Hassan's Story

A-Baru is using surface markings to identify the gender of a skull - Hassan's Story introduction. What two major types of surface markings do bones have? 1-Depressions and Openings such as blood vessels and nerves 2- Processes such as ligaments and tendons B-Why are Liu and Hassan surprised to find a metopic suture on an adult skull? In which skull bone do metopic sutures occur? Liu and Hassan were surprised to find a metopic suture on an adult skull because soon after birth the left and right side of the frontal bone are united by metopic suture and they usually disappear between the ages of six and eight.

C-What delicate skeletal structures are found inside the nasal cavity that might be missing from an excavated skull? 1-Perpendicular 2-Middle nasal concha 3-Inferior nasal concha 4-Vomer D-How would Hassan and his team be able to tell the ages of the skeletal remains of the woman and baby? Sutures in the skulls of infants and children are often moveable, but adults skulls are usually form immoveable joints. 4 sutures of the skull are; coronal suture, sagittal suture, lambdoid suture, squamous sutures.

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Fontanels are helpful in determining the degree of brain development such as anterior fontanel (usually closes 18 to 24 months after birth), posterior fontanel (generally closes about 2 months after birth), anterolateral fontanels (they close about 3 months after birth), posterolateral fontanels (they begin to close 1 to 2 months after birth, and takes 12 months to close completely) The fusion of sacral vertebrae begins between ages 16 and 18 and is completed by age 30. The female sacrum is shorter, wider, and more curved than the male sacrum.

In females, the coccyx points inferiorly, in males, it points anteriorly. The vertebral column for an average adult male is around 71cm, and it is 61cm for an average adult female. E-What features of the vertebral column would the larger skeleton in the sarcophagus show to indicate it was female? In an average adult female the length of the column is 61cm while the average length of the column in an adult male is 71cm. F-What bone in the neck region other than cervical vertebrae may be damaged during strangulation or neck trauma? The hyoid bone may be damaged during strangulation or neck trauma.

G-If the bones of a person found at the excavation site were mixed up and out of sequence, how could the anthropologists determine which vertebrae were cervical, lumbar, or thoracic? The cervical and lumbar curves are convex, and thoracic curves are concave. Cervical vertebrae have transverse foramen, thoracic vertebrae are articulated with ribs, and the lumbar vertebrae have short, thick processes, and are the largest, strongest vertebrae. H-Why would bones, with their hard structure, be subject to and show signs of the disease that destroyed this community?

Because bones are living tissue, they are constantly remodeled and shaped by a person’s activities, health, and diet. In this case, they have found several examples of tubercular lesions in vertebrae and long bones. The vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs collapse as the bacteria invade the osseous tissue. The body of the vertebrae showed significant porosity, the articular processes are damaged, and the articulating surfaces look arthritic. I-What structure passes through the transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae that would cause death if damaged as in the child’s skeleton? Vertebral Artery

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