Ground Penetrating Radar in Brief
Proposed Title Simulation of Ground Penetrating Radar in 3-D using MATLAB - Ground Penetrating Radar in Brief introduction. Keyword Based on the title proposed, the keyword here is Ground Penetrating Radar where the results of the images constructed will be in 3-D. The need for the images of the subsurface is crucial for the Matlab, where we will take note on the difference in terms of the volume, the permittivity, permeability, etc. Objective The objective of this project: * Simulating the images constructed onto Matlab in 3-D. * To understand what Ground Penetrating Radar is and how it works. * Building an even deeper understanding of the commands in Matlab.
Background Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a high resolution electromagnetic technique that is designed primarily to investigate the shallow subsurface of the earth, building materials, roads and bridges. GPR is a time-dependent geophysical technique that can provide a 3-D pseudo image of the subsurface, including the fourth dimension of colour and can also provide the accurate depth estimates for many common subsurface objects. GPR has many applications in a number of fields. In the Earth sciences it is used to study bedrock, soils, groundwater, and ice.
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Engineering applications include non-destructive testing (NDT) of structures and pavements, locating buried structures and utility lines, and studying soils and bedrock. In environmental remediation, GPR is used to define landfills, contaminant plumes, and other remediation sites, while in archaeology it is used for mapping archaeological features and cemeteries. GPR is used in law enforcement for locating clandestine graves and buried evidence. Military uses include detection of mines, unexploded ordinance, and tunnels. This type of specialized radar works a lot like regular radar.
The radar unit has a sending antenna which sends out pulses of sound, and a receiving antenna, which picks up those pulses when they bounce off objects underground. The returned pulses can be used to construct an image of what is underground, because they will vary depending on the depth and composition of buried objects. Based on the image constructed, it can be saved and loaded onto Matlab and the information of the image will appear. Calculations and other related information will be coded into Matlab and produces the results that we all want at the end of the day.
There are several problems that I had encountered while doing this project. The main would be getting the Matlab software and choosing the most applicable Matlab software is because every time a new version comes out, there will be a slight difference in terms of codings and some may not understand the other. Hence, I have decided to precede using Matlab version 5. 3 to be on the safer ground and that is what we mostly use these days, especially during our lab sessions as well. Another problem will be coding the Matlab. It is quite tedious to code because there are many codes involved and there are many aspects.
Gathering the required information and formula that is to be coded onto Matlab is another difficult part because of the coding. In terms of planning, I have decided to Google up the World Wide Web for the latest discovery using Ground Penetrating Radar using Matlab and the generation of the images in 3-D. Not many have actually done this before. For the enhancement part, I would like to connect Matlab with Google Earth and from there, we could browse around the earth to determine the information of a particular place that is wanted or required of the user.
In the first 3 weeks into this project, I was searching around for journals after journals to read what people from all walks of life have done for GPR. In the next few weeks, I was Googling up ways to code GPR into Matlab and I found it very amusing that it is not as simple as we all thought it would be. Apart from that, I was taking down notes on how to actually go about doing it and getting the whole idea and making something different from the ordinary. Problem Statement One of the common problem that surface is coding Matlab, which can be very tedious and a tough task, yet manageable. * How accurate can the data be when presented * Integrating Matlab with another software for Ground Penetrating Radar * On what common ground does Ground Penetrating Radar works * How do we connect Matlab with Google Earth in order to work out on Ground Penetrating Radar Existing research Above is the example of the results obtained from the journal researched.
The time-domain response of IFFT and MUSIC have been combined to obtain super-resolution and high-precision receiving signal level. The proposed CPM could successfully resolve vertically separated targets up to 2 cm at 800MHz frequency bandwidth in water medium, as shown in laboratory experiment. The field experiment and laboratory experiment result show the remarkable reduction of time-side lobes and natural clutter. Moreover, CPM could successfully demonstrate the continuous scattering pattern of the radar signal that is realized from 2D and 3D images of both laboratory and field experiment.
From the simulation results, it is concluded that CPM has higher resolution than other conventional signal processing methods due to the effect of MUSIC and also the precision of receiving signal level is high due to the effect of IFFT. Further, the SNR analysis results show that the proposed method is robust from the point of view of noise if the value of M is increased during the smoothing process. These are the major achievement of this research work. The proposed method could be practically implemented o detect closely buried water pipes, gas pipes, cables, and even antipersonnel and antitank land mines. Hindawi Publishing Corporation – EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 2003:12, 1198–1209, 2003 GPR can be used the measure the stratigraphy of top soil and bedrock. Tomi Herronen & Timo Saarenketo- GPR surveys at Nommkula 2009 GPR has two advantages over most other non-invasive geophysical techniques: 1) GPR provides a three dimensional pseudo-image that can easily be converted to depths that are accurate down to a few centimetres 2) GPR responds to both metallic and non-metallic objects.
GPR is an excellent tool for mapping nearly any inhomogeneity in the subsurface that is characterized by a small difference in density, or porosity. Jeffrey J. Daniels, Department of Geological Sciences – The Ohio State University Ground Penetrating Radar Fundamentals Full-resolution GPR data collection provides superior imaging compared to traditional 3D GPR. The full-resolution images make it easier to locate and differentiate targets and to delineate disturbed areas of soil. Where possible, most GPR applications for soil and utility mapping and monitoring would benefit directly from full-resolution data collection.
In fact of the three reasons against performing full-resolution surveys, 1) time consuming acquisition, 2) consistent data registration and 3) the expensive post-processing time, (2) remains the most difficult to achieve. This survey on a level paved surface, using a heavy “straight edge” is impractical in most situations. And although for most general purpose surveys the time and material costs required to produce such datasets are prohibitive, it is anticipated that incremental advances in GPR technology and positioning systems will eventually allow these surveys to be done more easily and hence nlock the potential of full-resolution imaging. Roger Roberts, David Cist, and Andreas Kathage – Full-Resolution GPR Imaging Applied to Utility Surveying: Insights from Multi-Polarization Data Obtained over a Test Proposed work Based on the research work that I had done, I would like to do something new which is integrating Matlab with Google Earth to determine the information needed of a particular thing that we want to know. In order to do that, I have to acquire a special key with Google Earth administrator in order for me to connect Matlab with Google Earth.
Connecting Matlab to Google Earth would be one easy thing to do but to connect it and have each information shown would be the tedious part because we would not know exactly whether or not it is possible but I believe it is possible because it is just the matter of coding in which I have yet to code till that stage. That will be in part 2. Start Proposed Yes Literature Review on Ground Penetrating Radar to obtain the various information and researches that had been done by others. Yes Doing the coding on MATLAB to obtain the results of a 3-D image of a specific land target.
Yes No Connecting MATLAB to Google Earth to determine the location of Multimedia University Cyberjaya Campus in terms of longitude and latitude and its density. No Yes Summarizing the MATLAB codes and literature review gathered and doing a powerpoint slide for presentation purpose. End Legend: Yes: Successful No: Unsuccessful, process repeats Project Activities| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 1. Looking for Journals| | x| x| | | | | | | | 2. Reviewing Journals| | | | x| | | | | | | 3. Searching for the best Journal| | | | | x| | | | | | 4.
Simplifying Journal| | | | | | x| | | | | 5. Matlab Coding| | | | | | | x| x| | | 6. Results| | | | | | | x| x| | | 7. Report| | | | | | | | | x| x| Below are the formulas used to obtain certain parameters whilst doing this project and the background knowledge of Ground Penetrating Radar. Conclusion Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a high resolution electromagnetic technique that is designed primarily to investigate the shallow subsurface of the earth, building materials, roads and bridges and many others.
List of reference  Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2003, EURASIP Journal on Applied Signal Processing 2003:12, 1198–1209  Tomi Herronen & Timo Saarenketo, 2009, GPR surveys at Nommkula  Jeffrey J. Daniels, Department of Geological Sciences, The Ohio State University Ground Penetrating Radar Fundamentals  Roger Roberts, David Cist, and Andreas Kathage, Full-Resolution GPR Imaging Applied to Utility Surveying: Insights from Multi-Polarization Data Obtained over a Test