safety of the population61 Now that it is established that teenage smoking are attributed to socio-economic, psychological, developmental environmental conditions, in the book Adolescent Smoking and Health Research62, it points out there are still many flaws surrounding the current research and discourse that frame the information related to teenagers smoking. Shahtahmasebi points out that although data from studies tell us that when it comes to smoking behaviors researchers forget to treat smoking as a process outcome. Most of the outcomes of these studies are treated in a superficial manner rather than critically63.

The fact that people’s decision making process is dynamic and not linear is an excellent point of this book64. Furthermore, it is made clear by Shahtahmasebi that because tobacco is not a banned substance, anti-smoking campaigns rely on scare tactics to deter smoking behaviors65. Through time, people develop a tolerance for frightening images of black lungs and emphysema-ridden throats. Anti-smoking campaigns face a challenge that is hard to overcome. Also, there is a lack of correlation between the person in the ads and the person in real life66. It is argued by Shahtahmasebi that some of these ads alienate the minorities and other groups of society which in return gives off a “big brother” vibe that intimidates the public and perhaps encourages rebellion67.

Moreover, there is a process of decision making especially among teens that prevent them from seeing their current smoking habits from its future ill effects68. This is concept is called cognitive dissonance. “Individuals align their attitude to their current social state upgrading the satisfaction with both positive and negative attributes of their current state and down grading those of possible alternative69.” This means that whatever a teen is doing today (i.e. smoking cigarettes), even when they are aware of the negative outcomes of their behavior, they are prone to remember what they are experiencing now, the good, rather than the sickness in the future. Putting all the review of related literature and studies in mind, the researchers make sure to apply this knowledge into our own future analysis and discussion of our own findings.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The methodology of this research is meant to achieve the answers of the
problems presented in this study.

RESEARCH DESIGN
This study used a descriptive design as well as a descriptive evaluative survey in determining the incidence of smoking among the students of Puntod National High School. This design is will be employed to evaluate the factors that might contribute to the decisions of students to start smoking. There will be aspects of this study that are qualitative and quantitative in nature. An adapted survey questionnaire from the Center for Disease Control and the World Health Organization which was utilized in 2007 by the Department of Health in the Philippines will also be applied in this study. Interviews will also be conducted among the administrative members of Puntod National High School to see what current programs and policies are in place for this institution to deter smoking among their students.

RESEARCH SETTING
The study was conducted at Puntod National High School. It is located at SM Naguit Street Puntod, Cagayan de Oro City. There are four high school levels being offered at this institution, namely first, second, third and fourth year high school.

Figure 2: Location of Puntod National High School as produced by Google Maps, Inc.

SAMPLING PROCEDURES AND SAMPLING SIZE
In determining the sample size of this research, the Gey Sevilla formula will be used by means of getting the 20% of the entire population with additional 5 to get the summation of the sample size. This formula was used to obtain the target number of respondents that would be representative of the entire school’s population. The researchers will apply a stratified random sampling method to be indicative of appropriate sample size by year levels. The right proportion of freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors was be used.

RESEARCH RESPONDENTS
The respondents of the study were only be students that fall within 12 to 18
yearsof age in order to attain the goal of teenager respondents. If one of any students fall outside the assigned parameter, that person would not excluded from participation. The respondent must also be current student of Puntod National High School that is registered full time and belong in one of the first, second, third or fourth year levels. The respondents can also be either smokers or non-smokers. Moreover, since all the respondents may potentially be underage, a consent form will be given to their parents or guardians asking for permission for their child to participate. This will be done if the school deems it necessary after the school gives the researchers approval themselves. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

The Global Youth Tobacco Survey, which was used by the Department of Health in 2007, was adapted as the research tool for this study. This questionnaire will help determine the use of cigarette or tobacco products, the frequency of use of such products, knowledge and attitudes toward tobacco, exposure to other people’s smoking behaviors, attitudes towards quitting if one is a smoker, the media’s role in propagating smoking, and school programs available that teach about smoking. There are a total of 55 questions to be answered the respondent on a self-reporting capacity. Moreover, it will remain anonymous.

Interviews was also being conducted with school’s administration to talk about their perception of smoking among their students, programs they have in place, and ways they are trying to improve the situation. This will be recorded via a video camera or a voice recorder.

RESEARCH GATHERING PROCEDURE
After obtaining the permission of the school to conduct a survey around June to July of 2013 and the parents’ permission, if needed, the researchers will then go room to room to randomly select the respondents and have the students answer the questionnaire privately in order to eliminate the students’ fear of getting in trouble with their teachers, parents or school if found to be a smoker. The respondents will be reassured that at no point will they be identified. The researchers believe that this is essential in obtaining accurate data.

Then, interviews with the school’s administration will be recorded and later on transcribed for data analysis.

STATISTICAL TECHINIQUES
The researchers of this study useddescriptive statistics for presenting and analyzing the parts of the data that have no hypothesis. A frequency distribution and graphic representation will be the utilized. Also, all throughout the study, the percentage will be computed to give an idea of what portion of the whole is being affected. This is obtained by dividing the frequency of respondents to the total number of respondents and then multiplying it with 100.

DATA ANALYSIS PLAN
Once the data is compiled from the survey and interviews conducted, the researchers will seek the guidance of the Capitol University statistician, Mr. Marcel L. Budlong of the CUREXO Research Department. Moreover, this study’s problem numbers 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 are hypothesis free and will only receive descriptive statistical treatment.

CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

This chapter presents the results and discussions of the data gathered by the researchers based on questionnaires answered by the sample of population of the students of Puntod National High School. The data includes the demographic profile of the respondents including, age and year level. It demonstrates the various graphical representation and corresponding interpretations of the research. Problem 1: What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: age, gender, and school year level?

Frequency and Distribution of the Respondents in-terms of
Age, Gender and School Year
AGE
Gender
School Year

11 y/o or younger
Freq
%
Male
Freq
%

Freshmen

Freq
%

0

0%

124
72.57%

37
21.63%

12 y/o
36
21.05%

Sophomore
41
25.46%

13 y/o
39
22.80%

14 y/o
27
15.78
Female
47
27.48%

Junior
56
32.74%

15 y/o
41
23.97%

16 y/o
23
13.45%

Senior
37
21.63%

17 y/o or older
5
2.92%

Total
171
100%
Total
171
100%
Total
171
100%
TABLE 1
In this table, it shows the age, gender and the year level of the respondents. It shows that the dominant respondents are within the ages of 15 years old followed by 13 years old then 12, 14 years old and 16 years old. Fewer respondents are within the age bracket of 17 years old or older. There were no respondents within the age bracket of 11 years old or under.

Also most of the respondents are male students with a percentage of 72.57% while the remaining female respondents comprises of 27.48%. Another is, respondents are being distributed according to their year level. It’s then revealed that 21.63% of the respondents are freshmen, 25.46% are sophomores, 32.74% are juniors, and 21.63% are senior students. Problem 2: What are the extents of tobacco usage of the respondent?

Graph 1
In this graph, it shows that the majority of the respondents do not indulge themselves from smoking. Unfortunately, notwithstanding some of the respondents are into smoking with a frequency of 59 and a percentage of 34.50%. This is thought to be alarming considering that at their young ages, 59 of them are into smoking.

Therefore the researchers came up an idea of dividing the respondents from (112) non-smoker respondents in (59) smoker respondents in order to get the appropriate data for the research.
Dominant answers are being presented in the following table in order to avoid confusion to the panellists and for better understanding of the data.

Questions Asked about the Respondent’s use of Tobacco
Questions about the use of Tobacco

Dominant Answers for (59) smoker respondents

Answer
Freq
%
1. How old are you when you first tried cigarette?
12 or 13 y/o
27
44.26%
2. During the past 30 days, how many days did you used cigarette? 10 – 19 days
39
63.94%
3. During the past 30 days, how any sticks per day do you usually smoke? 2 – 5 sticks/ day
34
55.73%
4. During the past 30 days, how do you usually get your own smoke?

Buying in the store
59
100%
5. During the past 30 days, has someone refuse you of selling because of your age?

No one refuse me from buying
59
100%
6. During the past 30 days, have you ever used of smokeless tobacco product? No
59
100%
7. Where do you usually smoke?
In public places
59
100%

TABLE 2
As we evaluated the data collected, majority of the smoker respondents
answered that they started smoking within ages of 12 and 13 years old acquiring the most dominant frequency of 27 out of 59 and a percentage of 44.26%. Most of them claimed that they usually smoke 10 – 19 days a month with a frequency of 39 and a percentage of 63.93%.

Also, majority of them answered that they usually consumed 2 – 5 stick/ day of cigarettes with a frequency of 34 and a percentage of 55.73%. Another is, all of them answered that they bought their cigarettes to a store/ sari-sari store without even asking their age. Likewise, all of them answered that they never tried of smokeless tobacco product. Lastly, all of the smoker respondents answered that they usually smoke in public places.

As it was mentioned in our review of related literature, it was stated by Grave’s that for many of the youth do not realize the sickness and adverse effects of smoking, which do not present until later on in life after chronic use, as an immediate concern to their actions. _________________



Problem 3: What are the knowledge and attitudes of Puntod National High School Students regarding smoking?

Questions Asked about the Respondents Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Tobacco
Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Tobacco
Dominant Answer for (112) Non-smoker Respondents
Dominant Answers for (59) smoker respondents

Answer
Freq
%
Answer
Freq
%
1. Do your parents smoke?
None
86
76.78%
Father only
36
61.01%
2. If one of your best friends offered you a cigarette, would you smoke it? Definitely not
112
100%
Probably yes
43
72.88%
3. Has anyone of your family discussed the harmful effect of smoking? Yes
93
83.03%
Yes
51
86.44%
4. Do you think you will be smoking cigarettes 5 years from now? Definitely not
105
93.75%
Probably yes
54
91.52%
5. Once someone has started smoking do you think it’s difficult to quit? Definitely yes
104
92.85%
Definitely not
57
96.61%
6. Do you think Boys who smoke have more or less friends?
No difference from non-smokers
97
86.66%
No difference
59
100%
7. Do you think the girls who have smoke have more or less friends? No difference from non – smokers
99
88.39%
No difference
59
100%
8. Do you think smoking cigarettes make boys look more or less attractive? Less attractive
106
94.64%
No difference
58
98.30%
9. Do you think smoking cigarettes make girls look more or less attractive? Less attractive
110
98.21%
Less attractive
42
71.18%
10. Do you think smoking cigarette is harmful to your health? Definitely yes
107
95.53%
Definitely yes
59
100%
11. Do any of your closest friend smoke cigarettes?
Some of them
88
78.57%
Some of them
57
96.61%
12. When you see a man smoking what do you think of him?
Other
91
81.25%
Other
59
100%
13. When you see a woman smoking what do you think of her?
Other
85
75.89%
Other
59
100%

TABLE 3
This table exhibits the knowledge and attitudes of the respondents towards tobacco.
In the first group (112 Non-smoker respondents), it shows that the majority of their parents does not indulge in any form of smoking act. It also indicates that if any of their friends offer them to smoke, all of them answered that they will really push it aside. Likewise, the majority of the respondents are aware of the bad effects of smoking because it has been discussed in their homes, maybe their parents, aunts, uncles or even their siblings.

Most of them answered that they will really not indulge themselves from smoking even after 5 years from now. Also the non-smoker group believed that in gaining friends, whether you are a smoker or not, it will absolutely do not matter. The majority of them believed that it will not make you less or more attractive if you smoke.

All of them answered that smoking is definitely harmful to one’s body. Many of the smoker respondents answered that some of their friends are into smoking with a frequency of 88 and a percentage of 78.57%. The greater number of the respondents answered “OTHER” to the question of what they have thought if they saw a man/woman smoking, maybe because it is not in the range of the choices of the question of the real thought of the respondents when they saw someone smoking.

For the second group (59 smoker respondents), it was found out that most of the smoker respondents came from a family whose member are into smoking. Most of them answered that their father is into smoking. It is probable that if one of their friends offers them to smoke, they will probably grab the opportunity to smoke. The majority of them has heard and are aware regarding the harmful effect of smoking because it has been discussed in their respective houses, it has a frequency of 51 out of 59 and a percentage of 86.44%.

In addition, most of the respondents answered that they will probably remain to be a smoker even after 5 years from now. Also it has been clearly illustrated in the table that it is difficult to quit smoking once you have started. The smoker respondents believed that smoking does not make a person gain more or less friends. In terms of men, the majority of them who smoke do not affect men’s attractiveness. In female respondents mostly believed that it makes a woman less attractive if they indulge themselves to smoking.

All of the respondents believed that cigarette smoking is dangerous to their health. They also answered that even if they are a smoker, few of their friends are not into smoking. A majority of the smoker group answered “OTHER” to the question “What they think if they saw a man/woman smoking?” it might be that the inclusion criteria of the choices do not fit with the respondents’ preferred choices.

The knowledge and perception regarding smoking may vary to one another. There is a process of decision making especially among teens that prevent them from seeing their current smoking habits from its future ill effects70.

This concept is called cognitive dissonance. “Individuals align their attitude to their current social state upgrading the satisfaction with both positive and negative attributes of their current state and down grading those of possible alternatives.” Problem 4: To what extent does the respondents exposed to other people who smoked? Question Asked about the Respondents Exposure to other People’s Smoking Exposure to other People’s Smoking

Dominant Answer for (112) Non-smoker Respondents
Dominant Answers for(59) smoker respondents

Answer
Freq
%
Answer
Freq
%
1. Do you think the smoke from other people’s cigarette is harmful to you? Definitely Yes
112
100%
Definitely Yes
59
100%
2. During the past 7 days, on how many days have people smoked in your home, in your presence? 0 days
104
92.85%
3 – 4
43
72.88%
3. During the past 7 days, on how many people smoked in your presence, in places other than your home? 7 days
107
95.53%
7 days
53
88.13%
4. Are you in favour of banning smoking in public places?
Yes
112
100%
No
57
96.61%

Table 4
The above table represents the exposure of the respondents to other people who smoke.

In the first group (112 non-smokers respondents), it is clearly illustrated in the above table that most of the respondents believed that the smoke coming from other people has a harmful effect to them. Some of them answered that none of their family member who smoked in their respective home for the past 7 days. The majority of the respondents also answered that every day they encountered people who used to smoke. All of the respondents are in favor of banning smoking in public places.

For the second group (59 smoker respondents), all of the respondents believed that smoke coming from other people is harmful to their health. 43 out of 61 have answered that there are at least 3 – 5 person who usually smoke in their home in their presence. Most of them answered that almost every day they encounter people who smoke to place where they are present. Lastly, all of them disagreed with the banning of smoking in public areas. Problem 5: To what extent are the responses of the respondents regarding quitting/stopping smoking?

The statement of the problem was decided by the researchers to be only applicable to group 2 (59 smoker respondents). This would have meant that it will be focused to the smoker respondents.

CHART 1
The above chart would have meant that majority of the smoker respondents are willing to quit smoking, with a frequency of 51 and a percentage of 86.44%. On the other hand, only 8 of the respondents with a frequency of 13.5% answered that they don’t want to quit smoking. Questions Asked about the Respondents Attitudes toward Stopping Smoking Dominant Answers for (59)

smoker respondents
Attitudes toward Stopping Smoking
Answer
Frequency
Percentage
1. During the past year or months, have you ever tried to quit smoking cigarettes? Yes
39
66.10%
2. How long ago did you stop smoking?
1 – 3 months
43
72.88%
3. What was the main reason you decided to quit smoking?
To save money
36
61.01%
4. Do you think you would be able to quit smoking if you wanted to? No
44
74.57%
5. Have you ever received help or advice to help you stop smoking? Yes, from a friend
57
96.61%

TABLE 5
In this table, it represents that most of the respondents have tried to quit smoking. Almost all of them have tried to quit in smoking for 1 – 3 months.

They have claimed that their main reason why they want to quit smoking is because they want to save money. Also, the majority of the respondent believes that they cannot just quit smoking immediately because they find it difficult. Most of them answered that their key person that helps and advise them in smoking cessation are usually their friends. Problem 6: What is the current preventative measures being implemented by Puntod National High School to decrease smoking among its students?

This problem was decided by the researcher to include all the 171 respondents, in order to evaluate the answer of the respondents of what has been taught about smoking in their respective school. Questions Asked about the Respondents of what we’re being taught about Smoking in School 171 Respondents and their Dominant Answers

Taught about Smoking in the School
Answer
Frequency
Percentage
1. During this school year, were you taught in any of your classes about the dangers of smoking? No
141
82.45%
2. During this school year, did you discuss in any of your classes the reasons why people your age to smoke? No
157
91.81%
3. During this school year, were you taught in any of your classes about the effects of smoking like it makes your teeth yellow, causes wrinkles, or makes you smell bad? No
132
77.19%
4. How long ago did you last discuss smoking and health as part of a lesson? More than a year ago
129
75.43%

TABLE 6
The above table simply means that in the initial part of this school year, the majority of the respondents were not able to be taught about the dangers of smoking. Most of the respondents were not able to discuss why people are indulging to smoking at young ages. Also, they were not able to be taught yet about the effects of smoking such as yellow teeth and bad breath. However, the majority of the respondents claimed that they were able to discuss smoking and health as of a year ago.

An entity in preventing and curbing teenage smoking is the schools they attend. What Schools Should Do To Help Kids Stop Smoking71 has enumerated several programs that have been developed all over which were initiated in local, state and even a national level. Many students who smoke do not want to stop smoking but do not have support and lack intervention programs that teach them to abstain.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter represents the summary of findings, conclusions and pertinent recommendation of the researchers relative to the study. Summary
The use of tobacco is not a recent phenomenon. It has been stated that tobacco plants have grown in North and South America since 6,000 B.C it was also believed that tobacco had many healing qualities which made its use widespread. In the 17th century, tobacco was said to be as valuable as gold that it was even used as currency to barter things with. But during this time, it was also noted that tobacco was hard to quit and had addictive properties. For now, the Philippines find its statistics rising and the incidence of teenagers smoking cigarettes and using other tobacco products increasing as the years pass despite of the law. Cigarettes are still readily accessible in “sari-sari” stores and it is being sold within close proximity to schools. Therefore, this group of researchers has recognized the need to investigate the possible use of cigarettes in a local high school, namely, Puntod National High School. The researchers want to see if
the trends and information found in both the 1999 tobacco surveillance and the 2007 Philippines: Global Youth Tobacco Survey reflects the situation in the said local high school. This study hopes to cover an appropriate and mathematically derived amount of first to fourth year students of Puntod National High School alone in order to provide a representative sample of the whole school’s population. Also, the study will be conducted from July to September of 2013 and only those who are officially enrolled during these months may be permitted to partake in the study. Then, the students that are chosen to answer the provided questionnaire will be given anonymously and will not be submitted to the institution’s officials for discrimination. This study was able to use a descriptive design as well as a descriptive evaluative survey in determining the incidence of smoking among the students of Puntod National High School. This design is will be employed to evaluate the factors that might contribute to the decisions of students to start smoking. Findings

The following are finding of data that has been thoroughly analyzed by the researchers in order to come up with accurate result intended for the better outcomes of this research study. Most of the respondents are male students with a percentage of 72.57% while the remaining female respondents comprises of 27.48%. Revealed that 21.63% of the respondents are freshmen, 25.46% are sophomores, 32.74% are juniors, and 21.63% are senior students. The majority of the respondents do not really indulged themselves into smoking but some of them are into it with a frequency of 59 and a percentage of 34.50%. Data shows that out of 171 total number of respondents, 59 respondents are into smoking. This is considered to be a delicacy because it turns out that there is an existence of Tobacco Smoking among students in Puntod National High School. (59 smoker respondents), the majority of them answered that they started smoking within the ages of 12 and 13 years old. Most of them claimed that they usually smoke 10 – 19 days. The majority of them answered that they usually consumed 2 – 5 stick/ day of cigarettes. All of them responded that they bought their cigarettes to a store/ sari-sari store without even asking their age. Also, all of them answered that they never tried of smokeless tobacco product. Lastly, of the respondents answered that they usually smoke in public places. (112 Non-smoker respondents), it shows that
majority of their parents does not indulge to any form of smoking act. It also shows that if any of their friends offer them to smoke, all of them answered that they will really ignore it. The majority of the non-smoker respondents answered that they will really not indulge themselves from smoking even after 5 years from now. Likewise, all of the non-smoker respondents answered that smoking is definitely harmful to one’s body. The majority of the smoker respondents answered that some of their friends are into smoking with a frequency of88 and a percentage of 78.57%. (59 smoker respondents), it was discovered that most of the smoker respondents came from a family whose family member are into smoking. Most of the smoker respondents answered that most of their father is into smoking. Most of the smoker respondents answered that they will probably continue to be a smoker even after 5 years from now. Also it has been clearly illustrated in the previous table that it is difficult to quit smoking once you have begun. All of the smoker respondents believe that cigarette smoking is dangerous to their health. As well they have answered that even they are a smoker, only some of their friends are into smoking act. (112 non-smokers respondents), it is clearly illustrated that most of the respondents believed that the smoke coming from other people has a harmful effect to them. The majority of the non-smoker respondents answered that there were no people who smoked in their respective home for the past 7 days. The majority of the respondents also answered that every day they encountered people who used to smoke The non-smoker respondents are in favor of banning smoking in public places. (59 smoker respondents), all of these respondents believed that smoke coming from other people is harmful to their health. 43 out of 59 smoker respondents answered that there are at least 3 – 5 person who usually smoke in their home in their presence. The majority of the smoker respondents answered that almost every day they encounter people who smoke to place where they are present. All of them disagreed with the banning of smoking in public areas. The majority of the smoker respondents are willing to quit smoking, with a frequency of 51 and a percentage of 86.44%. The majority of the respondents had tried to quit in smoking and have tried to quit for 1 – 3 months. The smoker respondents have claimed that their main reason why they want to quit smoking is because they want to save money. Besides, the majority of the respondent believes they cannot simply stop
smoking immediately because they find it difficult. Most of them answered that their key person that helps and advise them in smoking cessation are usually their friends. During the initial part of this school year, the majority of the respondents were not able to be taught about the dangers of smoking. Most of the respondents were not able to discuss why people are indulging to smoking at young ages. Majority respondents were not able to be taught yet about the effects of smoking such as yellow teeth and bad breath. The majority of the respondents claimed that they were able to discuss smoking and health as of a year ago. Conclusions

The upshot of the collected and interpreted data typically shows that there are a slew of factors that contribute to incidence of tobacco smoking among the students of Puntod National High School. Consequently, we should take into consideration with this issue because ages of people who are indulging to smoking are becoming younger and younger. A factor that strongly influences the high school students to smoking is having an easy access in buying, this is because tobaccos can easily buy in sari-sari stores. This matter shall be taken into action because nowadays many diseases are rising because of increase prevalence of smoking in the Philippines.

However, since we the researchers’ are members of health care profession we will try to uplift this issue in order to give health teachings with these 59 students from Puntod National High School who is into smoking in order to increase their awareness to disease prevention. In order to address the issue of their attractiveness to smoking, we will be planning to produce and disseminate pamphlets that contain bounteous information regarding smoking cessation and the risk of smoking. By doing this, the researcher aims to enlighten these 59 smoker students in avoidance to smoking thus making them vulnerable to the issue. Recommendation

The researchers come up to an idea of making leaflets that delves with topic about smoking cessation, dangers of smoking, its physical effect to the body and ways how to quit smoking. The said leaflets will be very beneficial to the respondents in order to achieve health promotion and disease prevention. The leaflets will be check by the research adviser for her approval. After
the leaflets have been approved, it will be given out accordingly to the students of Puntod National High School. Please refer to the following page for the sample leaflet that the researcher will be proposing.

The researchers recommended that a similar study should be conducted in other places in the Philippines for the validation of the findings of this research. It is also recommended that this research should be conducted to another school that increase the incidence of student who are smoking and that the number of the respondents should also be increased to see if it would have similar results. Avenues for Further Research

The researchers further recommend that another study should be conducted focusing on other factors aside from the Factors that Contribute to the Incidence of Tobacco Smoking among the Students of Puntod National High School: A Basis for Preventative Measures to Deter Students from, such as: 1. The Significance of Basic Needs in Achieving an Optimum Health of Puntod National High School Students. 2. Nutrition in Co-relating to Wellness of High School Students.

TIMETABLE OF RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

List of Activities
June
July
August
September
October
Data Gathering

Data Analysis

Paper Writing

Oral Defense

Research Dissemination

Final Paper

REFERENCES/BIBLIOGRAPHY

Book Sources:
Cordry, H. V. (2001). Tobacco: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, Inc. Fibkins, W. L. (2000). What Schools Should Do To Help Kids Stop Smoking. Larchmont: Eye On Education. Graves, B. (2000). Tobacco Use: Perspectives on Physical Health. Mankato: LifeMatters. Octaviano, E. F., & Balita, C. E. (2008). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: The Philippine Perspectie. Metro Manila: Ultimate Learning Series. Page, R. M., Zarco, E. P., Suwanteerangkul, J., Mei-Lee, C., Miao, N.-F., & Taylor, J. (2005). Perceptions of the Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking by Peers: A Study of Taiwanese, Filipino, and Thai High School Students. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health , 1346-1352. Villareal, E. (2003). Using Roy’s Adaptation Model When Caring for a Group of Young Women Contemplating Quitting Smoking. Public Health Nursing , 377-384. Warren, C. W., Jones, N. R., Erikson, M. P., & Asma, S. (2006). Patterns of Global Tobacco Use in Young People and Implications for Future Chronic Burden in Adults. The Lancet , 749-753. Newspaper source:

Dela Cruz, J. M. (2012, August 17). Philippines top smoking country in Southeast Asia. Manila Times . Journals and Research Studies:
Shahtahmasebi, S. (2008). Teenage Smoking: What are the Main Issues? In M. M. Lapointe, Adolescent Smoking and Health Research (pp. 91-120). New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Wakefield, M., Terry-McElrath, Y., Emery, S., Saffer, H., Chaloupka, F. J., Szczypka, G., et al. (2006). Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company–Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior. American Journal of Public Health , 2154-2160. Web sources:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002, ). Global Tobacco Surveillance System Datae (GTSSData). Retrieved January 24, 2013, from
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Your Online Source for Credible Health Information: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/gtssdata/Ancillary/Documentation.aspx?SUID=1&DOCT=1 Cherry, K. (2013). Identity Versus Confusion. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from About.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/identity-versus-confusion.htm Department of Health. (2007). Philippines: Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Retrieved January 27, 2013, from Department of Health: http://www.doh.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2007Philippines_GYTS_Factsheet_0.pdf Philippines. (2012, July 23). Republic Act No. 10351. Retrieved January 17, 2013, from Official Gazette: http://www.gov.ph/2012/12/19/republic-act-no-10351/ Philippines. (2003, June 23). Republic Act No. 9211. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines: http://www.gov.ph/2003/06/23/republic-act-no-9211/ Randall, R. V. (1999, August 31). History of Tobacco. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from Boston University Medical Center Community Outreach Health Information System: http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/tobacco/history.htm PBS. (2006, March). Rx for Survival: A Global Health Challenge. Retrieved January 24, 2013, from Public Broadcasting Service: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/rxforsurvival/glossary.html Wikipedia. (2012, December 21). Lifestyle Disease. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lifestyle_disease Wikipedia. (2012, October 23). Sari-Sari Store. Retrieved January 24, 2013, from Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sari-sari_store World Health Organization. (1999). Tobacco Surveillance. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from Center for Disease Control: http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/Philippines%20Final%20Report%202000.pdf

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF NURSING
CORRALES EXT., CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY

February 14, 2013

Fidela B. Ansale, RN, MAN
Dean of the College of Nursing
Capitol University
Corrales Extension, Cagayan de Oro City
Misamis Oriental Philippines 9000

Dear Ma’am Ansale:

We, the nursing students of the Introduction to Research class, are conducting a research entitled, “Factors that contribute to the incidence of tobacco smoking among the students of Puntod National High School: a basis for preventative measures to deter students from smoking,” as part of our requirements. This is to acquire data regarding the factors that contribute to the incidence of smoking.

We respectfully ask your permission to allow us to observe and interview the administration, faculty and students of Puntod National High School from June to July of 2013. We assure you that we will conduct ourselves with the utmost professionalism and represent the school with nothing less than pristine demeanor.

We will follow up with a telephone call next week and we would be happy to answer any questions or concerns that you may have to that time. You may contact us at this e-mail address: [email protected] or through telephone at 0917.707.8584.

Sincerely,
The Researchers

Aguilar, Jane Catherine

Andoy, Eugiliz

Beja, Charmaine

Beja, Phoebe

Carretas, Rhona

Morales, Hanelli

Morales, Princess

Noted by:

Bergris Puerto, RN, MAN
Instructor, Nursing Research

Approved by:

Fidela B. Ansale, RN, MAN
Dean, College of Nursing

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF NURSING
CORRALES EXT., CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY

February 14, 2013

Mr. Renee Baa
Principal
Puntod National High School
Santos Naguit St. Puntod
Cagayan de Oro City 9000

Dear Mr. Baa:
We are writing to request permission to conduct a research study at Puntod National High School. We are currently enrolled in the Bachelor of Science in Nursing program at Capitol University located in Corrales Extension, Cagayan de Oro City, and we are in the process of writing our research paper for our undergraduate degree. The study is entitled, “Factors that contribute to the incidence of tobacco smoking among the students of Puntod National High School: a basis for preventative measures to deter students from smoking.” We hope to gather data regarding the incidence of smoking among the student body and the reason they do or do not smoke. We respectfully ask your permission to allow us to observe and interview the administration, faculty and students of the institution from June to July of 2013. A questionnaire will be given to students chosen in a stratified random method and an interview with you and some of the school staff is requested to provide a full picture of the conditions surrounding smoking among the students.

Sincerely,
The Researchers

Aguilar, Jane Catherine

Andoy, Eugiliz

Beja, Charmaine

Beja, Phoebe

Carretas, Rhona

Morales, Hanelli

Morales, Princess

Noted by:

Bergris Puerto, RN, MAN
Instructor, Nursing Research
Approved by:

Fidela B. Ansale, RN, MAN
Dean, College of Nursing

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF NURSING
CORRALES EXT., CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY

INFORMED CONSENT
I, _________________________________, parent of _______________________________________, of legal age, and residing at _________________________________________, freely give my consent for my child, who is below 18 years old, to participate in the study entitled, “Factors that contribute to the incidence of tobacco smoking among the students of Puntod National High School: a basis for preventative measures to deter students from smoking.” Furthermore, I have been fully informed and understand the following: the objective of this study is to investigate the incidence of smoking among the student population of Puntod National High School to give the correct information regarding the incident

the duration of this survey will be 30 minutes to 1 hour
all responses of this survey will be confidential
If there are any questions, I know to contact the researchers via e-mail at [email protected] or via the contact numbers listed below.

Sincerely,
The Researchers:
Aguilar, Jane CatherineContact #: 09177078584
Andoy, EugilizContact #: 09264847893
Beja, CharmaineContact #: 09358575635
Beja, PhoebeContact #: 09069609234
Carretas, RhonaContact #: 09059531784
Morales, Hanelli MaeContact #: 09167972590
Morales, Princess DawnContact #: 09261402005

____________________________________
Parent of Respondent
Noted by:

Bergris Puerto, RN, MAN
Professor

CAPITOL UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF NURSING
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY
PAGTUGOT
Ako si, _________________________________, ginikanan ni __________________________________, sa saktong pang-idarun nga gapuyo sa _________________________________________, gahatag sa akong tibouk nga pagtugot para mo apil akong anak, nga wala pa nangitaron ug 18 anyos, sa pagtuon bahin sa, “Factors that contribute to the incidence of tobacco smoking among the students of Puntod National High School: a basis for preventative measures to deter students from smoking.”Sa dugang pa, gipasabot ug gipahibalo ko sa mga sunod: ang katuyuan ani nga pagtuon maoy pag-imbestigar sa pag-panigarilyo sa mga estudyante sa Puntod National High School paghatag ug sakto nga informasyon bahin sa insidente

ang kadugayon ani nga pagsusi kay modagan gikan sa 30 minutos paingon sa isa ka oras tanan tubag ani nga pagsusi tinago
Kong naay mga pangutana, kabalo ko nga pwede nako sulatan ang mga tagapangita ug e-mail nga pamaagi, [email protected] sa pagtawag o text sa mga numero nga nakalista sa ubos. Kinasing-kasing,

Mga Tagapangita:
Aguilar, Jane CatherineContact #: 09177078584
Andoy, EugilizContact #: 09264847893
Beja, CharmaineContact #: 09358575635
Beja, PhoebeContact #: 09069609234
Carretas, RhonaContact #: 09059531784
Morales, Hanelli MaeContact #: 09167972590
Morales, Princess DawnContact #: 09261402005

____________________________________
Inahan o Amahan saTaga-tubag
Noted by:

Bergris Puerto, RN, MAN
Professor
APPENDIX-C
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE INCIDENCE OF TOBACCO SMOKING AMONG THE STUDENTS OF PUNTOD NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL: A BASIS FOR PREVENTATIVE MEASURES TO DETER STUDENTS FROM SMOKING

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
(Modified from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 3rd ROUND Philippines 2007 Questionnaire http://www.doh.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2007GYTS_FinalReport_0.pdf)

Objectives:
This survey aims to gather data as basis for recommending preventative measures to deter students from smoking.

INSTRUCTIONS

• Please read each question carefully before answering it. (Palihog ug basa sa kada pangutana sa dili pa tubagon).

• Choose the answer that best describes what you believe and feel to be correct. (Pilia ang tubag nga labing maayo sa imong pagtuo.)

• Choose only one answer for each question. (Isa r aka tuba gang piliun kada pangutana).

• If you have to change your answer, don’t worry, just erase it completely,
without leaving marks. (Kong kinahanglan nimo i-lisdan imong tubag, panasa lang ug ayo)

• Remember, each question only has one answer. (Isa lang ang tubag kada pangutana)

THE FIRST 11 QUESTIONS ASK ABOUT YOUR USE OF TOBACCO.
Ang mga sungod nga 11 ka pangutanakay bahin sa inyong paggamit sa sigarilyo/tabako.

1. Have you ever tried or experimented with cigarette smoking, even one or two puffs? (Nakatisting na ba ka ug magsigarilyo, bisag isa o dalawang lang ka hitit?)

a. Yes (Oo)
b. No (Wala)

2. How old were you when you first tried a cigarette? (Pila imong edad adtong una ka kapanigarilyo?)

a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa gyud ko ka sigarilyo) b. 7 years old or younger (7 anyos o ubos)
c. 8 or 9 years old (8 o 9 anyos)
d. 10 or 11 years old (10 o 11 anyos)
e. 12 or 13 years old (12 o 13 anyos)
f. 14 or 15 years old (14 o 15 anyos)
g. 16 years old or older (16 anyos o pataas)

3. During the past 30 days (one month), on how many days did you smoke cigarettes?(Karong nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw(1 bulan), pila ka adlaw ka kapanigarilyo?)

a. 0 days (wala)
b. 1 or 2 days (1 o 2 ka adlaw)
c. 3 to 5 days (3 paingon sa 5 ka adlaw)
d. 6 to 9 days (6 paingon sa 9 ka adlaw)
e. 10 to 19 days (10 paingon sa 19 ka adlaw)
f. 20 to 29 days (20 paingon sa 29 ka adlaw)
g. All 30 days (tibuok 30 ka adlaw)

4. During the past 30 days (one month), how many cigarettes per day do you usually smoke? (Karong nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw(1 bulan), pila ka sigarilyo ang imong masigarilyo?)

a. I did not smoke cigarettes during the past 30 days (one month) (wala ko nanigarilyo karong mga 30 ka adlaw (1 bulan)) b. Less than 1 cigarette per day (Ubos pa sa isa ka sigarilyo kada adlaw) c. 1 cigarette per day (1 ka sigarilyo sa kada isa ka adlaw) d. 2 to 5 cigarettes per day (2 paingon sa 5 ka sigarilyo kada adlaw) e. 6 to 10 cigarettes per day (6paingon sa 10 ka sigarilyo kada adlaw) f. 11 to 20 cigarettes per day (11 paingon sa 20 ka sigarilyo kada adlaw) g. More than 20 cigarettes per day (labaw pa sa 20 ka sigarilyo kada adlaw)

5. During the past 30 days (one month), how did you usually get your own cigarettes? (SELECT ONLY ONE RESPONSE) (Karong nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw(1 bulan), unsaon nimo ug kuha sa imong sigarilyo? (ISA RA ANG PILIA))

a. I did not smoke cigarettes during the past 30 days (one month) (Wala ko nanigarilyo karong nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw ( 1 bulan)) b. I bought them in a store, shop or from a street vendor
(Nipalitko sa tindahan/palengke/grocery/takatak sa kalye)
c. I bought them from a vending machine (Nipalitko sa vending machine) d. I gave someone else money to buy them for me (Nag-hatag ko ug kwarta sa lain dayon nag-papalit ko ug sigarilyo sa ila) e. I borrowed them from someone else (Nangayo ko sa lain)

f. I stole them (Gi-kawat nako)
g. An older person gave them to me (Gi-hatagan ko sa tao nga mga tigulang sa ako h. I got it in some other way (Nakakuha ko sa lain nga pamaagi)

6. During the past 30 days (one month), what brand of cigarettes did you usually smoke? (SELECT ONLY ONE RESPONSE) (Karong nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw(1 bulan), unsa nga brand imong kasagara nga gi-sigarilyo? (PILI LANG UG ISA KA TUBAG))

a. I did not smoke cigarettes during the past 30 days (wala ko nanigarilyo sa mga nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw (1 buwan)) b. No usual brand (Wala koy kasagara nga brand)
c. Marlboro
d. Philip Morris
e. Winston
f. Hope
g. Memphis
h. Others (Lain pa)

7. During the past 30 days (one month), did anyone ever refuse to sell you cigarettes because of your age?(Karong nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw(1 bulan), naa bay ni dili ug baligya sa imo ug sigarilyo tungod sa imong edad?)

a. I did not try to buy cigarettes during the past 30 days (Wala ko ni tisting ug palit ug sigarilyo karong ni labay nga 30 ka adlaw (1 bulan)) b. Yes, someone refused to sell me cigarettes because of my age (Oo, naay ni dili ug baligya tungod sa akong edad)

c. No, my age did not keep me from buying cigarettes(Wala naka pugong akong edad sa pag-palit ug sigarilyo)

8. During the past 30 days (one month), have you ever used any form of smoked-tobacco products other than cigarettes (e.g. cigars, pipes)? (Karong nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw(1 bulan), nakagamit baka ug lain nga mga produkto nga tabako gawas pasa sigarilyo) a. Yes (Oo)

b. No (Wala)

9. During the past 30 days (one month), have you ever used any form of
smokeless- tobaccoproducts(e.g. chewing tobacco,)? (Karong nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw(1 bulan), nakagamit na ba ka ug lain ngaproduktong nga tabako nga dili ginahithit?) a. Yes (Oo)

b. No (Wala)

10. Where do you usually smoke? (SELECT ONLY ONE RESPONSE) (Asa ka kasagara gapanigarilyo?)(ISA RA ANG PILIA)) a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa ko sukad kapanigarilyo) b. At home (Sa balay)

c. At school (Sa iskwelahan)
d. At work (Sa trabaho)
e. At friends’ houses (Sa balay sa akong amigo/amiga)
f. At social events (Sa mga pagtapok-tapok)
g. In public spaces (e.g. parks, shopping centres, street corners)(Sa mga publiko nga lugar (park, sa shopping center o mall, kanto) h. Other (Lain pa)

11. Do you ever have cigarette (or feel like having) a cigarette first thing in the morning?(Gapanigarilyo o gusto ba ka manigarilyo pag-mata dayon nimo sa buntag?)

a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa ko sukad kapanigarilyo) b. I no longer smoke cigarettes (Dili nako kapanigarilyo)
c. No, I don’t have or feel like having a cigarette first thing in the morning (Dili ko gusto manigarilyo pag-mata nako sa buntag) d. Yes, I sometimes feel like having a cigarette first thing in themorning (Oo, usahay gusto ko manigarilyo pag-mata nako sa buntag) e. Yes, I always feel like having a cigarette first thing in the morning(Oo, permi ko gusto manigarilyo dayon pag-mata nako sa buntag).

THE NEXT 17 QUESTIONS ASK ABOUT YOUR KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TOBACCO Ang sunod nga mga 17 ka mga pangutana kay bahin sa imong mga nahibawan ug pamatasan bahin sa tabako.

12. Do your parents smoke? (Ga pa nigarilyo pa imong mga ginikanan?)

a. None (wala)
b. Both (pareho)
c Father only. (amahan lang)
d. Mother only (inahanlang)
e. I don’t know (wala ko kabalo)

13. If one of your best friends offered you a cigarette, would you smoke it? (Kong tagaan ka sa imong best friend ug sigarilyo, imo bang hithiton?)

a. Definitely not (Dili gyud)
b. Probably not (Basin dili)
c. Probably yes (Basin oo)
d. Definitely yes (Oo gyud)

14. Has anyone in your family discussed the harmful effects of smoking with you? (Naa naba kay ka-pamilya nga gi-ignan ka bahin sa mga dautan nga epekto sa papanigarilyo?)

a. Yes (Oo)
b. No (Wala)

15. At any time during the next 12 months do you think you will smoke a cigarette? (Sa imong pag-tuo, sa sunod nga 12 ka bulan, makapanigarilyo kaha ka?)

a. Definitely not (Dili gyud)
b. Probably not (Basin dili)
c. Probably yes (Basin oo)
d. Definitely yes (Oo gyud)

16. Do you think you will be smoking cigarettes 5 years from now? (Sa imong pag-tuo, manigarilyo kaha ka sa sunod nga 5 ka tuig gikan karon?)

a. Definitely not (Dili gyud)
b. Probably not (Basin dili)
c. Probably yes (Basin oo)
d. Definitely yes (Oo gyud)

17. Once someone has started smoking, do you think it would be difficult to quit? (Kong ang isa ka tao mag-sugod ug panigarilyo, sa imong pag-tuo, pag-lisod ba sila ug undang?)

a. Definitely not (Dili gyud)
b. Probably not (Basin dili)
c. Probably yes (Basin oo)
d. Definitely yes (Oo gyud)

18. Do you think boys who smoke cigarettes have more or less friends? (Sa imong pag-tuo, ang lalaki nga gapanigarilyo mas daghan ba amigo?)

a. More friends (mas daghan amigo)
b. Less friends (masgamay ug amigo)
c. No difference from non-smokers(walay deperensya)

19. Do you think girls who smoke cigarettes have more or less friends? (Sa imong pag-tuo, ang babae nga gapanigarilyo mas daghan ba amiga?)

a. More friends (mas daghan amiga)
b. Less friends (masgamay ug amiga)
c. No difference from non-smokers(walay deperensya)

20. Does smoking cigarettes help people feel more or less comfortable at celebrations, parties, or in other social gatherings?(Makatabang ba ang pag panigarilyo samtang naay mga celebrasyo ug pahalipay para haruhay ang paminow?)

a. More comfortable (mas haruhay)
b. Less comfortable (mas dili haruhay)
c. No difference from non-smokers (walay deperensya)

21. Do you think smoking cigarettes makes boys look more or less attractive? (Mas mu-gwapo ba ang lalaki kong manigarilyo?)

a. More attractive (mas gwapo)
b. Less attractive (makulangan ang pagkagwapo)
c. No difference from non-smokers (walay deperensya)

22. Do you think smoking cigarettes makes girls look more or less attractive? (Mas mu-gwapa ba ang babae kong manigarilyo?)

a. More attractive (mas gwapa)
b. Less attractive (makulangan ang pagkagwapa)
c. No difference from non-smokers (walay deperensya)

23. Do you think that smoking cigarettes makes you gain or lose weight? (Sa imong pag-tuo, makaniwag o makatambok ang pag-panigarilyo?)

a. Gain weight (makatambok)
b. Lose weight (makaniwang)
c. No difference (walay deperensya)

24. Do you think cigarette smoking is harmful to your health? (Saimong pag-tuo, maka-daot bas a imong kalawasan ang pag-panigarilyo?)

a. Definitely not (Dili gyud)
b. Probably not (Basin dili)
c. Probably yes (Basin oo)
d. Definitely yes (Oo gyud)

25. Do any of your closest friends smoke cigarettes? (Naa bakay mga duol kaayo nga mga amigo o amiga nga gapanigarilyo?)

a. None of them (wala)
b. Some of them (unban sa ila)
c. Most of them (daghan sa ila)
d. All of them (tanan sila)

26. When you see a man smoking what do you think of him? (SELECT ONLY ONE RESPONSE) Kong naa kay makitan nga lalaki gapanigarilyo, unsa imong pag-tanaw sa isa? (ISA RA ANG PILIA)

a. Lacks confidence (kulang ug confidence)
b. Stupid (bugok)
c. Loser (walay pulos)
d. Successful (malamposon)
e. Intelligent (utokan)
e. Macho (macho)
f. Others (lain pa)

27. When you see a woman smoking what do you think of her? (SELECT ONLY ONE RESPONSE)Kong naa kay babae makitan nga ganigarilyo, unsa imong pag-tanaw sa iya? (ISA RA ANG PILIA)

a. Lacks confidence (kulang sa confidence)
b. Stupid (bugok)
c. Loser (walay pulos)
d. Successful (malamposon)
e. Intelligent (utokan)
f. Sophisticated (sosyal)
g. Others (Lain pa)

28. Do you think it is safe to smoke for only a year or two as long as you quit after that? (Sa imong pag-tuo, ok r aba manigarilyo ug 1 o 2 katuig dayon mu-undang na dayon?)

a. Definitely not (Dili gyud)
b. Probably not (Basin dili)
c. Probably yes (Basin oo)
d. Definitely yes (Oo gyud)

THE NEXT 4 QUESTIONS ASK ABOUT YOUR EXPOSURE TO OTHER PEOPLE’S SMOKING Ang sunod nga mga pangutananga 4 ka buok kay bahin sa imong pagtukas sa pag-panigarilyo sa uban.

29. Do you think the smoke from other people’s cigarettes is harmful to you? (Sa imong pag-tuo, ang aso sa sigarilyo sa uban sa maka-daot sa imo?)

a. Definitely not (Dili gyud)
b. Probably not (Basin dili)
c. Probably yes (Basin oo)
d. Definitely yes (Oo gyud)

30. During the past 7 days, on how many days have people smoked in your home, inyour presence? (Sa mga 7 ka adlaw nga nilabay, pila na ka adlaw naa kay maka-abay nga gapanigarilyo sa inyo balay?) a. 0 (Wala)

b. 1 to 2 (1-2 ka tao)
c. 3 to 4 (3-4 ka tao)
d. 5 to 6 (5-6 ka tao)
e. 7 (pito ka tao)

31. During the past 7 days, on how many days have people smoked in your presence, in places other than in your home? (Karong nilabay mga 7 ka adlaw, pila ka adlaw nga naay nanigarilyo sa imong presensya, gawas sa inyong balay?)

a. 0 (Wala)
b. 1 to 2 days (1-2 ka adlaw)
c. 3 to 4 days (3-4 ka adlaw)
d. 5 to 6 days (5-6 ka adlaw)
e. 7 days (pito ka adlaw)

32. Are you in favor of banning smoking in public places (such as in restaurants, in buses, streetcars, and trains, in schools, on playgrounds,
in gyms and sports arenas, in discos)? (Pabor baka sa pag-bawal sa pag-panigarilyo sa mga publiko nga mga lugar?)

a. Yes (Oo)
b. No (Dili)

THE NEXT 6 QUESTIONS ASK ABOUT YOUR ATTITUDES TOWARD STOPPING SMOKINGAng mga sunod nga 6 nga pangutana kay bahin sa imong pamatasan bahin sa pag-undang ug panigarilyo

33. Do you want to stop smoking now? (Gusto ba ka mu-undang?)

a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa ko kapanigarilyo sukad) b. I did not smoke during the past year ( Wala nako nakapnigarilyo sa sulod sa isa ka tuig) c. Yes (Oo)
d. No (Dili)

34. During the past year, have you ever tried to stop smoking cigarettes? (Sa nilabay nga tuig, nag-tisting na b aka ug undang ug panigarilyo?)

a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa ko kapanigarilyo sukad) b. I do not smoke now (Dili nako gapanigarilyo)
c. Yes (Oo)
d. No (Dili)

35. How long ago did you stop smoking? (Unsa naka ka dugay ni undang?)

a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa ko kapanigarilyo sukad) b. I have not stopped smoking (Wala ko ni undang ug panigarilyo) c. 1-3 months (1-3 bulan)
d. 4-11 months (4-11 bulan)
e. One year (1 tuig)
f. 2 years (2 tuig)
g. 3 years or longer (3 tuig o mas dugay pa)

36. What was the main reason you decided to stop smoking? (SELECT ONE ONLY) (Unsa imong pinakadako nga rason nga ni undang ka?)(ISA RA ANG PILIA))

a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa ko kapanigarilyo sukad) b. I have not stopped smoking (Wala pa ko ni undang ug panigarilyo) c. To improve my health (Para mu-uswag akong panglawas)
d. To save money (Para pangdaginot ug kwarta)
e. Because my family does not like it (Dili ganahan akong pamilya) f. Because my friends don’t like it (Dili ganahan akong mga amigo ug amiga) g. Others (Lain pa)

37. Do you think you would be able to stop smoking if you wanted to? (Sa iyong pag-tuo, makaundang kaha ka ug panigarilyo kong gusto nimo?) a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa ko kapanigarilyo sukad) b. I have already stopped smoking cigarettes (Ni undang nako) c. Yes (Oo)

d. No (Dili)

38. Have you ever received help or advice to help you stop smoking? (SELECT ONLY ONE RESPONSE) (Naka-dawat naba ka ug tabang bahin sa pag-undang ug pagpanigarilyo?) (ISA RA PILIA) a. I have never smoked cigarettes (Wala pa ko kapanigarilyo sukad) b. Yes, from a program or professional (Oo, gikan sa is aka programa o professional) c. Yes, from a friend (Oo, gikan sa amigo)

e. Yes, from both programs or professionals and from friends or familymembers (Oo, gikan sa programa o professional ug sa mga amigo o ka-pamilya) f. None (Wala)
g. Others (Lain)

THE NEXT 9 QUESTIONS ASK ABOUT YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF MEDIA MESSAGES ABOUT SMOKINGAng sunod nga 9 ka pangutana kay bahin sa imong mga nahibawan nga mga mensahe sa media bahin sa pagpanigarilyo

39. During the past 30 days (one month), how many anti-smoking media messages (e.g., television, radio, billboards, posters, newspapers, magazines,
movies) have you seen? (Sa ni labay nga 30 ka adlaw (1 bulan), pila na ka anti-panigarilyo ang imong nakitan sa media (ex. Telebisyon, radyo, mga karatula, poster, diyaryo, magasin o salida) ang nakitan o nadungan bahin sa pag-undang ug panigarilyo?)

a. A lot (daghan)
b. A few (gamay ra)
c. None (wala)

40. When you go to sports events, fairs, concerts, community events, or social gatherings, how often do you see anti-smoking messages? (Sa mga okasyon nga naay palaro, concerto, ug uban pa nga pahalipay, unsa ka daghan imong makitan nga mga mensahe nga dili manigarilyo?)

a. I never go to sports events, fairs, concerts, community events, or social gatherings (Dili ko ga adto sa mga palaro, perya, konsyerto o mga gawaing pang-komunidad) b. A lot (Permi)
c. Sometimes (Usahay)
d. None (Wala)

41. When you watch tv, videos, or movies, how often do you see actors smoking? (Kong mananaw ka ug video, tv, o salida, ika pila ka makakita ug mga mensahe bahin sa dili na manigarilyo?

a. I never watch tv, videos, or movies (Dili ko gapananaw ug telebisyon, sine o video) b. A lot (Permi)
c. Sometimes (Usahay)
d. I never see actors smoking whenever I watch tv, video, or movies (Wala koy mga artista gagkakita manigarilyo)

42. Do you have something (t-shirt, pen, backpack, etc.) with a cigarette brand logo on it? (Naa bakay mga butang nga naa logo sa isa ka sigarilyo nga brand?)

a. Yes (Oo)
b. No (Wala)

43. During the past 30 days (one month), when you watched sports events or other programs on TV how often did you see cigarette brand names? (Sa ni labay nga 30 ka adlaw (1 bulan), ika pila ka makakita ug brand sa sigarilyo sa tv.)

a. I never watch TV (Dili ko gapananaw ug tv)
b. A lot (Permi)
c. Sometimes (Usahay)
d. Never seen (Wala pa ko kita)

44. During the past 30 days (one month), how many advertisements for cigarettes have you seen onbillboards? (Sa nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw (1 bulan), nakakita ba ka ug advertisement para sa sigarilyo sa mga billboards)

a. We don’t have any billboards (Walay billboard sa amo)
b. A lot (daghan)
c. A few (gamay ra)
d. Never seen cigarette ads (wala)

45. During the past 30 days (one month), how many advertisements or promotions for cigarettes have you seen in newspapers or magazines? (Sa nilabay nga 30 ka adlaw (1 bulan), pila ka advertisement imong nakitaan sa newspaper or magasin bahin sa sigarilyo?)

a. We do not have newspaper or magazines (wala koy newspaper o magasin) b. A lot (Permi)
c. A few (Usahay)
d. Never seen advertisement or promotions for cigarettes (Wala pa ko kita)

46. When you go to sports events, fairs, concerts, or community events, how often do you seeadvertisements for cigarettes? (Kanang muadto ka ug mga palaro ug uban pa pahalipay, ika-pila ka makakita ug mga advertisement bahin sa pagsigarilyo?)

a. I never attend sports events, fairs, concerts, or community events (Dili ko gaapil-apil sa mga palaro ug uban pa pahalipay) b. A lot (Permi
c. Sometimes (Usahay)
d. Never (Wala pa ko kita)

47. Has a cigarette sales representative ever offered you a free cigarette? (Naa nabay sales representative nga nag-offer sa imong ug libre nga sigarilyo?)

a. Yes (Oo)
b. None (Wala)

THE NEXT 4 QUESTIONS ASK ABOUT WHAT YOU WERE TAUGHT ABOUT SMOKING IN SCHOOLAng sunod nga 4 ka pangutan kay bahin sa pagpanigarilyo sa skwelahan

48. During this school year, were you taught in any of your classes about the dangers of smoking? (Karong tuig sa ting clase, gitudloan bam o bahin sa mga makadaot nga dala sa pagpanigarilyo?)

a. Yes (Oo)
b. No (Wala)
c. Not sure (Dili ko sure)

49. During this school year, did you discuss in any of your classes the reasons why people your age smoke? (Karong tuig sa ting clase, nag-storya ba mo sa inyong clase bahin sa mga rason nga mga bata sa inyong edad gapanigarilyo?)

a. Yes (Oo)
b. No (Wala)
c. Not sure (Dili ko sure)

50. During this school year, were you taught in any of your classes about the effects of smoking like it makes your teeth yellow, causes wrinkles, or
makes you smell bad? (Karong tuig sa ting clase, gitudloan ba mo sa inyong clase bahin sa mga epekto sa pagpanigarilyo sama sa maka-yellow ug ngipon, maka-wrinkles ug manimaho mo?)

a. Yes (Oo)
b. No (Wala)
c. Not sure (Dili ko sure)

51. How long ago did you last discuss smoking and health as part of a lesson? (Unsa ka dugay inyong ulahi nga diskusyon bahin sa pagpanigarilyo ug panglawas nga apil sa inyon leksyon?)

a. Never (Wala pa)
b. This term (Karon ng term)
c. Last term (Niagi nga term)
d. 2 terms ago (2 na ka term ni labay)
e. 3 terms ago (3 na ka term ni labay)
f. More than a year ago (lapas na isa ka tuig)

THE NEXT 4 QUESTIONS ASK FOR SOME BACKGROUND INFORMATION ABOUT YOURSELF. Ang ulahi nga 3 ka pangutana kay bahin sa imong kaugalingon

52. How old are you? (Pila na imong edad?)

a. 11 years old or younger (11 anyos o paubos)
b. 12 years old (12 anyos)
c. 13 years old (13 anyos)
d. 14 years old (14 anyos)
e. 15 years old (15 anyos)
f. 16 years old (16 anyos)
g. 17 years old or older (17 anyos o pataas)

53. What is your sex? (Unsa imong hiyas sa paglatawo?)

a. Male (Lalaki)
b. Female (Babae)

54. What year are you in now? (Unsa naka nga tuig sa high school?)

a. First Year (una nga tuig)
b. Second Year (ika duha nga tuig)
c. Third Year (ika tulo nga tuig)
d. Fourth Year (ika upat nga tuig)

End of Survey. Thank you very much for your cooperation (Humana ang survey. Daghang salamat!).

BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS

Research material expense

Ball pens
Bond papers
Folders
Ring bound

Total research material expense
Frequency

6.50*3

10.00*4
40.00*2

139.50
Transportation expense
Going to Puntod National Highschool(2 rides*2days/week*5 persons)

Total transportation expense
30.00*7

12.00*7

294.00
Utilities expense
Internet load (24 hours*3days*7persons)

Total utilities expense
60.00*3

180.00
Miscellaneous expense
Printing (70 pages)

Photocopying(4 sets)

Total miscellaneous expense
70.00*4

10.00*4

320.00
Total expense

1114.50

CURRICULUM VITAE
NAME: JaneCatherine A. Aguilar
ADDRESS: 2394 St. Luke’s St. Pasil,
Kauswagan, Cagayan de Oro City, 9000
FATHER’S NAME: Alfonso R. Abanes, Jr.
MOTHER’S NAME: Catherine M. Abanes
PARENTS ADDRESS: 80 3rd St. San Pedro Village, Gusa, Cagayan de Oro City, 9000 RELIGION: Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE: June 8, 1985
GENDER: Female
EMAIL ADDRESS: [email protected]
CONTACT NUMBER: 09177078584
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTYEAR
ELEMENTARY: Saint Paul’s School of Ormoc1998
Ormoc City
SECONDARY:Saint Peter’s College of Ormoc,2002
Ormoc City
TERTIARY:Bachelor of Arts Major in Political Science2003
Saint Peter’s School of Ormoc, Ormoc City
Caregiver Course2007
Liceo de Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro City
Bachelor of Science in NursingOngoing
Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City

CURRICULUM VITAE
NAME: Eugiliz A. Andoy
ADDRESS: Purok 10 PoblacionValencia City
FATHER’S NAME: Eugenio L. Andoy
MOTHER’S NAME: Liza A. Andoy
PARENTS ADDRESS: Purok 10 Poblacion Valencia City, Bukidnon
RELIGION: Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE: July 25, 1983
GENDER: Female
EMAIL ADDRESS: [email protected]
CONTACT NUMBER: 09264847893
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTYEAR
ELEMENTARY: Valencia City Central School1996
Valencia City
SECONDARY:San Agustin Institute of Technology2000
Valencia City
TERTIARY:Bachelor of Science in NursingOngoingCapitol University, Cagayan de Oro City CURRICULUM VITAE
NAME: Charmaine E. Beja
ADDRESS: Lumbia, Cagayan de Oro City
FATHER’S NAME: Leonides D. Beja
MOTHER’S NAME: Cherry E. Beja
PARENTS ADDRESS: Lumbia, Cagayan de Oro City
RELIGION: Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE: January 25, 1992
GENDER: Female
EMAIL ADDRESS: [email protected]
CONTACT NUMBER: 09358575635
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTYEAR
ELEMENTARY: Iligan City Central School2004
Mahayahay, Iligan City
SECONDARY:Mis. Or. General Comprehensive High School2008
Velez, Cagayan de Oro City
TERTIARY:Bachelor of Science in NursingOngoingCapitol University, Cagayan de Oro City CURRICULUM VITAE
NAME: Phoebe C. Beja
ADDRESS: Zone 9, Macanhan, Cagayan de Oro City
FATHER’S NAME: Jorge Beja
MOTHER’S NAME: Concepcion Beja
PARENTS ADDRESS: Zone 9, Macanhan, Cagayan de Oro City
RELIGION: Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE: February 21, 1991
GENDER: Female
EMAIL ADDRESS: [email protected]
CONTACT NUMBER: 09069609234
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTYEAR
ELEMENTARY:Kauswagan Central School2003
Kauswagan, Cagayan de Oro City
SECONDARY:Mis. Or. General Comprehensive High School 2007
Don Apolinar Velez Street, Cagayan de Oro City
TERTIARY:Bachelor of Science in NursingOngoingCapitol University, Cagayan de Oro City CURRICULUM VITAE
NAME: Rhona L. Carretas
ADDRESS: Forest View Subdivision
Upper Carmen Cagayan de Oro City
FATHER’S NAME: Roberto C. Carretas
MOTHER’S NAME: Lorna L. Carretas
PARENTS ADDRESS: Forest View Subdivision
Upper Carmen Cagayan de Oro City
RELIGION: Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE: November 5, 1992
GENDER: Female
EMAIL ADDRESS: [email protected]
CONTACT NUMBER: 09059531784
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTYEAR
ELEMENTARY: Agusan Elementary School2005
SECONDARY: Mis. Or. General Comprehensive HighSchool2009
TERTIARY:Bachelor of Science in Nursing OngoingCapitol University, Cagayan de Oro City CURRICULUM VITAE
NAME: Hanelli Mae B. Morales
ADDRESS: Bangcud Malaybalay City
FATHER’S NAME: Nicasio Arsenio N.Morales
MOTHER’S NAME: Jocelyn B. Morales
PARENTS ADDRESS: Bangcud Malaybalay City
RELIGION: Roman Catholic
BIRTHDATE: August 18, 1986
GENDER: Female
EMAIL ADDRESS: [email protected]
CONTACT NUMBER: 09167972590
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENTYEAR
ELEMENTARY: Bangcud Elementary School1999
Bangcud Malaybaly City
SECONDARY:Bangcud National High School2003
Bangcud Malaybaly City
TERTIARY:Bachelor of Science in NursingOngoingCapitol University, Cagayan de Oro City CURRICULUM VITAE
NAME: Princess Dawn B. Morales
ADDRESS: Bangcud Malaybalay City
FATHER’S NAME: Nicasio Arsenio N.Morales
MOTHER’S NAME: Jocelyn B. Morales

Cite this Factors that Contribute to the Incidence of Tobacco Smoking

Factors that Contribute to the Incidence of Tobacco Smoking. (2016, Jul 12). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/factors-that-contribute-to-the-incidence-of-tobacco-smoking/

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