Government Chapter 10

Legitimacy in terms of American elections means
the election is nearly unanimously accepted as a fair and free method to select political
leaders.
Elections in the United States perform which of the following functions
all of the above
Which of the following functions do elections LEAST serve?
making and coordinating public policy
Californiaʹs famous Proposition 13, in which voters frustrated by a lack of action by their
legislature forced an issue on the ballot and voted to limit the rise in property taxes, was an
example of
an initiative.
Californiaʹs Proposition 209, which intended to end affirmative action programs in the state, is
an example of
an initiative.

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Daniel Smith argues that initiatives typically stem from
the actions of a dedicated policy entrepreneur.
The initiative is put on the ballot as a result of
a petition signed by a certain percentage of the voters in the previous election.
Of the following, which is the most direct form of democracy?
initiative
The initiative petition
enables voters to put proposed legislation on the ballot.
Examples of issues addressed in recent initiatives include all of the following EXCEPT
election day registration.
An election whereby voters are given the chance to approve or disapprove some legislative act
or constitutional amendment is called
a referendum.
A referendum is an election
whereby voters are given the chance to approve or disapprove some legislative act or
constitutional amendment.
Which of the following is NOT true about elections in American society?
The vast majority of eligible citizens cast ballots, even for local races
In the 1800 election presidential candidates were nominated by
their partiesʹ elected representatives in Congress.
Which of the following does NOT characterize presidential elections around 1800?
The candidates barnstormed the country campaigning and giving speeches.
Which of the following statements about the 1800 presidential election is TRUE?
The 1800 election was ultimately decided in the House of Representatives
The election of 1800 was
decided by the House of Representatives.
The presidential election of 1800 was
the first transition of power between parties accomplished by votersʹ ballots in the
history of the world.
The presidential election of 1800 represents the first
peaceful transfer of power in the world between parties via the electoral process
In the original constitutional system
each presidential elector cast two ballots and the top vote-getter was named president
and the runner-up became vice president.
Which of the following is TRUE of the presidential election of 1800?
It was the first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in the
history of the world.
In the electoral college vote in the election of 1800, there was a tie between
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr
The issue of free silver (to increase the amount of currency in circulation) was championed in
the election of 1896 by ________, whose most famous oration was his ʺCross of Goldʺ speech at
the Democratic national convention.
William Jennings Bryan
In 1896, who liked silver money?
debtors
The first peaceful transfer of power between parties via the electoral process in the history of
the world occurred as a result of the presidential election of
1800.
The election of 1896 was largely fought over the issue of
economics
Which of the following statements about the election of 1896 is FALSE?
The election resulted in the Democrats becoming firmly entrenched as the majority party
in the Northeast and Midwest.
The winner of the presidential election of 1896 was
William McKinley.
The election of 1896 left a legacy of a political alignment that endured for several decades,
wherein
the Democrats won the South and West, while the Republicans won in the more
populous Northeast and Midwest.
Because Bushʹs lead over Gore in the initial count was less than one-tenth of one percent,
Florida law mandated
an automatic recount.
In Bush v. Gore (2000), the United States Supreme Court ruled that
although a recount was legal, the same (or more precise) standards for evaluating ballots
would have to be applied in all counties
According to exit polls, ________ was a major reason voters selected Bush in 2004
the war on terrorism
In the 2004 election, John Kerry won votes among those most concerned with
the economy, health care, and education.
Suffrage means
the right to vote.
Which of the following is TRUE about American elections over the past 100 years?
The suffrage has broadened, and the turnout has decreased.
Suffrage refers to
the right to vote.
As the right to vote has been extended,
proportionately fewer of those eligible have chosen to vote
The nearly two centuries of American electoral history has been characterized by
expansion of the right to vote.
The high point of voter turnout in the United States was in
1896.
People are more likely to vote for all of the following reasons EXCEPT if they
believe that some policies of one party are balanced by other policies of the other party.
Anthony Downsʹ theory of rational voting behavior predicts that people will vote if they
think one party will give them more policy benefits than the other.
Those largely indifferent to the results of an election, but who decide to vote anyway to show
support for democratic government are called ________ voters.
guilt-driven
The greater oneʹs sense of political efficacy, the
more likely one is to vote.
Political efficacy refers to the belief that
ordinary people can influence the government.
Largely to prevent corruption associated with stuffing ballot boxes, states adopted ________
around the turn of the twentieth century.
voter registration
Voter registration was begun around the turn of the twentieth century
to make elections more ethical
Voter registration procedures were adopted around the turn of the century as a means to
prevent corruption associated with stuffing ballot boxes.
Compared to other countries, the United States holds ________ elections for various offices.
more
A major reason cited for Americaʹs level of voter turnout compared to other industrialized
countries is
registration is more cumbersome in the United States.
Compared to other industrialized democracies, the United States has a ________ voter turnout
much lower
Which of the following countries has a lower voter turnout rate than the United States?
Switzerland
Which of the following countries has the lowest voter turnout rate?
United States
Voter turnout in the United States is much lower than in other countries in part because
of the unique American requirement of voter registration.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Americans are expected to vote for a much narrower range of political offices than most
democracies.
Which of these would be most likely to vote?
a well-educated, middle-aged government worker
Which of the following is INCORRECT?
Congress requires voter registration nationwide
Among the states that allow voter registration at the polls on election day, voter turnout rates
are
higher than in other states.
Approximately how many states allow voters to register at the polls on election day?
6
The Motor Voter Act of 1993
requires states to register individuals to vote when they apply for, or renew, their
driverʹs license.
The impact of the Motor Voter Act of 1993 was evidenced in
higher registration and lower turnout in 1996 and 2000.
The group of people with the lowest voter turnout rate is
young people.
According to the text, the most important factor affecting voter turnout is
education.
Highly educated individuals are more likely to vote because
they see more policy differences between candidates.
Which of the following statements about voter participation is FALSE?
Men are more likely to vote than women.
Which of the following characteristics would make one more likely to vote in an election?
having a college degree
People with higher than average education
are more likely to vote than people of lower educational levels.
The mandate theory of elections
says that people vote for candidates because they want them to carry out certain policies.
The mandate theory of elections is most often cited as the proper way to view elections by
the winning candidate.
The mandate theory of elections is the idea that
the election winner has authorization from the voters to carry out his or her promised
policies.
________ are crucial for many voters because they provide a regular perspective through
which voters can view the political world.
Party identifications
Political scientists tend to focus on each of the following major elements of votersʹ decisions
EXCEPT
votersʹ ideology and world view.
Studies have shown that during the 1960s and 1970s,
the hold of the parties on voters eroded substantially.
Over the last five decades, voting based primarily on party identification has
declined sharply.
Many voters have come to feel that they no longer need the parties to guide their electoral
choices because
modern technology makes it possible for them to evaluate and make their own decisions
about the candidates.
Research by Rosenberg and McCafferty discovered that
it is possible to manipulate a candidateʹs appearance in a way that affects votersʹ choices.
Which of these is the least important dimension of a candidateʹs image?
intelligence
________ occurs when people base their choices in an election on their own issue preferences.
Policy voting
A voter supporting a candidate based specifically on comparing the candidateʹs stances on the
issues of abortion rights, health care, and government aid to education to the voterʹs own
preferences on such issues is an example of
policy voting.
Research has found that those most likely to view the candidates in terms of their personal
attributes are
college-educated voters
Which of the following is TRUE about the electoral college?
On very rare occasions, an elector has voted differently from the popular vote winner of
his state
The ʺelectorsʺ in the electoral college are
selected by state parties, usually as a reward for faithful service to the party over the
years.
The electoral college was originally established in order to
give the nationʹs elite the power to choose the president and vice president rather than
the people directly
As provided in the Constitution, how are electoral votes allocated for each state?
Each state has as many electoral votes as it has members in the Senate.
Electors in the electoral college meet in their states in December (following the November
general election) to officially cast their ballots, then mail their votes to
the vice president.
If no candidate receives an electoral college majority,
the House of Representatives chooses among the top three electoral vote winners.
If the presidential election is thrown into the House of Representatives,
each stateʹs House delegation may cast only one vote, regardless of its number of
representatives.
Except in Maine and Nebraska, the electoral college system operates in each state on the
principle of allocating electoral votes on the basis of
winner-take-all.
Which of the following statements about the electoral college is FALSE?
Every state has a winner-take-all system where electors vote as a bloc for the winner.
If a presidential candidate does not receive a majority of electoral college votes, then the
president is chosen
by the House with one vote for each state.
Research on voting behavior has shown that
policy voting has become somewhat easier than in the past.
Policy voting has increased in recent years primarily because
candidates are regularly forced to take some clear stands in order to appeal to their own
partyʹs primary voters.
Which is FALSE regarding the electoral college?
Whoever wins the most votes in the electoral college wins, even if that isnʹt a majority
The greater the policy differences between the candidates
the more likely voters will be able to steer government policies by their choices
In ________, incumbents who provide desired results are rewarded; those who fail to do so are
punished.
retrospective voting
If engaged in retrospective voting, an individual would ask:
What have you done for me lately?
When President Herbert Hoover and the Republicans were crushed in the election of 1932,
voters were responding to the severity of the Great Depression under Hooverʹs presidency by
retrospective voting.
Retrospective voting refers to voting for
a candidate who promises to continue policies that have made you feel better off.
The type of public policy that seems to have the greatest effect on elections today is
economic policy
Elections have a tendency to expand the scope of government because
voters like to feel that they are sending a message to government to accomplish
something.
While the threat of electoral punishment constrains policymakers, it also helps to increase
generalized support for
government and its powers.
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