A) Bones have two different types of surface markings. One type of surface marking is depressions and openings. This type allows for the passage of soft tissues such as nerves and blood vessels, and also forms joints in the bone. The other type of surface markings is processes. This type are projections or outgrowths that either serve as attachment points for connective tissues like ligaments and tendons or help to form joints. B) Liu and Hassan were surprised to find a metopic suture on the skull due to the estimated age of the adult skull.
The metopic suture should have been closed well before the man reached his teens and should have been completely closed by the age of 6 or 8. The metopic suture occurs in the frontal bone of the skull. In an adult skull this suture is known as the coronal suture. C) A skull that has been excavated will most likely be missing the ethmoid bone, nasal bones, and nasal concahe due to their delicate nature. D) Hassan and his team are able to determine the approximate ages of the skeletal remains by looking for a couple of key skeletal changes.
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The amount fusing of the sacrum and coccyx on the woman’s skeleton would give Hassan and his team a good indication of the woman’s age when she passed away. Hassan and his team would also be able to determine the age of the baby by the amount of ossification on the skull. The amount of ossification in the fontanels would help to determine the age of the baby when it passed away. E) Hassan would be able to tell that the larger skeleton in the sarcophagus was female by the position of the coccyx bone. The coccyx bone at the bottom of the vertebrae points inferiorly in females.
This allows for the passage of a baby through the birth canal. The coccyx of a male skeleton would point anteriorly and the opening in the pelvic area would be less than that of a female. F) An indication of strangulation or neck trauma can be found on the hyoid bone. The hyoid bone and cartilages around the larynx and trachea are places that would show damage after neck trauma or strangulation. G) An anthropologist would be able to determine the different bones of the vertebrae by their size and shape. The vertebrae in the cervical area can be determined by their size and the spinous processes of C2 through C6.
Which are bifid – split into two parts. The lumbar vertebrae are the largest vertebrae in the spine. The processes are short and thick and also well adapted for the attachment of large back muscles. The thoracic vertebrae are larger and stronger than the cervical vertebrae, but not the lumbar vertebrae. T1 to T1o have long processes and T11 and T12 are shorter than the other 10 vertebrae. The most prominent feature of the thoracic vertebrae is that they articulate with the ribs. H) Even though bones are a hard structure, they can still be destroyed by disease.
Bones can show signs of disease such as tuberculosis by the destruction of the bone material. Diseases like tuberculosis can the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs to collapse as the bacteria from the disease spread through the osseous tissues. Anthropologists can learn how a subject died by the visual clues left behind on the skeleton. I) The spinal cord passes through the transverse formina of the cervical vertebrae. Damage to the spinal cord would result in death if the vertebral artery was to be damaged. If the child’s cervical vertebrae were to be crushed it would have been the cause of death.