File Management Paper - Unix File Permissions

The name Unix® refers to a play on words rather than being an acronym - File Management Paper - Unix File Permissions introduction. During the mid-1960 an operating system was developed at MIT that allowed multiple users to work on a system at any one time. It was called Multiplexed Information and Computing System (MULTICS). In the late 1960s, closer to 1970, a couple programmers at Bell Laboratories wrote an assembler to interface with a DEC PDP-7. Unlike MULTICS, this version allowed only one user to access it at a time. One of the programmers kiddingly called it Uniplexed Information and Computing System (UNICS) pronounced Unix. In the spring of 1971, the interest in Unix® grew and Bell Laboratories began to dedicate work to developing Unix®. Since Bell Laboratories was considered a monopoly by the government, they could not provide the OS for a fee; therefore it was distributed for free (Stewart, 2011). Today there is a mix of free and pay for use versions of Unix®. There is another flavor called Linux, which at its very core is similar to Unix® and is more widely used in the programming populace as a whole. The focus of this paper is to illustrate how files are shared amongst a user based of 5000 in Unix®. 4990 of the users will have read/write capabilities while the other 10 are denied access. The Unix® file system is laid out in a hierarchal manner with specific permissions given at each level.

For files that a user creates, the system and that user are the only ones with permissions to modify or delete the file. The same is true for folders, but additional settings are required so that all the files within the folder carry the same permissions. Unix®, as well as all modern operating systems, uses Access Control Lists (ALCs) to control who has what permissions to files and folders. The first step in granting file permission to the 4990 users, a group must be set up. Granted, one could add all 4990 users to the file permissions, but that is a waste of time when there is a better way. In Unix® there are three sets of permissions that can be modified at the folder and file level; user, group, and the world. In this illustration, user and group permissions will be discussed. To begin, a command at the console must be executed to create the user group. The syntax is: groupadd [g- gid [-o]] [-r] [-f] groupname. Simply typing in: groupadd group_name will suffice. Groupname is where you put in the specific name of the group. If you don’t specify additional parameters, the system will use the defaults. Following the creation of the group, the users must be added into it. Execute this command to add the existing users to the new group, Usermod –G <newgroup> <user>. Since there are 4990 user, a script would come in handy adding the users to the group. The VI editor is a built in tool that allows the building of scripts. Now the real work begins, defining the permissions for the file. From the console, navigate to the directory that contains the file that is to be shared. Type in this command to view the current permissions on the file, ls –l (those are lowercase L’s). This command will allow the changing of permissions either at a user, group or global level. Chmod {a,u,g,o} {+,-} {r,w,x} files

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More Essay Examples on System Rubric

a = all user
u = the owner
g = group
o = others (neither u or g)| Plus (+) =give permissionMinus(-) = remove permission| r = Read-onlyw = Read/Writex = Execute| Files = single or multiple files|

First the permission of the directory containing the file must be granted to the group using this command: chgrp –R <groupname> <directory> then, chmod g+s <directory> Finally, to grant permission to the group so that they have read/write permission, the following command would be executed. Chmod g+rw filename. Unix® is a command-line based operating system. However, there is a graphical interface available called X-Windows that makes getting around a bit easier. Being a Unix® administrator is a full-time job, but once it is set up properly and secured, it is almost impenetrable.

Stewart, W. (2011). Unix History, Who invented Unix. Retrieved from

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