A Unitary government is often described as a centralized government. It is a government in which all powers held by the government belong to a single central agency. The central government creates local units of government for its own convenience. The majority of governments in the world are unitary. Great Britain is one example of a unitary system of government. A single central organ which is the Parliament holds all the power of the British government. Local governments do exist, but solely to relieve Parliament of burdens it could perform only with difficulty and inconvenience. One advantage of a unitary government is less duplication of services and fewer conflicts between national and local governments. Another advantage of a unitary government is uniform policies, laws, political, enforcement and administration throughout the country. Within all of this the final advantage of a unitary system is there will be more stability and greater unity. One disadvantage of having a unitary government is that the local concerns of citizens are less heard by the central government. Next reason for a disadvantage is, if the central government gets too involved in local problems it may not meet the needs of all its citizens. Finally, a unitary system is slow to meeting local issues and problems that the people are trying to fix.
On the other hand, a Federal system of government is a government in which the powers of government are divided between a central government and several local governments. An authority superior to both the central and local governments makes this division of powers on a geographic basis and that division cannot be changed by either the local or national level acting alone. Both levels of government act directly on the people through their own sets of laws, officials, and agencies. In the United States for example the National Government has certain powers and the 50 states have others within the nation. This division of powers is set out in the Constitution of the United States. An advantage of having a federal government is that officials from a local government have to be responsive to the people who elected that official into office. Another advantage would be federal unity but meanwhile local governments have to handle and deal with local problems. Next, the central government can devote more time and energy to national and international problems. Finally the last advantage of having a federal government would be that there are more opportunities for participation in making decisions for the better of the community. The first disadvantage would be duplication of services.
The next, depending on where you live, citizens that live in diverse regions of the country are treated differently with legal systems that assign in particular places different penalties to similar offenses or that enforce civil rights laws differently. Another disadvantage would be disputes over power which is national supremacy versus state’s rights. To bring federal government disadvantages to a halt the last is international relations that make states able to pass laws that counter national policy. A Confederate government is an alliance of independent states, like during the civil war. A confederate government has the power to handle only the matters that the member states have assigned to it. Although the confederate system have had limited powers and only in such fields as defense and foreign commerce. Confederations are extremely rare in the modern day world. The European Union is the closest example to a confederation today. The best advantage of this system of government is that is keeps power at local levels, which prevents the growth of a large central government. The next is it makes it possible for the several states to cooperate in matters in common concern while keeping separate identities. One disadvantage of confederate government is the lack of unity and common laws within the government. Finally, the weakness of central government makes it unable to enforce laws or collect taxes from its people.