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Revision 1 Prepared by SMEDA-Sindh Approved by Provincial Chief-Sindh Issue Date July, 2004 Issued by Library Officer Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMEDA…………………….. …. 4 2 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT ………………………………. 5 3 CRUCIAL FACTORS & STEPS IN DECISION MAKING FOR INVESTMENT IN THE PROJECT .. ……………………………. 5 4 PROJECT PROFILE . …………………………………………….. 6 5 STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS . ………………………… 11 6 KEY SUCCESS FACTOR . ………………………………………. 11 7 SECTOR AND INDUSTRY ANALYSIS . ………………………. 4 8 MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS .. ………… 20 9 HUMAN RESOURCE REQUIREMENT .. ……………………… 21 10 LAND & BUILDING REQUIREMENTS . ……………………… 22 11 FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS ……………………………………. 24 12 KEY ASSUMPTIONS …………………………………………….. 25 13 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS … ………………………………… 27 Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 4 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMEDA The Small and Medium Enterprise Development (SMEDA) was established with the objective to provide fresh impetus to the economy through the launch of an aggressive SME support program
Since its inception on October 1998, SMEDA has adopted a sect sectoral SME development approach. A few priority sectors were selected on the criterion of SME presence. In depth research was conducted and comprehensive development plans were formulated after identification of impediments and retardants. The allencompassing sectoral development strategy involved overhauling of the regulatory environment by taking into consideration other important aspects including finance, marketing, technology and human resource development.
SMEDA has so far successfully formulated strategies for sectors including fruits and vegetables, marble and granite, gems and jewelry, marine fisheries, leather and footwear, textiles, surgical instruments, transport and dairy. Whereas the task of SME development at a boarder scale still requires more coverage and enhanced reach in terms of SMEDA’s areas of operation. Along with the sectoral focus a broad spectrum of business development services is also offered to the SMEs by SMEDA. These services include identification of viable business opportunities for potential SME investors.
In order to facilitate these investors, SMEDA provides helpdesk services as well as development of project specific documents. These documents consist of information required to make wellresearched investment decisions. Sectoral research studies, pre-feasibility studies and business plan development are some of the services provided to enhance the capacity of individual SMEs to exploit viable business opportunities in a better way. Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 5 2 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT
The objective of the pre-feasibility study is primarily to facilitate potential entrepreneurships in project identification for investment. The project pre-feasibility may from the basis of an important investment decision and in order to serve this objective; the document/study covers various aspects of project concept development, start-up, production, marketing, finance and business management. The document also provides sectoral information, brief on Government policies and international scenario, which have some bearing on the project itself.
This particular pre-feasibility is regarding production of purified drinking water on commercial basis, which comes under food sector. Before studying the whole document one must consider following critical aspects, which forms the basis of any investment decision. 3 CRUCIAL FACTORS & STEPS IN DECISION MAKING FOR INVESTMENT IN THE PROJECT Before making any investment decision, it is advisable to evaluate the associated risk factors by taking into consideration certain key elements. For establishing water purification plant critical factors that should be considered before launching are described below: The market for purified bottled / mineral water is a growing market, but offers tough competition. ? Perception / positioning of the new brand. Usually the top target market for bottled mineral water follows the perception. If the perception is positive, the results will be higher sales. The positive perception for distributors and final customers may result from direct consumer experience, awareness, direct promotional activities, print media and TV advertising. ? Distribution is very important for the success of new brand. The stronger the distribution the more successful will be the new brand.
The distribution strategy should be designed after a careful study of the market for going for regional distribution or for nation wide distribution. ? Pre-launch advertising is vital for positive perception of the product, which will result in higher product acceptance. ? Compliance of the water quality standards of Pakistan Standards & Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) and license from the authority. ? Availability of product at A class, B class or C class shops should be decided before launching the product and availability should be persistent. Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water
PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 6 3. 1 Project Time Lines S. No Activity Time (months) 1 Civil Works 2 2 Plant order and lay out 3 3 Pre-opening operations 1 The construction of civil works has been estimated to be completed in two months and the plant order, lay out and installation is estimated to have a time period of three months. The time required for pre-operations is one month. It also includes prelaunch advertisements on TV and in print media. The project time line may extend and cut back depending upon the start of activities on parallel basis or one after another. PROJECT PROFILE 4. 1 Purification of Water The process of purified bottled water manufacturing consist of collecting water from a suitable source, filtration, demineralization, blending with salts, aeration, testing for standards conformation, bottling and packaging. A process for the production of bacteria free, clean and palatable bottled water was developed by PCSIR Laboratories complex Karachi. It had very simple process consisting of physical operations of settling, filtration and Ultra Violet radiation treatment.
This plant was put into process in 1987. During 1990’s much of the mineral water was imported. But today there are more than 26 brands of drinking water available in the market thus showing a substantial growth by the industry. Table: Mineral Water Imports in Pakistan Year Quantity Value (‘000’ Rs. ) 1992-93 694,249 3,188 1993-94 814,338 5,384 1994-95 1,660,951 10,741 1995-96 2,328,460 12,856 Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics 4. 2 Opportunity Rationale The market for mineral water has been showing a mushroom growth trend over the last few years.
The country’s market is very small on a global scale and was estimated at 33 million liters a year by the end of 1992. The last three years have shown more growth and the market has been estimated to grow 70 million liters and Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 7 the per capita consumption is 0. 5 liter. The annual growth rate for bottled water is 40%. According to a study conducted in 2001, Pakistan registered the highest growth of 140% in 2000 amongst the countries in Asia and Middle East region.
The potential markets for bottled / mineral water consist of foreign tourists and foreigners working in Pakistan, hotel industry, patients (bottle water is also used to avoid the possible consumption of contaminated water for the patients) and travelers. Moreover the bottled / mineral water has been emerging as a daily preference of the elite class. Karachi being the biggest city of Pakistan has been facing the problem of drinking water shortage. This further integrates the demand for pure drinking water in Karachi city. 4. 3 Project Brief
This proposed project presents an investment opportunity for establishing a bottled water plant for providing pure drinking water. The proposed product line will consist of bottles of 1. 5 and 0. 5 liters. In the initial phase of the project only 0. 5 liters and 1. 5 liters bottles will be introduced in the local market. After successful introduction of the new brand of bottled water the product line may be extended to 13 and 19 liters cans. 4. 4 Project Investment The total cost of the project has been worked out to be Rs. 15. 066 million. This includes a fixed cost of Rs. 11. 485 million and a working capital requirement of Rs. . 580 million. Period of construction is 2 months for civil works and 3 months for machinery & Equipment layout and installation. 4. 5 Process Two sources of water can be used for purification purposes on commercial basis. ? Ground Water ? Water Supply from KWSB (in Karachi) The ground water option is relatively costly as it involves more treatment. The ground water available on Karachi at different areas has different chemical composition and treatment would vary depending upon the chemical composition from area to area. The water supply from KWSB is more feasible as compared to the ground water available in Karachi.
Water can be purchased from KWSB on commercial basis. This feasibility study focuses on KWSB water as source of water. Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 8 For the purpose of this feasibility study, two samples of KWSB water has been taken and their chemical composition was analyzed. The chemical analysis of these samples is as following. The cost of purification plant is dependent on the analysis of the available water. The treatment varies from place to place (increase of ground water) and from source to source. Table: Analysis of KWSB Water Source-I Source-II pH 7. 50 7. 62
Conductivity 452 us/cm 492 us/cm Sulphate 58 ppm 57 ppm Bicarbonate 107 ppm 111 ppm Chloride 48 ppm 57 ppm Magnesium 11 ppm 12 ppm Calcium 36 ppm 39 ppm Potassium 6 ppm 6 ppm Sodium 34 ppm 40 ppm Total Dissolved Solvents 270 ppm 295 ppm Total Califon Count Zero / DL Zero / DL Farecal Califon Count Zero / DL Zero / DL Total Bacterial Count 4. 0x10? cfu/m 4. 0x10? cfu/m 4. 6 Project Capacity Rationale This study has been made with the focus of Karachi city. Karachi has been facing the problem of water shortage. The population has been growing at the rate of 3. 48 annually. The proportion of Urban and rural population in Sindh is 48. and 51. 2 respectively. It also shows that the major proportion of the population is in the cities and Karachi comes out to be a major target market for new product. The population of Karachi city is 9,339,023 according to 1998 population, which is around 30. 69% of the population of Sindh.
Depending on the minimum feasible plant capacity and situation of supply of different brands of purifies bottled water and future expansions, a plant size of 15,000 Gallons per day is recommended. 4. 7 Proposed Product Mix This feasibility has been developed for a water purification plant with a capacity of 15,000 gallons per day. The product mix consists of water bottles of 1. 5 liters and 0. 5 liter in the ratio of 80% and 20% respectively. Table: Recommended project Parameters Capaciitty Human Resourrce Technollogy//Machiinerry Locattiion 15,000 Gallons per day 42 Local + imported Karachi 4. 8 Proposed Business Legal Status
There are three main forms of business: Sole Proprietorship, Partnership and Company. An enterprise can be a proprietorship or a partnership and even it can be registered under company law with corporate law authority. Although selection totally depends upon the choices of an entrepreneur, but this feasibility study has been based on a private limited company. 4. 9 Financial Summary The financial cost of the project can be summarized as under: Project Cost IRR MIRR Payback Period (yrs) NPV 15,066,485 79% 37% 2. 20 172,652,900 4. 10The process flow The first step for setting up a water purification plant is the analysis of source of water.
After the chemical analysis, the specifications of the purification plant are set. In the purification plant, source water is stored in the feed water tank, passes through the sand filter for preliminary water filtration. Water then passes through the dosing pump-I where chlorine is added to kill the germs in the water. After the chlorination, water passes through carbon filter. It helps in the maintenance of proper odour and taste of the water. It also removes chlorine from water. Water is then passes from Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 10 osing pump-II, where Sodium Meta Bisulphate is added. It helps in dechlorination of water. Water is filtered next and passes through dosing pump-III, where anti scallant is added. It prevents scaling of membrane from calcium, magnesium and biological growth. Water then passes through reverse osmosis module. This stage of the process makes water clear from all the contaminations and minute particles. Water then passes through dosing pump-IV, where minerals are added for taste development. After this stage, water undergoes Ultra Violet treatment to avoid any contamination from bacteria and other micro organisms.
Water then passes through automatic washing, filling and capping plant. Here water is filled into bottles. After filling bottles are taken into the warehouse or shipped to the retailers. The complete process flow diagram is as under. Sand Filter Dosing Pump- II Carbon Filter Dosing Pump- IV Dosing Pump- III Product Water Tank Ultra Violet Micron Filter Reverse Osmosis Plant Dosing Pipe-I Feed Water Tank Feed Water Pump Ozonator Warehouse Automatic Washing, Filling & Capping Plant Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 11 Proposed Location
Any industrial are in Karachi where KWSB water is easily available is ideal for this project. 5 STRATEGIC RECOMMENDATIONS 5. 1 Market Entry Timing The weather is the main dynamic that may bring changes in the market size of the purified drinking water as the daily water requirement increases in summer. When launching a new brand of purified water for bulk market, weather is the main dynamic, which should be given proper consideration. The demand pattern for retail market of purified bottled water is not affected by the weather. The advertisement including TV and print media is expected to bring changes in the demand.
However, it is suggested that the new brand of purifies bottled water is launched in the start of summer season. The entrepreneur have to match the brand launching time with the advertisement and weather that would drive the demand of bottles water and willingness of consumers to switch towards new brands. 6 KEY SUCCESS FACTOR 6. 1 Marketing Branding and marketing of bottled water is as essential as water for the survival of the human body. The traditional marketing tools include site advertisement, TV and print media advertising and brochures. This study allocates 10% of the revenue for advertising and promotional purposes.
Apart from the traditional marketing tools, this study suggests to focus more on other marketing magnets that include interactive marketing, interactive marketing may include educating the general public about the importance of water and its daily consumption requirements for human body through the participation in seminars and in general public gatherings (e. g. College and University gatherings). One of the marketing options is to sponsor public events like cricket matches or hospital campaigns, distributing free brochures about water and its daily consumption, water requirements in different age brackets.
The interactive marketing may be designed through seminars and workshops about the daily human Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 12 consumption requirements and diseases originating from the lack of pure water. Overall marketing strategy may change with the change of target market. A market research study is recommended to design the different dynamics of marketing before launching the new brand. Marketing expense has been included in the total project cost and it has been estimated around Rs. 5 million.
The entrepreneur may decide to increase or decrease the amount of marketing expense depending upon this choice of promotion activities and type of media used. Following table gives the breakup of the marketing expense. In %age if the marketing expense TV Advertisement 40% SITE Advertisement 10% Newspapers 38% Magazines 4% Point of Sales Marketing 8% 6. 2 Pricing The pricing strategy should be in line with the going rate market prices of the different local brands. Since a new brand has to face a lot of competition from the market, it is suggested that the price ceiling should not be crossed whatever price strategy be adopted. . 3 Product Packaging Product packaging and presentation is one of the main dynamics, which control the flow of target customers towards the product. Packaging should be inline with the industrial norms. Packaging may also vary with the understanding of the target market. It is suggested that the bottles of 0. 5 liter and 1. 5 liter capacity should be used. Bottles should be clear. The bottle should give a reflection of light sky blue color, which is considered a natural symbol of the water. This color also adds a tinge of purity. The water should give a shiny and a glossy reflection.
The opening of the bottle should be large enough to accommodate outflow and inflow of water. The bottles should be placed in special racks and strand meant for bottled water at retail outlets, which will be having a unique color and a unique design. The color and the design will create a positive perception for the new brand. The wrapper of the bottle is suggested to be on four-color printing and should have the following information in addition to the logo of the company. ? Water Specification ? Certificate mark of the Pakistan Standards & Quality Control Authority Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water
PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 13 ? Expiry Date (Best Before Date) ? A brief intro of the company with the address ? Website address of the company ? Brand Name / Trade Name ? Net volume in System International / Metric system ? Batch number or code number 6. 4 Availability In the first phase of the launch of the new brand, availability will also play the key role in attracting the customers. It is suggested that the entrepreneur decides the availability of the product at A-class, or B-class, or C-class retail outlets or mass availability of the product (aggressive marketing).
Since, the perception of the product is also directly related with is availability so it is suggested that the strategy for the availability of the product be designed according to the target market and the perception and positioning the entrepreneur is targeting. Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 14 7 SECTOR & INDUSTRY ANALYSIS There are around 26 players in the bottled water sector. According to the industry sources, the number of bottlers scales up well above 70 during summer season due to increased demand for drinking water.
However, the much publicized laboratory report published by the Pakistan Council of Research on Water Resources (PCRWR) after conducting a survey of 26 brands in the Rawalpindi and Islamabad region declaring that, all the 26 brands available on the market are contaminated while 10 out of them are unsafe for drinking, forced the Pakistan Standards & Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) to make it obligatory for the companies to obtain license from the authority before commencing operations. Pakistan’s bottled water market comprises of two main segments i. e. etail market and bulk market. The retail market consists of 0. 5 liter, 1. 5 liter, 3. 1 liter and 5. 0 liter capacity PET bottles. The bulk market consist s of home and office delivers in 3 and 5 gallon cans. Nestle 50% Sparklet 10% BSW 5% Others 35% Nestle Sparklet BSW Others Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 15 According to the market figures, the Nestle pure life brand dominates the retail market with market share of 50%. The Sparklet holds 10% of the market share and BSW brand of M/S Wah Valley Corporation has share of 5%.
The rest of the market consists of small players. 7. 1 Brands Available in the Market Table: Brands available in the market Local and Imported Brands Available in the market Niagra Nestle Pure AVA Sparklets Masafi Aqua Safe Cool Ab-e-Hayat Rainbow Pearl Asakari Safa Zam Zam Fresh Musaffa Mineral Plus Wellgreen Aqua Flow Max Wellpur Himalaya Brecorn Carreg Evian Perrier Oslo Vital Classic Blue ever pure Jeema Vittel Gulfa Volvic Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 16 Highland Spring SPA Hayat
The price range for 1. 5 liter category is from Rs. 20-95 including local and imported brands and the price range for 0. 5 liter category is from Rs. 10-85 for local and imported brands. 7. 2 Legal Requirements The Pakistan Quality Standards defines bottled drinking water as, “Bottled drinking waters are waters other than natural mineral waters which are filled into hermetically sealed containers of various compositions forms and capacities that is safe and suitable for direct consumption bottled drinking water is considered food. ”
The Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) was established under section 3 of the Act-1996. The establishment of any mineral water plant in Pakistan is required to get a license from the Pakistan Standards Quality Control Authority. An application form, which can be obtained for Rs. 100 only from the office of the Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority and it, is to be submitted to the Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority. The manufacturer is required to have a laboratory and a technical person, who will be checking the samples for constant quality.
The team from the Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority then visits the plant and collects samples. After the conformity of the samples to the standards the Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority issues a license. The Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority has developed standards for bottled and mineral water and all the water plants being established in the country are required to follow these standards. A manufacturer could market bottled / mineral water without obtaining a license from the Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority.
The authority examines the availability of proper facilities including standardized laboratory and purification-processing plant for ensuring the quality of purifies drinking water with a team of experts. Manufacturing, Stocking and sale of bottled drinking water and bottled mineral water without certification marks license is prohibited under the Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority Act. Violation of the Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority Standards is punishable by imprisonment for one year or a fine of Rs. 50,000 both.
Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 17 The general requirements for establishing a bottled / mineral water plant as developed by Pakistan Standard Quality Control Authority are as following: Suitability The assessment of the suitability of water for human consumption shall be based on consideration of its physical, chemical and microbiological requirements and limits for toxic substances. The water should e free from all chemical and bacteriological contaminations which are hazardous to health.
Requirements Units pH Range 7. 0-80 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Max 200 mg/L Total Hardness as CaCO3 Max 40 mg/L Chemical Requirements Nitrite (NO2) 0. 020 mg/L Chloride 40 mg/L Sulphate 10 mg/L Sodium 20 mg/L Potassium 10 mg/L Magnesium 5 mg/L Calcium 20 mg/L Microbiological Requirements Escherichla Coli 0/250 ml Total Califon 0/250 ml Entercooci (Streptocoi) 0/250 ml Sporulated SRA 0/100 ml Pseudomonas Aeruginosa 0/250 ml Parasites and pathogenic micro organisms Shall be free Hygiene
Drinking water for the purpose of bottling shall be prepared in accordance with PS:3944-1997 for the code of practice-General principal of food Hygiene and in accordance with the PS:4718-2001 for code of practice for the collecting, processing and marketing of natural mineral waters. Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 18 Packaging The containers shall be hygienic suitable completely clean and shall not cause any undesirable change in the tastes, odour or color or quality of the water.
It shall be packed in hermetically sealed containers of Food Grade material to prevent contamination of bottled water. Filling and sealing operations of containers shall be done in an aseptic atmosphere so as to prevent any contamination. Transportation Bottled water shall be transported by any suitable means of transport to protect it from contamination. Marking In addition to the PS:1485-1994 ® for Pakistan Standard for the labeling of Pre- Packaged Foods, the following provisions shall apply. a) Name of the product for example bottled drinking water ) Brand name or trade name c) Net volumes in System International / Metric System d) Name and address of the manufacturer e) Batch number or Code number f) Date of Expiry g) Chemical composition e. g. Sulphate, Magnesium, Potassium etc. h) Pakistan Standard number Sampling ? In any consignment all the bottles of the same size and belonging to one batch of the manufacturer or supply shall constitute a LOT ? Each bottle of the sample shall be marked with necessary details of sampling and the bottles for bacteriological testing shall be marked separately ?
The bottles of the sample shall be stored in such a manner that there shall be no deterioration of quality of water ? The bottles for bacteriological testing shall be brought to the testing laboratory within one hour, of sampling. If this is not possible the bottles shall be stored at 10 ? C or below and transported to the testing laboratory with in 24 hours. In case of small units, the original packing shall be treated as sample. Scale of Sample Sample shall be tested from each lot for ascertaining its conformity to the requirements of this specification.
The number of bottles to be selected from a lot shall be in accordance with the following table. Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 19 Table: R-1 Number of Bottles in the Lot Number of bottles to be selected Up to 1000 15 1001 to 3000 17 3001 to 10,000 18 10,001 and above 24 R-2: If bottles are packed in cases, 10 percent of the cases subject to minimum of five cases shall be selected from the lot and as far as possible an equal number of bottles shall be selected from each case so selected to form a sample of sizes given in the table R-1. Number of Test
A. Each bottle selected as in R-1 and R-2 shall be inspected for packaging and marking requirements B. The bottle shall be selected from the bottles, selected as in R-1 and R-2 and tested individually for bacteriological limits C. A sufficiently quantity of water shall be drawn from each of the remaining bottles and mixed to form a composite sample thus obtained shall be tested for the requirements for its suitability and chemical composition Criteria for Conformity A LOT shall be declared as conforming to the requirements of this specification, if the following conditions are satisfied. Each bottle inspected as “A” satisfies the relevant requirements ? Each bottle when tested as in “B” satisfies the relevant information ? Composite sample when tested as in “C” satisfies the relevant requirements Government of Pakistan as initiated steps to launch programs against substandard bottled water. The Pakistan Council of Research on Water Resources (PCRWR) has launched a campaign against substandard and unlicensed brands of mineral water being sold in the market. The PCRWR has a conducted a serried of tests of 21 brands of mineral water last year and 11 were found contaminated and some of them substandard.
It is recommended to fulfill all the requirements of the Pakistan Quality Control Authority for getting a license for the production and marketing of bottled / mineral water in Pakistan. Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 20 8 MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Most of the water purification plants being installed in the country are reverse osmosis based. Government also recommends the RO based technology. This prefeasibility study is based on the reverse osmosis plant. The details of the machinery & equipment are as following. Table: Machinery Details in Rs.
Machinery Name Quantity Unit Cost (Rs. ) Total Cost Reverse Osmosis Water purification plant 1 1,495,000 1,495,000 Ozonator (included in the filling plant) 1 – – Washing, Filling & Capping Plant (inclusive of sales tax) 1 2,645,000 2,645,000 Washing, Filling & Capping Plant (inclusive of sales tax) 1 2,070,000 2,070,000 UV Lamp (included in the RO Plant 1 30,000 30,000 Total 6,240,000 Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 21 9 HUMAN RESOURCE REQUIREMENT The following requirement of staff along with their levels and monthly salary is foreseen for this project.
Table: Human Resource Requirement Designation No. of Staff Monthly Salary Annual Cost CEO 1 50,000 600,000 Admin & Accounts Manager 1 30,000 360,000 Area Sales Manager 1 40,000 480,000 Sales Supervisor 2 30,000 360,000 Sales Rep 25 10,000 3,000,000 Driver 2 20,000 240,000 Washer 1 9,000 108,000 Filler 2 15,000 180,000 Laoder 2 15,000 180,000 Plant Helper 1 8,000 96,000 Packing Supervisor 1 8,000 96,000 Marketing Manage 1 30,000 360,000 Marketing Officer 1 15,000 180,000 Watchman 1 5,000 60,000 Total 42 6,300,000 Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 22 10 LAND & BUILDING REQUIREMENTS
For the proposed set up of water purification plant, a total of 2050 square feet is required. This land requirement includes space for the installation of plant and machinery, management office and store for bottles, finished product and parking. Table: Covered Are Requirement Space Requirement Required Area (Sq. ft) Bottle Storage Room (50,000 bottles) 400 Bottle Washing & Mineral Water plant 200 Conveyer belt & finished product packing 300 Finished product storage room 350 Management office 500 Parking 300 Total Area 2050 Table: Total Land Cost & Construction Cost Total Land Cost (Rs. ) 2050 Square feet 1,230,000
Covered Area Requirement 2050 Time required for civil works 2 months Construction Cost Management building 500 sq. ft @ Rs. 600 300,000 Factory 900 sq. ft @ Rs. 600 540,000 Stores 350 sq. ft @Rs. 600 210,000 Parking 300 sq. ft @Rs. 25 7,500 Total Construction Cost 1,057,500 10. 1Recommended Mode of Land Acquisition Since purified bottled water is a kind of project, which needs an extended span of time for its perception and brand recognition, so the recommended mode for the acquisition of land owned or leased (100 years). 10. 2 Suitable Location This project has been developed with a focus of Karachi city.
The appropriate location would be any industrial area of Karachi city where KWSB water is available along with other infrastructure facilities. Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 23 Table: Furniture & Fixture Workstation Quantity Cost per unit (Rs. ) Total Cost (Rs. ) Table & Chair for CEO 1 9,600 9,600 Table & Chairs for Manager 3 8,000 24,000 Table & Chairs for Officers & Supervisors 3 5,500 16,500 Table & Chairs for other staff 10 4,400 44,000 Visitors Chairs for Management office 13 800 10,400 Other Staff chairs 10 400 4,000 Total 40 108,500 Table: Office Equipment Requirements
Equipment Quantity Cost per unit (Rs. ) Total Cost (Rs. ) Computer 4 22,000 88,000 Laser Printer 1 10,000 10,000 Dot Matrix 1 15,000 15,000 UPS 4 8,500 34,000 Air Conditioner 4 15,000 60,000 Total 14 207,000 Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 24 11 FINANCIAL ASSUMPTIONS Table: Project Capital Investment Rs. In actual Land 1,230,000 (not included in financing) Building / Infrastructure 1,057,500 Machinery & Equipment 6,240,000 Furniture & Fixture 108,500 Office Vehicles 2,056,360 Office Equipment 202,500 Pre-operating Cost 1,816,268 Total Capital Costs 11,485,628 Table: Means of Financing
Initial Financing Rs. In actual Debt 9,039,891 Equity 6,026,594 Total Investment 15,066,485 Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 25 12 KEY ASSUMPTIONS Table: Project Assumption Period of construction & machinery installation (months) 6 Total Covered Are 2050 Projected life of the project 10 Table: Operating Assumption No. of working days in one year 330 No. of working hours in one day 8 Table: Revenue Assumption Plant Capacity liters per day 2,363 Production per year (liters) 18,711,000 Ratio of 1. 5 liter and 0. 5 liter bottle 80:20 Production of 1. 5 liter bottle 9,979,200 Production of 0. liter bottle 7,484,4000 Total annual production 17,463,600 Sale price of 1. 5 liter bottle (Rs. ) 15 Sale price of 0. 5 liter bottle (Rs. ) 8 Capacity utilization in first yr 60% Sales price growth rates 10% Production capacity utilization growth rate 10% Maximum Capacity utilization 95% Table: Financial Assumption Debt 60% Equity 40% Interest Rate 12% Interest Rate on short term debt 16% Interest on cash in bank 0. 02% Corporate tax rate 41% Turnover tax rate 1% Dividend rate 50% Required rate of return on equity 25% WACC 15% Down payment on machinery & Equipment leased 20% Interest rate on machinery & Equipment 22%
Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/ Rev 1 26 leased Down payment on office equipment leased 20% Interest rate on office equipment leased 22% Down payment on vehicles leased 20% Interest rate on office vehicles leased 22% Table: Expense Assumption Description Cost / Rate Cost of goods sold growth rate 5. 0% Operating cists growth rate 5. 0% Administration benefits expense 3. 0% Traveling expense 3. 0% Communication expense 2. 0% Office Vehicles running expense 5. 0% Office expenses (stationary, entertainment, janitorial services etc. ) 1. 0% Promotional expense 10. 0%
Machinery & equipment insurance rate 2. 0% Office vehicles insurance rate 3. 0% Professional fees (legal, audit, consultants etc. ) 0. 5% Bad debt expense 3. 0% Table: Description Expense Description Method Straight Line Machinery & Equipment 10% Office Furniture & Fixture 10% Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/Rev 1 27 13 FINANCIAL STATEMENTS 13. 1 Projected Income Statement Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/Rev 1 28 13. 2 Projected Balance Sheet Pre-Feasibility Study Purified Bottled Water PREF-3/September, 2004/Rev 1 29 13. 3 Projected Cash Flow Statement
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Feasibility Report. (2019, May 01). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/feasibility-report/