Fundamentals of Communication Studies
Overview of Communication Communication Communication is a systemic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings. Features/Aspects of Communication 1. Process * Ongoing and dynamic (always in motion) * Cannot freeze communication 2. Systems * Interrelated parts (family, team) (part of the system) * Embedded in larger systems (groups, industries, cultures) * Varying openness * Extent to which a system affects and is affected by outside factors and processes * Seek equilibrium, or homeostasis * BUT: Change – Internal, External . Symbols * Abstract, arbitrary and ambiguous * Representation of other things 4. Meanings * Significance we bestow on phenomena, or what they signify to us * Content level (literal aspect) * Relationship level (tone of message, what it signifies thereafter) * Command request, nature of relationship Models of Communication * Description of a system, theory or phenomenon * An approximation of reality * Explains the workings of a process * In essence, to simplify a situation for us to understand better May be a graphic, diagram or even mathematical equation. primary models of Communication: 1. Linear 2. Interactive 3. Transactional 1. LINEAR (Transmission, Bullet, Hypodermic Needle) Noise source: anything that interferes with the intended meaning of communication* One way direct transmission * Usage of transmitter and receiver * May have noise source that causes interference and disruption to transmission of message 2. INTERACTIVE MODEL (Change roles; feedback; fields of experience) * Take turns, does not portray changing over time * Sender and receiver do change roles * Feedback occurs from receiver to sender Fields of experience are present (clarifies why misunderstanding occurs) 3. TRANSACTIONAL MODEL (multiple roles, simultaneous, change over time) * Simultaneous communication * Communicators: sender + receiver * Participate equally and simultaneously 4. COMMUNICATION AS PERSUASION * Usage of communication to reinforce, change or modifies an audience’s attitude, values, beliefs or actions. | Linear| Interactive| Transactional| Way of xfer| One way| Two way, take turns| Simultaneously| Roles| Transmitter, receiver| Encoder, Decoder| Noise| Noise Source present|
Feedback| | Feedback present| Field of exp| | Field of experience Present| Time| | Time Present| Types of Communication * Intrapersonal (with ourselves, e. g. thinking) * Dyadic (one to one) * Small group * Public * Mass (shared across great distances and time with potentially large audience) * Computer mediated (multiple flows) Wk 2: Communication History and Perspectives History of Communication Field Classical roots: Rhetoric and Democratic Life * Developed mid-400s B. C. in Syracuse, Sicily * Present claims against deposed tyrants Develop speaking skills * Central in Ancient Greece & Rome * Plato (student of Socrates), Aristotle (student of Plato; rhetoric central to life) Aristotle’s Three Pillars of Persuasion: * Ethos (based on speaker’s credibility) * Pathos (appealing to emotions) * Logos (logic, reasoning) Sophistry: specious or deceptive rhetoric * Winning through trickery * Specious or deceptive reasoning in argumentation Central to Liberal Education * Primary mission of US College Education in 1800s and 1900s * Rhetoric as practical art for civic life By 1900s communication began to include more than public speaking * John Dewey emphasized thoughtful and critical listening, citizenship
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* Progressive thinking BROADENING THE FIELD OF COMMUNICATION * Rhetoricians retained traditional philosophic approaches and concerns * Communication researches (social scientists) began to study communication empirically * Social and cultural change in 1960s, 1970s, encouraged study of relationships, social change, power, gender roles, empowerment * Broadening of fields such as to health communication COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Quantitative: surveys, experiments, statistical analysis, modeling, measures; * Goal: prediction, explanation * Qualitative: non-numerical, textual analysis, ethnography, historical research, participant, observation, focus group * Goals: explanation, description * Critical Research: describe and analyse communication institutions or practices than oppress, marginalize, harm individual or social groups * Goal: identify, uncover, change Studying phenomena in multiple ways is called triangulation. BREADTH OF THE FIELD * Intrapersonal communication * Interpersonal communication Group and team communication includes interaction in task, social, and personal groups and teams * Performance studies (performing identities, storytelling, power – political potential)
* Public Communication (public speaking, argumentation, political, public relations) * Organisational Communication focuses on communication skills that affect work life and organisational culture * Intercultural communication focuses on how culture shape individual’s way of communicating * Mass Communication includes the influence of mediated messages on society * New Communication Technologies looks at how we are changing the way we think, work and relate * Ethics and Communication Communication Theory Hints for thinking about theory * Theories are strong conceptual arguments, supported by valid evidence, bout the underlying explanation or processes for some process or behaviours * Instead of thinking of theories as true or false, they can be treated as “lenses” or ways of “framing” of looking at phenomena * Try to link the theory with its author * Apply theory to your own life to enhance your understanding PARADIGMS Paradigms are sets of assumptions, methods, perceptions, and beliefs, widely shated within (possibly different) communities of scholars Two main broad paradigms: * Objective (more quantitative) * Interpretive (more qualitative) | Objective Paradigm| Interpretive Paradigm| Ways of knowing| Discovering truth| Creating multiple realities| Human Nature| Determinism| Free Will| Highest Value| Objectivity| Emancipation|
Purpose of Theory| Universal Law| Guides for interpretation| Research Methods| Quantitative| Qualitative| Goals| Prediction and Control| Understanding| Metaphor| Machine| Culture| Communication| Tool| Sense-making| Communication Competence * Interpersonal competency allows one to achieve their communication goals, by choosing communication strategies, without causing the other party to lose face * Involves both the skills of the communicator, and the perception of others * Competence is thus not an individual trait alone, but a creation of interactions Two dimensions: Appropriateness and Effectiveness * Appropriateness: fits a context (including adapting over time) * Rules and norms * Learning the above through sanctions Effectiveness: accomplishes valued outcomes (a wide variety of possibilities, depending on the relationship and the other’s behaviours) * Culture differences The Competence Grid | Effective| Not Effective| Appropriate| Optimising| Sufficing| Not appropriate| Maximising| Minimising| A competent communicator is able to: * Recognize what communication practice is appropriate (knowledge) – about both the content and the producers * Have the ability to perform that practice (skill) * Want to communicate in an effective and appropriate manner (motivation) Competent Communicators are more likely to succeed Wk 3: Perceiving and Understanding What is perception?
* The “I” behind the senses The “Eye” – can process about 5 million bits of data/second * The “I” (the brain) – can utilize only 500 bits of data/second * We are forced to identify or select those stimuli we will attend to or experience * Our interpretation of events may differ from the actual events, and from others’ interpretations. The perception process An active process of selecting, organizing and interpreting phenomena that make sense of our world * Perception and communication affect each other 1. SELECTION Selection is the process of choosing which aspects of reality to notice: * Things that stand out (vivid, loud, important, colourful) * Change compels attention Deliberately influences our perception by talking to ourselves * Our needs, interests and motives Perceptual Constancy * The tendency of animals and humans to see familiar objects as having standard shape, size, colour or location regardless of changes in the angle of perspective, distance, or lighting * The desire to see exactly as we have seen in the past * The more similar our life experiences, the more similar we will perceive the world * The more dissimilar our life experiences and cultures, the wider the gap between us and others with the respect to the way we view things * So not everyone perceives things in the same way Selective Perception
By focusing on particular stimuli while ignoring others, we create a more limited but more coherent and meaningful picture of our world, one that conforms to our beliefs, expectations and convictions. 2. ORGANISATION The Law of Simplicity: we tend to perceive the world in the simplest form, through: * Closure is the tendency to fill in missing portions from a perceptual array, or to fill in the gaps * Grouping combines basic sensory elements into perceivable objects Theory of Constructivism: Cognitive Schemata are mental templates or structures that help you organize and make sense of incoming information Four types of schemata: * Prototypes * Define the clearest, best examples or ideal of categories * Personal Constructs Bi-polar dimensions of judgment we use to make more detailed assessments of people and situations (intelligent-not intelligent; kind-not kind) * Stereotypes * Predictive generalizations (accurate or inaccurate) about a person or situation, based on the prototype category and personal constructs. * Members may not however, share those similarities. * Scripts * Guides to a sequence of actions that reflect our expectations of how we and others will behave in specific situations.
* When a script isn’t followed, possible frustration or anger. 3. INTERPRETATION The subjective process of creating explanations for what we observe and experience. * Attributions Attributions are explanations of why things happen and people act as they do * Are subjective, they are not factual explanation of others’ behaviour. They may or may not be accurate. Four dimensions of attribution explanations:| * Self serving bias * Tendency to develop attributions that serve our personal interests * Attribute our positive actions and successes to internal, stable factors, personal control * Attribute negative actions and failures to external, unstable events, beyond our control * Results in excessive credit to self, but judgment, fault or blame of others| INFLUENCES ON PERCEPTION 1. Physiological * Wide variation in sense Physical condition (tired, sick, angry, biorhythm) * Specific context (noise, rush, pressure) * Physiological states, age Ground Perception * The tendency to discriminate between target and background stimuli * The stimulus we perceive is as being the target is referred to as the figure * The other stimuli that we do not perceive as the target make up the background, or ground. | 2. Expectations * Priming of expectations (words or conditions that make a particular expectation more likely) * Positive visualization (a strategy for improving your own expectations and thus communication behaviour) * Construction of positive images
Expectation Violation Theory * Interactants develop expectations about the verbal and non verbal communication of others * Violations of communication expectations are arousing and distracting, causing an attentional shift to communicator, relationships and violation characteristics and meaningsCommunication response depeds on: * Positive and negative violation * Extent of deviation from expected * Impact of violation on relationshipRelative to expectancy confirmation * Positive violations produce more favourable outcomes * Negative violations produce more unfavourable outcomesCommunicator ValenceIf violation is ambiguous or has multiple meanings, * Communicator valence will influence how the violation is interpreted and evaluated * If we like someone, positively evaluate the violation * If we do not like someone, negatively evaluate the violation| 3. Cognitive * Cognitive complexity (of personal constructs) * How many * How abstract * How they interact * Affects range of perception of others * Develop an integrated perception (as we grow older we have a more complex cognitive structure) A more cognitively complex person would integrate all the information into a coherent account. | * Person-centredness * Ability to perceive other as unique individual * Identify distinctive characteristics * Understand their personal background * Take the other person’s perspective * Adapt communication to specific others (level of knowledge, sensitive issues, jargon * Knowing how much to create satisfying relationship * Empathy * Feel the other’s emotion 4. Social Roles
* We occupy different roles, and perceive things differently according to them, based on: * Training * Actual demands of the role * Symbolic or historical aspects of the role * Expectation of others 5. Culture and Social Communities Culture consists of beliefs, values, understandings, practices, and ways of interpreting experience that a number of people share * Social community is a group of people who are part of an overall society but also distinct from the society in that they hold values, understanding and practices that are no shared by people outside the group * Individual from different cultures are trained to regard the same cues differently, interpreting what they perceive through a cultural lens * Culture also teaches us to expect others to behave in certain ways when faced with specific conditions GUIDELINES FOR IMPROVING SKILL IN PERCEIVING * Avoid mind Reading * Assuming we understand what another person thinks of feels * Check perceptions with others * Especially for online communication (as there are no non-verbal cues) * Enhances clarity and invites productive dialogue * Helps in arrival to mutual understanding of each other and their interaction * Usage of tentative tone rather than dogmatic or accusatory tone to minimize defensiveness and encourage good discussion * Distinguish facts from inferences and judgment * Fact is based on observation or proof Inference is a deduction that goes beyond what you know or assume to be a fact * Judgment is a belief or opinion that is based on observations, feelings, assumptions or other phenomena that are not facts * Monitoring self-serving bias * Monitoring is the process of calling behaviours or other phenomena to our attention so that we can observe and regulate them Wk 4: Engaging in verbal communication Language and Meaning FEATURES OF LANGUAGE * Arbitrary * Not intrinsically connected to the phenomena they represent – no necessary correspondence
* Meanings change over time * New words are coined or revised to represent new phenomena * Same “word” can have multiple meanings; same sound can be different word; words can be used in consistently * Ambiguous Meanings are not clear-cut (word meaning may vary by cultural groups and over time) * Distinct connotations for people with different religion or cultural backgrounds * Ambiguity of words is frequent source of misunderstanding * Connotative vs denotative meanings * Abstract * Not the same as the concrete or tangible referent * Vary in degrees of substances * Potential for confusion higher with increased abstractness * Process of abstraction in which we move further and further away from external or objective phenomena * Over-generalisation distorts relationships, frames thinking PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION 1. Creates meaning * Interpretation is an active, creative process * Meanings are in people * We create reality by naming things according to institutional facts (meanings based on interpretation), not the brute facts (objective, concrete phenomena) 2. Communication is guided by rules Communication rules are shared understandings about what communication means and what behaviours are appropriate Regulative Rules * Regulate interaction by specifying when, how, where, and with whom to communicate about certain things * Guide sequential action by prescribing the appropriate behaviour * How to respond to others and apply appropriate speech actsConstitutive Rules * Define what a particular communication means or stands for * Describes the assignment of meaning * Helps interpret meanings through contextualization * Used to show support, hostility, anger etcRegulative rules evolve from constitutive rules| 3. Punctuation affects Meaning * Punctuation marks a flow of activity into meaningful units * Defines where communication episodes start/stop * Not the same as grammatical punctuation * Punctuation is a way of establishing boundaries for the communication, and thus some of its meaning * Easy to misinterpret if portion of the conversation was heard, or joining conversation in the middle * Punctuation is subjective, so there is no absolute correct way to punctuate any interaction
Punctuating an Interaction * Two people talking may not be using the same punctuation * An examples is the demand-withdraw model, involving conflicting punctuation * One person wants to create closeness through personal talk; the other wants to maintain autonomy by avoiding the same kind of talk * Do not share meanings for what is happening between them * Each action motivates the other to try harder at what they want, the opposite of what the other wants! | SYMBOLIC ABILITIES 1. Language defines phenomena * The way we name or define phenomena shapes what they mean to us * Labels are powerful and affect our actions * Totalizing occurs when we respond to a person as if one label totally represents what she or he is – one aspect of identity * Affect how we think and feel
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis * Humans may be able to think only about objects, processes, and conditions that have language associated with them (linguistic determinism) * Supporters of linguistic relativity assume that culture is shaped by language * The Trukese people do not have future sense * Different cultures may have completely different word for common sounds * Japanese have words for sounds of sensations and emotions| 2. Language Evaluates Phenomena * Symbols are not neutral – they can be loaded with value * Many different possible words to apply to the same phenomenon * Tend to use words accentuates positive sides and downplay the flaw * Ethical implications on how it affects others * Loaded language consists of words that strongly slant perceptions * Reappropriation: a group reclaims a degrading term used by others 3. Language organises Experience We rely on cognitive schemata, which are symbols, to classify and evaluate phenomena * Our categorization of the others affects how we interpret what they say * Capacity to abstract can also distort thinking – stereotyping * Stereotypes involve thinking in broad generalizations about a whole class of people or phenomena 4. Language allows hypothetical thought * Symbolic thought and language frees us from the fixed world * We can think in all three dimensions of time even though we exist in the present * Ability to inhabit past, present and future explains why we can set goals and work towards them * We can think of alternatives to what exists * Enrich personal relationships * Helps us improve who we are 5. Language allows Self-Reflection * We are able to think about ourselves George Herbert Mead: The Me aspect of self is the socially aware self that reflects (from the perspective of others), on the I, which is the creative, spontaneous aspect of self * We are able to monitor our behaviour * This is central to our identity 6. Language defines Relationships and interaction * Words can be used to represent, between communicators * Responsiveness * Agreement, disagreement, feedback, supportive conversation (cultural differences) * Liking * Words indicate our affect, closeness * Power * Dominance, status, influence, interruption, length| * Words help us consider some issues in relationships and ignore others GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE VERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. Strive to be (other) person-centered * Adapting to specific, unique individuals with whom we interact 2. Be conscious of levels of abstraction 3.
Use qualifying language when generalizing or evaluating; be aware of static evaluations * Qualifying reminds us that out perceptions are tied to specific times, places and circumstances * Static Evaluation: assessment that suggest that something is unchanging (particularly troublesome when applied to people) * Indexing reminds us that our evaluations only apply to specific times and circumstances 4. Own your feelings and thoughts * Result from how we interpret others’ communication * I and You language Wk 6: Listening Listening is not hearing * Hearing is a passive physiological process * An active cognitive process * Complex process within self-control THE LISTENING PROCESS 1.
Be Mindful * Mindfulness focuses on what is happening in the moment * Paying attention and be interested * Ethical commitment to attend fully * Increases understanding * Promotes more complete communication| 2. Physically Receive Communication * Other physiological factors * Men vs women * Tired, stress and other emotions * Rates of speaking and hearing 3. Select and Organise Material * We selectively attend to some communication and not other communication * We organize what we selectively perceive 4. Interpreting Communication * We interpret what we have selectively perceived and organized (to make sense of communication) 5. Responding Effective listening also involves responding * Skillful listeners give signs to show that they are involved in the interaction * Responding involves non-verbal communication * Involves giving feedback * Occurs both during the process of interaction and after another person has stopped speaking * To express interest 6. Remembering * Being able to recall messages is the final aspect of the listening process * An average person retains half of what they hear after a 10 minute presentation * Two days later half the information is forgotten, meaning the average person retains one-quarter of what they heard OBSTACLES TO EFFECTIVE LISTENING SITUATIONAL OBSTACLES|
Message Overload| Occurs when we receive too many messages to process all of them * Making choices which communication gets our attention| Message Complexity| Exists when communication is complex, complicated or otherwise difficult to understand and follow (involves intricate reasoning) * Taking notes can improve retention| Physical Barrier| Environmental Distraction * External Noise, Computer * Changing locations when needed| Physiological Distractions| Speed differences between speech and hearing * Speech: 135 – 175 words a minute * Hearing: 400 – 500 words a minute| INTERNAL OBSTACLES| Preoccupation| With our own thoughts can concerns can impede good listening * Not mindful| Prejudgments| Can get in the way of understanding what others mean – refusal to listen, mind reading * Disconfirm other people by denying their voices| Lack of Effort and Energy| Can reduce effectiveness| Failure to recognize different styles| Other cultures exhibit differences in listening rules based on age, ethnicity, gender and other aspects of identity| FORMS OF INEFFECTIVE LISTENING Pseudolistening| Pretending to listen * So people will like you * So hey will listen to you * Focusing on rebuttal or on what you’re going to say rather than what the speaker is saying| Monopolising| Hogging the stage by continuously focusing communication on ourselves instead of the person who is talking * Conversational rerouting (talking about oneself) * Diversionary interrupting (questions and challenges not intended to support the person speaking)| Selective Listening| Can take place in two ways: * Selectively focus on parts that support our views or interest us * Screen out parts that diverge from our views or do not interest us| Defensive Listening| Perceiving personal attacks, or hostile undertones in communication where none is intendedGenerally confined to areas where we judge ourselves inadequate or to times when we feel negative about ourselves| Ambushing| Listening for the purpose of attacking the person speaking and/or that person’s ideas| Literal Listening| Occurs when individuals attend only to the content-level of meaning and overlook the relationship level of meaning * Neglects feelings and connections by them| IDENTIFYING INEFFECTIVE LISTENING
Characteristics of Ineffective listeners: * Poker face * Vacant look in eyes * Roving eyes * Distracting actions e. g. fidgeting * Tapping of feet * Frowning GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE LISTENING * Develop skills for informational and critical listening: to gain and understand information * Be mindful: attending to complex and difficult messages carefully * Control obstacles: minimize physical and psychological distractions * Ask questions: clarify and deepen insight * Use aids to recall: repeating ideas, mnemonic devices * Organize information: impose order by regrouping what we hear * Develop skills for Relationship Listening Be mindful: involves looking for feelings and perceptions that are “between the words” * Suspend judgment: do not evaluate (even positive ones) and make them defensive * Strive to understand other’s perspective: person-centered * Minimal encouragers: inviting the person to elaborate * Paraphrasing: gain insight into other’s perspective * Ask questions: signals we want to help and allows them to tell us how best we can do it * Express support: communicating support * Develop Skills for other listening goals * Listening for pleasure * Listening to discriminate: in order to draw accurate conclusions and act appropriately in repsonse Wk 6: Non-verbal Communication Nature of non-verbal communication behaviours All behaviours, attributes and objects of human other than words – that communicate messages that have shared social meaning * Does not include sign language, written words or words transferred electronically
* Bodily actions and vocal qualities accompanying verbal message (accounting for 65 to 93% of the total meanings of communication) * Usually interpreted as intentional * Have agreed-upon interpretations within a community TYPES OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION 1. Kinesics (face, body, motion) * Facial Expression * Brow and Forehead: puzzled, disgust, anger * Eyes, eyelids and root of nose: interest, love, anger * Cheeks, mouth, rest of nose and chin: unhappiness * Body Motions * Gestures: combination of instinct, learned behaviour and imitation of others (5 types of gestures, see below) * Posture: confidence vs not assured Arm cross: often decoded as a defensive barrier sign, can also represent comfortable position for relaxing the arms while speaking as well * Hand behind head: a potential sign of uncertainty, conflict, disagreement, frustration, anger or disliking (i. e. social aversion) How body motions are used * To display the nonverbal expression of feelings, communicate mood * Signal whether we are open to interaction * Take place automatically * Deintensified or overreacted displays * Smile at bad grade – deintensified * Howling over minor pain – overreacted| Gestures: 1. Emblems * Gestures with direct verbal translation * To take the place of a word or phrase * Non verbal cues with specific meanings * Sign languages of the deaf * E. g. rolling eyes, middle finger -_-||| 2. Illustrators Gestures that depict what is said verbally, such as turning an imaginary steering wheel while talking about driving * Usage of inflection to emphasize certain words * To show the path or direction of thought * To show position * To describe * E. g. I swear to you the mouse is fricking big!! (opens up hands) * The ball is not big, it’s ENORMOUS! =P| 3. Affect Displays * Gesture that conveys emotions e. g. smile * Body movements which reveal our affective, or emotional state * Facial cues are primary way we reveal our feelings non-verbally| 4. Regulators * Gestures that control interaction * Organize interactions * Signal when to speak or stay silent * To tell other when to continue, to repeat, to elaborate etc * Through: eye behaviours, head nodding etc|
5. Adaptors * Gestures that facilities the release of bodily tension e. g. uickly moving one’s leg * Movements that satisfy your personal needs and help you adapt to your environment * Adaptors may also be behaviours or objects that are manipulated for purpose * Adaptors include behaviours like yawning and moving/adjusting your glasses| 2. OCULESICS (eye contact) * Reveals range of emotions * Monitor effect of communication * More with comfortable topics 3. PHYSICAL APPEARANCE * Making inferences about personalities * Prescribes ideals for physical form which may vary across culture * Includes physiological characteristics (i. e. eye colour and height) * Body type * Hairstyle * Clothing and personal grooming * Other artifacts| 4. SILENCE * Can convey contentment or awkwardness, refuse to acknowledge existence 5. PROXEMICS (personal space) * What is considered a normal amount of individual space varies from culture to culture * Announce status Reflect closeness and desire for interaction 6. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND ARTIFACTS (personal objects) * Artifacts * Personal objects we use to announce our identities and to personalize our environment * Express our cultural and ethnic identities, announce professional identity * Define settings and personal territories * Environmental Factors * Element of settings that affect how we feel think and act * Influence mood and behaviour 7. CHRONEMICS (perception and use of time) * How we perceive and use time to define identities and interaction * Superior can keep subordinates waiting while subs have to be punctual * Expresses cultural attitudes towards time Length of time we spend with different people reflects the extent of our interest in them and affection for them * Involves expectations of time 8. PARALANGUAGE (vocal qualities) * Modulate inflection, volume and rhythm * Communicate feelings * Affects how others perceive us * Ethnic heritage and identification influence how we use voices as well * Reflects gender and socioeconomic level 9. HAPTICS (touch) * Handling touch harshly could signify rejection * Women uses touch to show liking and intimacy while guys use touch to assert power and control 10. OFLACTICS (smell) * Personal signatures * Body odours produced by pheromones, may affect sexual attraction
PRINCIPLES OF NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Nonverbal communication: * Is ambiguous * Meanings change over time * Guided by rules * Establishes relationship-level meanings * Expresses how people feel about one another * Communicate the 3 dimensions of relationship level meaning: responsiveness, liking, power Responsiveness * Eye contact, inflections, facial expressions, body posture to show interest * Reflect how comfortable they are with one anotherLiking * Keen indicators to show whether we feel positive or negative * Smiles, friendly touching, shake hands, sitting closerPower * Assert dominance and to negotiate status * Space and silence convey power as well| Interacts with verbal communication 1. May repeat verbal behaviours 2. Illustrators: Highlight verbal communication * Usage of inflection to emphasize certain words * To show the path or direction of thought * To show position * To describe * E. g. I swear to you the mouse is fricking big!! (opens up hands) * The ball is not big, it’s ENORMOUS! =P 3. Complement words * I am full * I’m glad to see you (smiles) 4. Contradict verbal messages * Nothing’s wrong!! (angry) 5. May substitute verbal messages * To take the place of a word or phrase * Non verbal cues with specific meanings * Sign languages of the deaf * E. g. olling eyes, middle finger -_-||| * Regulates interaction * Cues to tell us when to talk and remain silent * Reflects cultural values GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION * Monitor your Non verbal communication * More effective to achieve interpersonal goals * Interpret others’ nonverbal communication tentatively * Qualify interpretations of nonverbal behaviour with awareness of personal and contextual considerations * Personal Qualifications: actions vary and mean something else to others (ambiguous) * Contextual Qualifications: significance of nonverbal communication may depend on the context in which they occur