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Forming and Shaping

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    T. C. BAHCESEHIR UNIVERSITESI MUHENDISLIK FAKULTESI “FORMING AND SHAPING”prepared by Gizem TAYLANER Section 25 Number 0714703InstructorYaman KOSEOGLUPrepared in accordance to the requirements of the course ENG 1004Spring 2009| CONTENTS Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 1. What is Forming and Shaping?………………………………………………………………………….. 4 1. 2 Rolling Process…. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………4 Hot Rolling……………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………5 Cold Rolling……………………………………………………………………………………………………………5 Rolling Mills……………………………………………………………………………………………………………6 Producing Pipes by Using Rolling Process………. ………………………………………………………7 1. 3 Extrusion Process……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Extrusion Tecniques………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 1. Drawing Process…. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10 Wire Drawning………………………………………………………………………………………………10-11 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………12 Resources………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12 SUMMARY This report describes Forming and Shaping which is one of the major manufacturing process and also involves three type of forming and shaping tecniques. Manufacturing therefore, Forming and Shaping developed after the civilization. Intruducing Forming and Shaping processes to the reader is the aim of this report.

    The text is organised by explainin what is forming and shaping then introducing the Rolling Process including ; Hot and Cold rolling , Rolling Mills and Producing Pipes. Secondly report is continous to talking about Extrusion Process and shows the Tecniques of Extrusion. The final process is Drawing Process includes Wire Drawing that the report is introducing about. As we can seen from the report Forming and Shaping is widely used in industrial processes. There are four major manufacturing processies which are casting , machining ,forming and shaping, and joining.

    However, this report is giving an information about only the Forming and Shaping Processes. Forming and Shaping includes Rolling, Extrusion and Drawing Processes. For introducing Rolling , material is passed through the gap between two rotating rollers that squeeze the material as it passes between them. Secondly, extrusion defined as ; the material is pushed through a shapped hollow therfore, it get the same shape with the hollow. We could think about that as a squeezing toothpaste from a tube.

    Finally, drawning was the last process that introduced in the report, also defined as a processes which is using for especially producing a wire ,bar or tube . Introduction There are four major manufacturing processies which are casting , machining ,forming and shaping, and joining. Forming includes all manufacturing processes which use force to reshape solid or powdered materials without reducing their weight. The material is reshaped but not cut away. For the history, it is unclear when humans first began using metal for daily use, but the importance of forming and shaping metal is recorded in history.

    Since the development of civilization, people continually discover ways to complete tasks. In our drive to survive, we, as humans, have developed several objects that help to make life easier. The development of metal and the art of forming metal have come a long way over the years. Prior to the discovery of metal, people used simple tools made out of bone and wood. Soon, however, fire was discovered and eventually ancient humans discovered that adding heat to certain rocks, more accurately described as ores, could free the metal from the rock.

    With the discovery of fire, eventually evolved the art of extracting and smelting metals, and forming them into usable objects. Such a practice is commonly referred to as metal working. During early historical periods, precious metals had value attached to them. Metalworkers, therefore, used the metal to make religious artifacts, jewelry, keepsake items, tools for specific trades and weapons. Metals were formed by artisans, blacksmiths, atharvavedic practitioners, and alchemists. These metalworkers became increasingly important as time past and metal became more necessary.

    Metalworkers were considered to be very valuable members of early societies. As more and more items and tools began to be made out of metals, more people were needed who were skilled in the craft of metal working. These so called metalsmiths were important for maintaining the economic stability of a civilization. Objects made out of metal were necessary for industry, farming, jewelry making and defense purposes. The necessity of metal items contributed to making the metalworker and invaluable member of society. Today, the art of working with metal provides several occupations and trades.

    Many people specialize in forming and shaping metal. Techniques have definitely changed since ancient times and much of the forming of metal is done by machines. This report provides information about the applications and genera features of forming and shaping. In this repot we discussrolling process followed by the extrusion and astly the drawning process. Forming and shaping is a manufacturing process which involves tecnologies such as rolling, extrusion and drawning. The purpose of this repot is explain forming and shaping process. ( http://ezinearticles. com/? The-Art-of-Shaping-and-Forming-Metal&id=1149872)

    FORMING AND SHAPING 1. 1 What is Forming and Shaping? Manufacturing has many methods as machining, casting, welding, joining etc. Forming and shaping is the one of the manufacturing process as the others. Forming and shaping is specified by do not having chip and scaps. Figure 1 : Scrap(Meximco Limited, Announcement) Forming is a broad term covering many different manufacturing process. Forming is any process that changes the shape of a given raw stock without changing it’s phase such as solid, liquid and gasses. In general these processes involve squeezing, pulling and pushing; means rolling, drawning and extrusion.

    On the other words, forming is a manufacturing process in which material is shaped through plastic deformation and includes all manufacturing processes which use force to reshapesolid materials without reducing their weight. To remains, plastic deformation isa permanentchange of shape, i. e. , the stress in materials is larger than its yield strength, however,usually accomplished by stretching, compressing, bending or compacting the material. There are three vital processes required for forming such as; rolling ,drawning and extrusion. (http://faculty. swosu. edu/james. asante/share/Manufacturing%20Processes/Forming%20Processes. df) 1. 2 Rolling Processes Rolling is the process of plastically deforming metal by passing it between rolls. Rolling is the most widely used forming process, which provides high production and close control of final product. The metal is subjected to high compressive stresses as a result of the friction between the rolls and the metal surface. The effect is to change the thickness and since volume as conserved, the length is increased. The main use of rolling is in plants where the metal is made. For example, in Steel-making plants, liquid iron is first formed in a blast furnace by reducing the iron oxide.

    After further processing the liquid metal, including converting the iron to steel, it is cast by a process called continuous casting into raw stock shapes. These are very large pieces of steel ,several tons each, with typical cross-sections including rectangle ,bloom, billet, slab, circle ,rounds, or I-sections beams. These pieces are too large to be directly used they are rolled in rolling mills that squeeze them into much smaller, but usable shapes. These usable shapes are the raw stock for almost all types of manufacturing that uses steel. Rolling processes can be mainly divided into two whiches are; hot rolling and cold rolling. ur f Figure 2 : Rolling (International Aluminium Institue, Announcement) ace * Figure 3 : Hot Rolling(Askoha Group,Announcement) The initial breakdown of ingots into blooms and billets is generally done by hot rolling. This is followed by hot rolling into plate, sheet, rod, pipe, bar , rail. * The cold rolling of metals has played a major role in industry by providing sheet, strip, foil with good surfaces finishes and increasing mecanical strenght with close control of product dimesions. Figure 4 : Cold Rolling (Nickel Institute, Announcement)

    Furthermore, some of the most important thing for the rolling is rollers for rolling mills. There are typically arrangement of rollers for rolling mills such as; Two high mill pullover: the stock is returned to the enterance for further reduction. Figure 5 : Two High Mill Pullover(Announcement) Two-high mill reversing: the work can be passed back and forth through the rolls by reversing their direction of rotation. Figure 6 : Two-high Mill Reversing(Announcemennt) Three-high mill: consist of upper and lower driven rolls and a middle roll, which rotates by friction.

    Figure 7 : Three-high Mill (Announcement) Four-high mill: small diameter rolls (less strenght and rigidty) are supported by larger diameter backup rolls. Figure 8 : Four-high Mill 1(Announcement) Figure 9 : Cluster Mill or Senzimir Mill (Announcement) Cluster mill or Sendzimir mill: Each of the work rolls is supportedby two backing rolls. Moreover, pipes are the most important product which is producing by using rolling. Figure 10 : Producing Pipes(KAWASAKI STEEL,1997-2002) A tubular blank is continuously rolled into a pipe through a mill which has a plurality of roll ets each comprising grooved driven rolls providing substantially circular passes of progressively reduced diameters. While the blank is passing through the roll sets, its interior is supported by a mandrel. The tail end of the mandrel is held by a pushing device when rolling is started. Namely, rolling is started by pushing the mandrel into the blank. The pushing of the mandrel is stopped between the time when the front end of the blank has passed the last roll center line in the first half roll set group and the time when it has reached before the roll center line of the last roll set.

    The tail end of the mandrel remains unreleased while rolling is continued. Then, the mandrel is released between the time when the tail end of the workpiece has passed the roll center line of the second last roll stand in the first half roll stand group and the time when it has reached before the roll center line of the last roll stand. After the mandrel has been released, too, the workpiece is continuously rolled through at least one stand. When the mandrel and workpiece have cleared the rolling mill, the mandrel is withdrawn from the workpiece. (http://www. reepatentsonline. com/4289011. html) 1. 3 Extrusion Processes Secondly,Extrusion is a process in which metal is forced, or squeezed, out through a hole die. The process is similar to squeezing toothpaste out of the tube. Figure 11 : Extrusion (ME 350-Lecture22- Chapter 19, Announcement) This process is used mostly for metals that are ductile, including copper, steel, aluminum and magnesium; it is also used for some plastics and rubbers. Common examples of parts made by extrusion are the aluminum frames of white-boards, door and window-frames, etc.

    Usually, long strips of the required cross-section are extruded and sold as raw-stock. Any hardware store will have between ten and hundred different cross-section bars – almost all are made by extrusion. The process can be used to make hollow as well as solid cross-sections. The extrusion press has a pressure chamber into which the raw stock is loaded; the die is made of hardened steel, with a hole that is the shape of the required cross-section. The metal is then squeezed out of the die hole by the use of a high pressure hydraulic piston.

    To introduce how do the extrusion happens again is ; Raw materials in the form of thermoplastic pellets, granules, or powder are placed into a hopper and fed into the extruderbarrel. Then the barrel is equipped with a screw that blends and conveys thepellets down the barrel. Afterthat the internal friction from the mechanical action of the screw,along with the heaters around the extruder’s barrel, heats thepellets and liquifies them. The screw action also builds up pressure in the barrel. At least, the molten plastic is forced through a die and then cooled.

    Long products such as rods, channels, pipes, window frames,plastic coated wire, cable or strips for electrical applications are made by extrusion process. (www. fkm. utm. my/~zulkepli/lecture_slides/pembentukanlogam/metalForm_lec4a. pdf -) There are three type of extrusion tecniques. Direct or Forward Extrusion(round billed forced through die opening): This is the most common extrusion process in industry. The billet is upsetted in the container, so that it assumes the bore diameter of the container then it is pressed by the stem through the diethere is relative motion between block and container – Friction.

    Figure 12 : Direct or Forward Extrusion (UEET, Announcement) Indirect Extrusion : which means Reverse or backward extrusion by the Die moves towards billet. First billet also upsetted in the container. Then a dummy block used to lock the container from one side. After that a hollow stem pushes die into the billet or dummy block and container may push billet through die and hollow container with a smaller friction. Figure 13 : Indirect Extrusion (UEET, Announcement) Hydrostatic Extrusion: In this type the billet is smaller and chamber filled with a fluid which is Hydrostatic Fluid.

    The container space is sealed and the pressure is transmitted by ram or stem. During the extrusion the fluid does not touch the billet. Also in this process there is less friction between billet and container. Figure 14 : Hydrostatic Extrusion(UEET, Announcement) 1. 4 Drawning Process Finally, Drawing is the process most commonly used to make wires from round bars; this process is very similar to extrusion, except that instead of pressure from the back end, in drawing, the wire is pulled from the side where it emerges from the circular die.

    A schematic is shown below. nkdsfkjnf f Figure 15 : Drawning((Zainal Abin Ahmad,2008) Ahmad It is possible to generate cross-sections other than circle using different dies in drawing, though these applications are relatively rare. Dies are made of specially hardened tool steels, or tungsten carbide. Diamond dies are used for drawing very fine wires. Both, extrusion and drawing may be hot , the stock is heated to a high temperature for processing, or cold, the stock is not heated.

    Other words Drawining is a production of long rod and wire, with round or various cross-sections; smallercross-sections than extrusions; good surface finish; low to moderate die, equipment, and labor costs; low to moderate operator skill. (Edwards, L. And Endean, M. , Manufacturing with materials, 1990, Butterworth Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-2754-9) Figure 16 : Wire Drawning (ME 350-Lecture22- Chapter 19, Announcement) Wire Drawing:Cross-section of wire is reduced by pulling it through a die opening. It is similar to extrusion except work is pulledthrough die in drawing ,it is pushed through in extrusion.

    Although drawing applies tensile stress,compression also plays a significant role since metal is squeezed as it passes through die opening. (www. fkm. utm. my/~zulkepli/lecture_slides/pembentukanlogam/fromPMZ/SME2713%20Metal%20Forming%20-%205. pdf) Continuous drawing machines consisting ofmultiple draw dies typically 4 to 12 separatedby accumulating drums. Each drum ,capstan, provides proper force todraw wire stock through upstream die. Each die provides a small reduction, so desiredtotal reduction is achieved by the series. Annealing , to increase ductility of stock, sometimes required between dies.

    Figure 17 : Wire Drawing (ME 350-Lecture22- Chapter 19, Announcement) subseqvious Figure 18 : Wires ((Zainal Abin Ahmad,2008) drawing die passing ough Conclusion series of drawWire dr As we seen from this report forming and shaping is one of the major manufacturing process. On the other hand, forming and shaping is specialized from the other tecniques by do not having any scraps or flakes, during it’s all processes. Therefore, forming and shaping means only using force to reshape a material without reducing their weight. For remainin, there are three vital forming and shaping tecniques.

    Those are rolling, extrusion and drawning. In rolling , material is passed through the gap between two rotating rollers that squeeze the material as it passes between them. Secondly, extrusion defined as ; the material is pushed through a shapped hollow therfore, it get the same shape with the hollow. We could think about that as a squeezing toothpaste from a tube. Finally, drawning was the last process that introduced in the report, also defined as a processes which is using for especially producing a wire ,bar or tube. It is usefull for increases material lenght.

    This report explains, from four of manufacturing processes, only the one ; called forming and shaping . Resources; * ( http://ezinearticles. com/? The-Art-of-Shaping-and-Forming-Metal&id=114 9872) * (http://faculty. swosu. edu/james. asante/share/Manufacturing%20Processes/Forming%20Processes. pdf) * (www. niu. edu/iteams/documents/ueet601/manufacturing_lecture2. ppt) * (www. fkm. utm. my/~zulkepli/lecture_slides/pembentukanlogam/fromPMZ/SME2713%20Met) * Datsko, J. (1967). Material Properties and Manufacturing Processes. John Miley &Sons, Inc. * Ebrahimi, R. nd Najafizadeh, A. (2004), A new method for evaluation of friction in bulk metal forming, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 152. * Hitchcock, J. H. (1935), Elastic deformation of roll during cold rolling, Report of Special Research Committee on Roll Neck Bearings, New York * <http:/www. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Forging> * <http:/www. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Rolling> * Roberts, W. L. (1978), Cold Rolling of Steel, Marcel Dekker, New York * Prakash M. (2008), Modelling of Metal Forming and Machining Process, London * Ostwald, F. P. and Munoz, J. 1997), Manufacturing Processes and Systems, 9th Edition, John Wiley * Schey, J. A. (2000), Introduction to Manufacturing Processes, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill * Lindberg, R. A. (1990), Processes and Materials of Manufacture, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall * Amstead, B. H. (1987), Manufacturing Processes, 8th Edition, John Wiley & Sons * Groover, M. P. , ‘Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing’, 3rd edition, John Wiley, 2007 * DeGarmo, E. P. , “Materials and Processes in Manufacturing”, 10th edition, John Wiley, 2008 * International Aluminium Institue www. world-aluminium. rg/? pg=89 * Askoha Group www. steelrerollingmills. com/hot-rolling. html * UEET www. fkm. utm. my/~zulkepli/lecture_slides/pembentukanlogam/metalForm_lec4a. pdf * KAWASAKI STEEL,1997-2002www. jfe-21st-cf. or. jp/chapter_3/3e_1. html * Zainal Abin Ahmad,2008 http://www. fkm. utm. my/~zulkepli/lecture_slides/pembentukanlogam/fromPMZ/SME2713%20Metal%20Forming%20-%205. pdf * ME 350-Lecture22- Chapter 19, mechse. illinois. edu/media/uploads/course_websites/me_350_-_lect_22_-_ch_19. 20090422. 49efca39b06828. 47316351. ppt * Mexicomo Limited www. meximco. com/product. asp

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