Gender and Age Differences in Bullying Essay

Bullying is any unwanted, aggressive behavior, that is defined as the use of a superior strength or influence to intimidate another - Gender and Age Differences in Bullying Essay introduction. The behavior can defined as routine and repetitive. Types of bullying include: °Physical- beating up, hitting, punching, kicking, or any other means of physically hurting another. °Verbal- name calling, threats, humiliation, or any other means of verbally hurting another. °Social- alienation from group, rumors, or any other means of indirectly hurting another. °Cyber- using text, email, or social media to hurt others though singling out, embarrassing ,threatening, etc.

Cyberbullying is when a one is tormented, threatened, harassed, or targeted by another using the Internet or mobile phones. The acts may be directed to a certain group of individuals based on race, gender, religion, sexuality, etc. A lot of victims turn into bullies because of their bitterness towards the bully and it causes them to in turn to hurt others. Bullying happens in all age groups, from elementary school-aged children to adults in the office, but even though reports of bullying have been recorded for almost any age, middle school children have the most severe and ‘memorable’ cases.

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The biggest difference in the way people bully is gender. Males and females bully differently. Males tend to be more aggressive in their bullying and become very physical, whereas females are more passive aggressive and focus on verbal bullying and cyberbullying. In preschool years, the types of bullying that occurs is social rejection, name calling, taking other children’s toys, pushing, punching, hitting, etc. Their biological development seems off, they could have a stomachache or headache for no apparent reason, unexplainable injuries or sleep and appetite disturbance.

The children are clingy and hiny, depressed and withdrawn, they’ll talk about a certain child being mean to them, they have concentration problems and low self esteem. The children will suddenly become scared to go to preschool and they’ll avoid eye contact. In middle school, children and teens become more vulnerable to bullying because at this stage they are being to develop new social skills and personality traits, they have different views on culture and ethnicity and this is a time when they either have friends or don’t have friends. The types of bullying displayed in this age group is verbal and physical bullying and relational aggression.

Getting bullied at this age creates emotional problems, such as, fear, anxiety, helplessness, humiliation, etc. It can create psychological disorders, such as, chronic stress and anxiety, depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It can make the victims look at themselves differently and disorient their self perception and it can cause nightmares, lack of concentration, and trouble with sleeping. Bullying at this age can also affect biological development, causing illness, headache and stomachache and it can lead to eating disorders.

Being bullied can change and disconnect you from your friends, it can bring your grades down, and it can bring upon a sense of insecurity with your culture, ethnicity, beliefs, sexuality, etc. In highschool and emerging adult years is when an individuals sense of identity begins to form. Bullying in post secondary includes hazing, sororities and fraternities. Bullying at this age can lead to continual stress, fear, anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders. It can lead to isolation, changes in relationships with friends, family, etc. , withdrawal from others and a feeling of insecurity.

Girls can get involved in bullying indirectly through their peer group through gossip through other members. This gossip can create mean name calling, and the others will come up with ways to let her know that she has been rejected from the group, through social media or via mean texts. This is a form of relational bullying because they attack relationships and friendships. Another way that a girl can be bullied is sexually, for example, receiving sexual messages or being touched inappropriately. These behaviors occur online, school or in the community where they live.

This form of bullying combined with rejection of friendships can be hurtful to their self esteem, hopes for the future, etc. In contrast to girls, boys tend to be more aggressive, they are the ones that want to fight. The physical abuse tends to occur at the educational level(elementary-college). Also, many people are more accepting to boys being bullied because its stereotypically in their nature to be aggressive and fight. We are taught this through the media, movies and television. We see that men on television are strong and always fighting. Another reason why it’s more tolerated is because many people see it as “just boys being boys”.

Girl bullying usually goes unnoticed because it is more indirect and there usually isn’t any face to face talking about it or even fighting face to face, it’s usually via text or internet. Girls bully because they have learned the habit from home through being bullied by older siblings or even by their parents. Bullying for them is a way to regain control that they’ve lost from being bullied themselves. More reasons include that she’s insecure about herself, she wants to feel powerful in a friend circle, she wants popularity or she needs attention.

Through verbal assaults, exclusion, etc. , girls gain control and feel better about themselves. Boys also bully for almost the exact same reason that girls bully, they’ve learned it at home, they’re insecure, they want power or control or the crave attention. Boys are often physical with their bullying but that doesn’t mean that they don’t have other ways of bullying. Boys also use verbal assaults, exclusion, online attacks, etc. Bullying is different at all ages and develops itself to be harsher as it progresses. Males and females bully differently.

Males tend to be more aggressive in their bullying and become very physical, whereas females are more passive aggressive and focus on verbal bullying and cyberbullying. Bullying can also bring forth problems that can later on be discovered. Bullying is a terrible thing to do to others, it can seriously harm a person and it’s not getting the bully anywhere in life.

Bibliography

Ashbaugh, Lauren P. , and Dewey G. Cornell. “Sexual Harassment and Bullying Behaviors in Sixth-Graders.. ” Journal of School Violence 7. 2 (2008): 21-38. EBSCO. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. Besag, Valerie E.. “Bullying Among Girls. School Psychology International 27. 5 (2006): 535-551. EBSCO. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. Boulton, Michael J. , Peter K. Smith, and Helen Cowie. “Short-Term Longitudinal Relationships Between Children’s Peer Victimization/Bullying Experiences and Self-Perceptions.. ” School Psychology International 31. 3 (2010): 296-311. EBSCO. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. Crapanzano, Ann Marie, Paul J. Frick, Kristina Childs, and Andrew M. Terranova. “Gender Differences in the Assessment, Stability, and Correlates to Bullying Roles in Middle School Children.. ” Behavioral Sciences & the Law29. 5 (2011): 677-694. EBSCO. Web. 16 Nov. 012. Erdur-Baker, Ozgur, and Cigdem Topcu. “Affective and cognitive empathy as mediators of gender differences in cyber and traditional bullying. .” School Psychology International 33. 5 (2012): 550-561. EBSCO. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. Farrington , David P. , and Anna Costanza Baldry. “Individual risk factors for school bullying.. “

Journal of Aggression, Conflict & Peace Research 2. 1 (2010): 4-16. EBSCO. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. James, Deborah, Ann Flynn, Maria Lawlor, Pat Courtney , Niamh Murphy, and Bernie Henry. “A Friend In Deed? Can Adolescent Girls Be Taught to Understand Relational Bullying?. Child Abuse Review 20. 6 (2011): 439-454. EBSCO. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. Min Jung, Kim, Richard F. Catalano, Kevin P. Haggerty, and Robert D. Abbott. “Bullying at elementary school and problem behaviour in young adulthood: A study of bullying, violence and substance use from age 11 to age 21.. ” Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health 21. 2 (2011): 136-144. EBSCO. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. Phillips, Debby A.. “Punking and Bullying: Strategies in Middle School, High School, and Beyond.. ” Journal of Interpersonal Violence 22. 2 (2007): 158-178. EBSCO. Web. 15 Nov. 2012.

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