Globalization: Capitalism and Human Physical Well-being Essay

Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology - Globalization: Capitalism and Human Physical Well-being Essay introduction. Aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge. [4] Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with globalization. 5] This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. Globalization is not new, though. For thousands of years, people—and, later, corporations—have been buying from and selling to each other in lands at great distances, such as through the famed Silk Road across Central Asia that connected China and Europe during the Middle Ages. Likewise, for centuries, people and corporations have invested in enterprises in other countries.

In fact, many of the features of the current wave of globalization are similar to those prevailing before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. But policy and technological developments of the past few decades (десятилетия) have increased cross-border trade, investment, and migration so large that many observers believe the world has entered a qualitatively new phase in its economic development. In the years since the Second World War many governments have adopted free-market economic systems, vastly increasing their own productive potential and creating new opportunities for international trade and investment.

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Governments also have negotiated dramatic reductions in barriers to commerce and have established international agreements to promote trade in goods, services, and investment. Taking advantage of new opportunities in foreign markets, corporations have built foreign factories and established production and marketing arrangements with foreign partners. A defining feature of globalization, therefore, is an international industrial and financial business structure. Technology has been the other principal driver of globalization.

Advances in information technology, in particular, have dramatically transformed economic life. Globalization is deeply controversial (спорный, противоречивый, дискуссионный), however. Proponents (защитники, сторонники) of globalization argue that it allows poor countries and their citizens to develop economically and raise their standards of living, while opponents of globalization claim that the creation of an unfettered international free market has benefited multinational corporations in the Western world at the expense of local enterprises, local cultures, and common people.

Resistance to globalization has therefore taken shape both at a popular and at a governmental level as people and governments try to manage the flow of capital, labor, goods, and ideas that constitute the current wave of globalization. To find the right balance between benefits and costs (доходы и издержки) associated with globalization, citizens of all nations need to understand how globalization works and the policy choices facing them and their societies.

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