Fluid Mechanics Lab Report

University of Bahrain College of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture Fluid Mechanics CENG231 Osborne Reynolds Demonstration Sayed abbas Mohamed 20104762 03 1 - Fluid Mechanics Lab Report introduction. Objective: To reproduce the classical experiments conducted by Professor Osborne Reynolds concerning fluid flow condition. 2. Theory: Reynolds number, Re is the internationally recognized criterion denoting fluid flow condition. “ Re = 4Q/ ? vd ” Osborn Reynolds determined that values of Re could be assigned to define the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. 3. Apparatus: Osborne Reynolds apparatus. -Hydraulics Bench. -measuring cylinder. -Stopwatch. -Vegetable Dye. -Thermometer. 4. Procedure: * Fill the reservoir with dye, position the apparatus on the bench and connect the inlet pipe to the bench feed. Lower the dye injector until it is just above the bell moth inlet. Close the control valve. Open bench inlet valve and slowly fill the head tank to the overflow level, then close the inlet valve . open and close flow control valve to admit water to the flow visualization pipe. Allow the apparatus to stand at least ten minutes before proceeding.

Measure the temperature of the water. * Open the inlet valve slightly until water trickles from the outlet pipe. Fractionally open the control valve and adjust dye control valve until slow flow with dye indication is achieved . measure and note the flow rate. * Repeat for increasing flow rates by progressively opening the flow control valve. Take a specific measurement of flow rate at the critical condition. * Repeat the procedure for decreasing flow rates, taking a specific measurement of flow at the critical condition. . Results & Calculation: Water Temp. = 21 C Water density = 998. 2 kg /m3 Molecular viscosity = 0. 00085 kg /m. s Inside diameter of pipe = 10 mm = 0. 01 m Area = ? r2 = 7. 857*10-5 m2 Visual dyeCondition| Volume of water (m3) | Time(s)| Flow rate| Reynolds , No. | Condition by Reynolds No. | laminar| 0. 001| 102| 9. 80392? 10-06| 1297. 446| Laminar| laminar| 0. 001| 81| 1. 23457? 10-05| 1633. 821| Laminar| laminar| 0. 001| 74| 1. 35135? 10-05| 1788. 72| Laminar| laminar| 0. 001| 30| 3. 33333? 10-05| 4411. 318| Turbulent| transition| 0. 001| 24| 4. 16667? 10-05| 5514. 147| Turbulent| transition| 0. 001| 16| 0. 0000625| 8271. 22| Turbulent| turbulent| 0. 001| 13| 7. 69231? 10-05| 10179. 96| Turbulent| turbulent| 0. 001| 9| 0. 000111111| 14704. 39| Turbulent| 6. Sample of calculation: Flow rate = volume of water / time (Time = 1*60 = 60 60 +42 = 102) = 0. 001/102 =9. 80392? 10-06 m3/s Re = (p? v? d)/µ (v = Q/A = 9. 80392? 0-06/ 7. 857? 10-5 = 0. 12478) = (998. 2? 0. 12478? 0. 01)/ (0. 00096) = 1297. 45 Comments: After we finished this experiment we found some serious error Personal error: 1- Errors in the measurement of the time. 2- Some calculation errors. Also the error may be because of the device. CONCLUSION We learn how to measure the type of the flow by this experiment. Also we learn how to calculate Reynolds number. There were 4 different conditions between the theoretical and the experimental, and that was due to the errors.

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