Ancient History- Personality: Hatshepsut 1. Historical Context: Geography, topography and resources of Egypt and its neighbours Geography & Topography: Egypt is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, deserts to the east and west and cataracts to the south. During the period of old kingdom, Egypt was able to develop in relative isolation. Her geography and topography was characterized by the following, which included that Egypt was split into Upper Egypt, which was southern Egypt to the Nile delta and Lower Egypt, which was the delta area.
Also the first cataract at Elephantine marked the southern border while the Mediterranean Sea marked the northern border while hostile borders occupied the eastern and western borders. The Nile River was the country’s source of life. To the east belong the desert was the boundary of the Red sea. Rainfall was rare and its occurrence was usually destructive. Most of Egypt was flat but on either side of the Nile River was a mountainous region.
This was the edge of the Nile valley. Resources: Natural resources include natron, basalt, copper, limestone, alabaster, carnelian, gold, granite, quartzite, malachite, turquoise, jewellery and tin.
Historical overview of the early 18th Dynasty • After the brilliance of the MK, Egypt had declined into a ‘state of dire havoc and confusion, its rulers murdering and replacing one another with extreme rapidity’. During this time of weakened rule, a group of foreigners called the ‘Hyksos’ moved into the delta area from Palestine. The Hyksos were able to remain in control for so long because they were: militarily stronger than the divided Egyptians; had horse-drawn war chariots (unlike the Egyptians); had superior weapons, such as powerful composite bows; stronger armour and many fortified camps. ‘The war of revenge against the Hyksos was successfully launched by Kamose’ 100 years before Hatshepsut, in the 2nd Intermediate Period, Egypt was still under the control of the Hyksos. The Egyptian Ahmosis family took power of Thebes under the rule of Seqenenre Tao I and his wife Tetisheri (‘Great Royal Wife’). His successor (son) Kamose advanced on the Hyksos capital with his army, but failed to take the town as his brother had before. Kamose’s successor Ahmose (Kamose’s nephew), however, did manage to conquer Lower Egypt, driving the Hyksos out and reunifying Upper and Lower Egypt, thus, becoming the 1st ruler of the 18th Dynasty.
Amenhotep I was his successor (with his queen, Ahmose-Nefertari), but didn’t have an heir, so the Ahmose line died with them. • His successor was the general Thutmose I (and his queen Ahmose – a royal princess; held title of ‘King’s Sister’). Their child was Hatshepsut. Overview of the social, political, military and economic structures of the early New Kingdom Period Ma’at: Gods/people had common obligation to ensure that chaos didn’t overcome justice and order. Egypt was always being disturbed and a large amount of effort was necessary to keep it under control.
The king was closely associated with ma’at and blamed if it was out of balance. Kings offered ma’at to gods and the gods needed human response to exist. Egyptian religious beliefs: The belief was that the creator god made all religious/political systems in Egypt and was to stay that way Myth, ritual and religious structures: All classes in ancient Egypt shared religious beliefs. The common creation myth was that the creator god emerged and made the world. Ritual was the cult and festivals performed to renew life of the cosmos.
The king was the sole link to the gods and the chief channel of power (priests were also there, but were recognised as delegates of the king, even the high priests of Amun). The Government system: Quasi-divine kingship with great authority. Main characteristics were its strong centralisation and hierarchical structure and the aim was to please the gods with ritual and economic wealth (expeditions). The external policy was to maintain/extend borders, while internal was the enhance agricultural wealth, maintain government and provide structure for justice Social divisions:
The elite – royals and high-ranking officials, enjoyed high status and economic benefits Provincial nobility – worked in government service, and was hereditary Lesser bureaucracy – priests, military officers, wealthy farmers, artisans. These middle class had intermediate economic benefits Lower Class – greatest diversity of occupations and made up majority of population Attitude towards foreigners: Had self image of being culturally superior whose activities were encouraged by the gods. Losses/defeat abroad were only regarded as temporary and gods would triumph and ma’at promised victory over enemies/chaos
Military/Army: Constant campaigning created the need to regularly pacify foreign groups (eg. Syria/Palestine). A permanent professional army was developed. Headed by “great army general”. The army had continuous levying and training, used a hierarchical system and had standing garrisons abroad. The king was a war leader, and only went on campaigns to embellish temples and reinforce power and warrior pharaoh image. Relationship to the King Amun • Demands on the king in the New Kingdom were considerable – head of large administration (including temples); responsible for leading large armies etc.
Respect for the king (and his office) was essential. • Amun was given pre-eminence as a result of deliberate theological emphasis and was the form of a man (easier to identify with rather than the concept of Re). Amun was the divine father figure who looked after the king and presided over victories – his role now extended to the mortuary cult now centred in Thebes. Amun took over the myth of divine birth of the king (ie. Amun impregnates the queen) which gave legitimacy of succession. Things done to please Amun: – Sed-festivals dedicated to Amun’s divine renewal – Festivals (eg. Festival of the Valley’) and portable barque dedicated to Amun Overview of religious beliefs and practices of the early New Kingdom period Sources of evidence: • Tombs of kings/queens/officials in 18th/19th Dynasties • Provides info about judgement of dead, Osirian and solar afterlife and funeral rituals • Surviving mummies reveal embalming techniques • Tutankhamun’s tomb revealed complete funerary ensemble • Decorations on coffins, sarcophagi, Canopic jars and chests – symbolism • Rolls of papyrus, selected chapters from ‘Book of the Dead’
Beliefs about life after death: • Rebirth or resurrection • Cycle of life, death, rebirth believed. Observed from sun, germinating seeds and annual rise of the Nile • Sun god Re, promised life after death (sun died in west, born in east) • Osiris (god of underworld), worshipped as god of vegetation and grain • Believed to have been killed by Seth, body cut up. Later reassembled to rule the underworld again. Burial practices reflect this story/myth • Placing of body in coffin • Mummification • Spells and prayers said Isis and Nephthys mourned death • Isis and Nephthys transformed into bird, fanned life to Osiris body Judgment before Osiris: • Judgment of dead may have been accepted in Old Kingdom, represented in pictures in New Kingdom. Illustrated papyri placed near mummy • Before Osiris, face 42 gods, jurisdiction over certain sins, then passed • Moral standards expected, no blasphemous (to gods/kings), murder/theft, greed/anger/deceit, destruction of agricultural resources • Anubis led deceased into Hall of Ma’at and heart had to equal the feather of Truth.
Thoth recorded outcome, Ammut devoured heart if failed Osirian afterlife in fields of reeds: • Ruled by Osiris, deceased had to know spells for 21 portals, each guarded by doorkeeper • Everything perfect, no problems, also deceased expected to sail among lakes, visit cities and be reunited with family • Inhabitants expected to help sun god’s boat through underworld, push free of sandbanks and reeds Burial practices: Believed if correctly done, would enjoy eternal life, dominant element in burial practices is cult of Osiris, so they might share resurrection • Intended to aid reconstitution and reanimation of body and protect against dangers of next life • Preserved by embalming – reanimated using prayers, spells and amulets Mummification: • Early dynasties – body came into contact with sand, absorbed moisture, prevented decay, wooden coffins – bodies decomposed quickly • Organs removed, stored separately • Middle kingdom – mummification common with ordinary people, organs removed through incision in side of abdomen.
Bodies packed with linen • New Kingdom – significant advances, removal of brain, a lower incision point in abdomen, preservation/protection of toenails, changes in position of arms, resin on skin against moisture, better packing of body (looking more life-like) 2. Background & Rise to Prominence: Family background Thutmose I and Ahmose had 4 children (2 sons & 2 daughters). Hatshepsut was their eldest daughter. As the king’s eldest daughter, she would have inherited the position of God’s wife of Amun. Thutmose I had another son by a royal woman, called Mutnofret. He was called Thutmosis after his father.
However, he was not heir to the throne because his mother wasn’t the King’s Great Wife. So Hatshepsut married her half-brother, Thutmose, to ensure his right to the throne. They had only one daughter, the princess Neferure. However, Thutmose, like his father before him had a son by a palace concubine called Isis. This child was also named Thutmose. Claim to the throne and succession: Divine Birth & Coronation reliefs King Thutmose died prematurely but his son had already been designated as his succession. At the time of his father’s death, Thutmose III was still a small child, about nine years.
In these circumstances the following things would have been expected to occur: To ensure his succession, the young boy would be married to his half sister, Hatshepsut’s daughter, Neferure. Hatshepsut would act as a regent for the young king. When Thutmose III reached an age when he was able to rule alone (but with advisory), Hatshepsut would retire from the regency. There was in ancient Egypt a system whereby two kings might rule at the same time. This was called co-regency. At the beginning of her regency she tool care not to overstep her role.
She was still referred to as Divine queen and Great Royal Wife, but is officially depicted on public monuments standing behind her stepson Tut III. Historians believe that she had a strong personality and showed herself an efficient administrator, which helped her claim to the throne. Some scholars suggest that she spent her regency consolidating her position and gaining the support of high officials and the Amun priesthood. Hatshepsut was an extremely wise woman. After gaining all power and acceptance from governors, priests and the people of Egypt, she was not ready to retire from regent. Instead, she made herself pharaoh.
The historian Hayes in The Sceptre of Egypt (pg. 82) maintains that she usurped powered in the second year of the regency and that she, ‘had herself crowned with full pharaonic powers [and] assumed the title of king. ’ Hatshepsut’s use of the god Amon in her claim to the throne was critical to her justification of rule. As seen on reliefs at her Mortuary Temple at Dier-el-Bahri, Hatshepsut claimed that the god Amon had visited her mother, Queen Ahmose, and had copulated with her to produce the divine offspring, Hatshepsut. In the relief, Amon is shown placing ankhs (the symbol of life) on the amazed Queen Ahmose’s nose and hand.
This was so she could inhale his divine essence and conceive his child. Hatshepsut also used Amon to justify her usurpation of the throne over Thutmose III by showing in a relief in her Red Chapel sanctuary at Karnak (dedicated to Amon) a religious procession. In this procession there is a statue of Amon that did not make a ‘divine manifestation’ in the direction of Thutmose III. Apparently Amon was supposed to do this if the young prince rightly deserved the throne. Hatshepsut also claimed she had accompanied her father, Thutmose I, on campaigns and had met with the gods.
This shows his approval of her as the next ruler of Egypt and that he hailed her as his sole heir, and that all the gods of Upper and Lower Egypt praised her as the daughter of Amon. The historian Breatsed said, “Queen Hatshepsut cared for the land and governed it according to her will. All Egypt submitted to her rule, for she had sprung from the God himself, and her administration was excellent. ” Hatshepsut promoted the cult of Amun Re more than any other king had done before, which helped her gain support from members of the priesthood.
When Hatshepsut became king, she transferred her title as God’s Wife of Amun to her daughter. What was unusual, was the numerous references to Neferure during her mother’s reign. It is evident that Neferure did not marry Thutmose III. This was probably because if she did end up marrying Thutmose III she would have held only the title of King’s Chief Wife. It is believed that Hatshepsut wanted her to become a ruling queen. In her own right, like herself. Neferure died well before her mother. Hatshepsut’s justification of her actions: Hatshepsut used two forms of propaganda to justify her position as a ruler in her own right.
The reliefs carved on the walls of Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahri included fictitious accounts of her: Divine birth Coronation, by the Gods and her father Thutmose I The purpose of this propaganda was to announce to the present and future population that: She was the divine daughter of the God, Amun-Re and was chosen by the God to rule Egypt Her earthly father, Thutmose I, had selected her to succeed him as king She wanted to remove all trace of the rule of her half-brother and husband, Thutmose II, and make it appear that her reign followed that of her father.
The scenes depicting Hatshepsut’s divine conception and birth were a deliberate ploy to justify her seizure of the throne. The following text describes how Amun took the form of Hatshepsut’s father (Thutmose I), and then visited and impregnated Queen Ahmose. Amun made his from like that of King Aakheperure (Thutmose I). He found her (Queen Ahmose) as she slept, in the beauty of the palace. She waked at the fragrance of the God, which she smelled in the presence of his Majesty. He went to her immediately…love passed into her limbs…all his odours were from Punt. [Breasted J H, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol 2, pg. 0] [pic] The following relief shows the God, Khnum, the creator of men, making the baby and its ka (life essence or double) on his potters’ wheel. Khnum is helped by his wife, the frog-headed goddess, Hekhet. The two infants are depicted ad male rather than female. [pic] The relief show a heavily impregnated Queen Ahmose being led off by Khnum and Heket to give birth. She was attended by many Goddesses acting as midwives as well as Bes and Taueret (protective God and Goddess of home and childbirth). [pic] These Coronation reliefs were a natural sequel to the birth scenes.
Amun purified his daughter and then presented her to a gathering of all the Gods of the north and south. The texts then continue that, as Hatshepsut grew she became more like a God: Her form was like a God, se did everything as a God, her splendour was like a God… [Breasted J H, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol 2, pg. 91] At some point in her youth, the propaganda informs us, she was chosen by her earthly father, Thutmose I, as his legitimate successor and accompanied him on a journey north. During this journey they attended all the shrines of the Gods who supposedly acknowledged her coming kingship.
Welcome, daughter of Amun-Re…thou shalt restore that which has gone to its ruin, thou shall make thy monuments in this house, thou shalt victual the offering-table of him who begat thee, thou shalt pass through the land and thou shalt embrace many countries. [Breasted J H, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol 2, pg. 91] At Heliopolis in the north she was to be crowned by Atum. A similar coronation ceremony, where she was proclaimed king by Amun, was held at Thebes. These reliefs were largely destroyed soon after Hatshepsut’s death.
The relief shows Thutmose I sitting on the throne with Hatshepsut standing in front of him and three rows of court dignitaries (the nobles, the companions, the officers of the court and the chief of the people) paying homage to Hatshepsut. Then his majesty said: This, my daughter, Khnumetamun, Hatshepsut who liveth, I have appointed her as my successor upon my throne, she it assuredly is who shall sit upon this wonderful seat. She shall command the people in every place of the palace; she it is who shall lead you; ye shall proclaim her word, ye shall be united at her command.
He who shall do her homage shall live, he who shall speak blasphemy of her majesty shall die. [Breasted J H, Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol 2, pg. 97] Political and religious roles of the king and queen in the 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty King: Embodies all power & authority in Egypt. Held both political & religious roles; upholder of Ma’at, mediator between the people & gods, head of government, head of armed forces, control over civil service, judiciary, state treasuries & trade, responsible for the inundation & annual harvest. Maintaining Maat: which she achieved as evidenced by her reign being one of relative peace and prosperity. It was believed that without Maat, there would be chaos in the spiritual and physical world. • Adopted the image of the warrior pharaoh – as evident in the Red Granite Sphinx – which illustrated her eagerness to be seen as part of this tradition. • Her close connection with Amun and her making dedications to him through buildings, which she clearly shows by her numerous additions to Karnak (such as the four obelisks and the Red Chapel). Continued the role of a successful administrator, which she achieved by gaining goods from her expedition to Punt. • Extended the boundaries of Egypt, such as in her campaigns to Nubia. • Increased the devotion to Amun, by undertaking her hugs building programs. King emphasised their ability to overcome chaos as being a ‘divine’ gift Legitimatised rule by: – Their ability to defeat enemies – Responsibility of the weak – Actions for the gods Secular Ruler – oversaw the bureaucracy of the state and all judicial actions and controlled the provinces.
He also controlled the administration system which: defended Egypt against enemies and generated revenue; maintained building programs and maintained social order Religious leader – inscriptions and decorations project the image of the king as the chief officiant to the gods at all rituals. Maintained cosmic and social order by: – Commanded the inundation of the Nile by ritual; ensuring that the gods came into their cult statues on Earth in the temples through offerings. – Responsible as judge who kept order in Egypt; and the warrior who maintained / extended the boundaries.
Military leader – King was the commander-in-chief and controller of all military operations. According to inscriptions, the King is always successful (even though this was probably not the case). Was the king a god? In the office of king, the pharaoh was an immortal and divine presence, a ‘fixed element of the cosmos’ – but the king himself was mortal. The position of king in relation to ‘god’ decreased during new kingdom. Queen: Ahhotep & Ahmose Nefertari established a precedent for female rule, which Hatshepsut followed. 4 types of queens during dyn. 7 ruled as kings (queen regent), chief wife or consort of king (King’s Great Wife), mother of king who acted as regent (Kings Mother) & secondary wives of king (King’s wives)-Most important was Kings Great Wife-had political & religious status; regarded as divine, associated with Ma’at & Hathor, wore crowns of religious symbolism & depicted at official royal occasions. Title ‘Gods Wife of Amun’ meant; had influence in Amun cult, right to choose ‘Second Prophet of Amun’ &an endowment of land, grain & precious metals. Heiress Theories-argument that the throne of Egypt was passed down through the female line.
Beginning in dynasty 17 and early dynasty 18, queens were seen to assume high public positions, carry out a range of state duties, participate in court functions, own their own estates, hold numerous secular and religious title and wear their own distinctive regalia. Marriage to Thutmose II Married half brother Thutmose II (1491-1479), father was Thutmose 1 and mother was his concubine Mutnofret. Failed to produce male heir, however Thutmose II and his royal concubine, Isis. Produced Thutmose III Hatshepsut’s marriage was short-lived; after only fourteen years on the throne her husband, Thutmose II died. . Career: Titles and changes to her royal image over time Titles: When her father died, her husband came to the throne as Thutmose II. Hatshepsut was the King’s Great Wife or Great Royal Wife. She was only given the following titles while her husband was alive: Titles of Hatshepsut as: Princess – God’s wife of Amun (High priestess of Amun) Regent for Thutmose III – Divine Cosort – Great Royal Wife – Lady of the Two Lands Co-ruler with Thutmose III – Female Horus – Two Ladies – King of Upper and Lower Egypt – Lord of the Two Lands – Daughter of Re Changes to her royal image:
Most historians agreethat Hatshpesut was very clever in using propaganda to promote her image in Egypt. She had developed a systematic program of propaganda to support her claim. Much of her propaganda had religious overtones supported by the priests at the Temple of Karnak. One the most famous pieces of her propaganda is a myth about her birth, her ‘Divine Birth’. Amun goes to Ahmose in the form of Thutmose I and wakes her with pleasant odors. At this point Amun places the ankh, a symbol of life, to Ahmose’s nose, and Hatshepsut is conceived. She also claimed that she was her father’s intended heir and that he made her crown prince of Egypt.
Most scholars see this as revisionism on Hatshepsut’s part, but others see it as pure propaganda. Propaganda was comissioned on the walls of her Mortuary Temple, “”This daughter of mine…I have appointed as my successor upon my throne… Obey her words…The royal nobles, the dignitaries, and the leaders of the people heard this proclamation of the promotion of his daughter, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Maatkare—may she live eternally! ” Early representations show the Queen in all the trappings of the Pharaoh, but with full femininity in her appearance.
According to the French scholar Tefrin, as her reign continued, this gradually evolved into a more and more masculine depiction. Hatshepsut slowly assumed all of the regalia and symbols of the Pharaonic office: the Khat head cloth, topped with an uraeus, the traditional false beard, and shendyt kilt. Her depiction of herself in male dress was interpreted to be a cultural violation of a woman taking a traditionally male role. Propaganda was not only evident in images in the Temples she built, but also to the increasing size of her statues.
In the early years of her reign, the statues were small, showing she was probably still unsure of the people’ reaction to her usurpation. Later as her reign progressed, there was obviously no adverse reaction forthcoming, reflected in the larger size of the statues (the larger the statue, the more powerful the Pharaoh). This showed Hatshepsut’s growing confidence in her position as ruler of Egypt. How Hatshepsut maintained her position for over twenty years- factors contributing to her continuing power: Personality Already discussed her apparent strength of a character determination and ambition.
She came from a line of influential queens. Propaganda Her use of propaganda was probably very effective. Juliette Bentley in her article Hatshepsut suggests that no-one would have dared dispute Hatshepsut’s claim to be the physical daughter of Amun Re, and the appointed heir of Thutmose I Powerful Supporters She had powerful allies When she was regent she carefully chose those officials who were to serve her. Once these officials took office their fortunes were linked to hers. If Thutmose I became sole ruler it was highly likely that they would be replaced by people loyal to the new kings.
It was therefore in their political and economic interests to remain firmly behind Hatshepsut. Priesthood of Amun-Re Hatshepsut promoted the cult of Amun Re than any other king had done before her. It was from the time of her reign that the God’s priests increased in power and prestige Members of the priesthood or at least a majority of them were loyal supporters of her for over twenty years. Prosperity Not since the collapse of the Middle Kingdom (11th & 12th Dynasties) had a reign experienced such economic prosperity, Hatshepsut restored the damage done during the Hyksos’ control of Egypt and re-established the cults of many Gods.
Her building program kept artisans and craftsmen busy. She promoted trade. Her expedition to the Land of Punt was regarded as one of her greatest achievements. Foreign policy: Military campaigns and expedition to Punt Military Campaigns: Although the evidence for military activity during Hatshepsut’s reign is scanty it does appear that there were a number of foreign campaigns. People used to believe that Hatshepsut’s reign was one of peace (Gardiner) or that they weren’t recorded because she was more proud of her internal development of Egypt (Wilson).
These views are probably based on: Lack of monumental reliefs of a military character Belief that, as she was female, she was not as aggressive as a male and thus physically incapable of leading an army Military activity in Nubia (Kush) A graffito found on the island of Sehel, near Aswan, was translated in 1957. it was originally written by Tiy, one of Hatshepsut’s nobles. …The hereditary prince and governor, treasurer of the king of Lower Egypt, the sole friend, chief treasurer, th one concerned with the booty, Tiy.
He says: ‘I followed the good God, the king of Upper and Lower Egypt [Maat ka-re] may she live! I saw when he overthrew the Nubian bowman, their chiefs being brought to him as living captives. I saw when he destroyed Nubia. I being in his majesty’s following [Adapted from the original translation] Note the change in gender from she to he. Perhaps they thought it more appropriate to use the masculine form when describing matters. A second text, which throws a little more light on Hatshepsut’s Nubian campaign, was found on a Stela belonging to a scribe called Djehuty.
I saw the collection of booty by this mighty ruler [Hatshepsut], from the vile Kush who are deemed cowards. The female sovereign, given life, prosperity and health forever. Fragmentary text on lower colonnade of Hatshepsut’s temple at Deir el-Bahri. Graffito suggests it was Hatshepsut herself who led the expedition, and that Tiy was an eye-witness to what happened there. Text on lower colonnade begins with reference to a previous campaign to the area made by Hatshepsut’s father- seems the two are connected.
Close to this inscription, Hatshepsut is depicted as a sphinx, embodiment of a royal power, trampling on Egypt’s enemies. Military activity to the north of Egypt Although most of the evidence points to war in Nubia, there are several reference at Deir el Bahri to a campaign in Palestine/ Syria. It was Probably carried out early in Hatshepsut’s reign- may have been mopping up operation to consolidate her father’s conquests. Coronation inscription predicts she would “seize the chiefs of Retjenu. ” Redford believes there is some historical basis to this.
References to Thutmose’s military activities during Hatshepsut’s reign Thutmose probably received military training from a young age- Hatshepsut may have hoped when he reached adulthood he would control the army and she would control homeland. Evidence for this: 1. Rock inscription in Upper Nubia describes Thutmose III as “the good god who overthrows him who has attacked him” 2. Unidentified campaign – Thutmose is believed to have taken the town of Gaza on the Egyptian-Palestinian border 3. According to Redford, Thutmose conducted a campaign in Nubia just before Hatshepsut’s death and killed a rhinoceros
Expedition to Punt: (continuity with the past) Hatshepsut’s expedition to punt was prompted, according to scenes at her mortuary temple at Deir el Bahri, by Amun her father. The command is recorded of being heard from the great throne to ‘search out the pathways to the terrains of myrrh”. The expedition to Punt was one of Hatshepsut’s greatest achievements. One of the main importance’s of the trip to Punt was its economic importance. The expedition to the Land of Punt probably present-day Somalia, has been recorded by Hatshepsut and stated by several historians as being “one of her greatest achievements. There had been previous expeditions to the Land of Punt, hence, identifying Hatshepsut’s continuity with the past. The Punt Colonnade is found on the left (southern) side of the ramp in Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple. It was dedicated to commemorate the voyage to the Land of Punt, hence, emphasising how Hatshepsut’s reign was prosperous. It depicts a large share of booty gathered from the land of Punt such as myrrh, frankincense, woods, sweet-smelling resin, spices, gold, ebony, ivory and aromatic trees.
Both inscriptions and images identify to the historian how successful this expedition was. The reliefs were inscribed over the South, west and north walls at Deir el Bahri. Historians have identified that the purpose of the expedition appeared to have been the collection of incense, in the form of resin and trees, for use in Amun’s temple. Hatshepsut’s trade commission, seven ships with sails and oars under the Nubian general Nehsi, was the first to travel to Punt in five centuries.
They returned laden with trade goods including incense, monkeys, leopard skins, and exotic plants. Hatshepsut considered the expedition to Punt one of the high points of her reign and had the story of it engraved on the walls at Dier el-Bahri. There are also reliefs of the homes and people of Punt. The huts of the people, and the native flora, resemble the huts of the Toquls (according to some) near Somalia. The fish and other animals are not natives of Egypt, leading to evidence that Hatshepsut’s people had actually visited such a place.
Even the people are shown – the most obvious of the people, though, would have to be the ruler of Punt’s wife – she is depicted as an obese woman. But their outfits and the fashion shown of the people seem to describe the ancient peoples of Somali. On the return of the expedition, Hatshepsut held a procession to the Temple of Amun-Ra, where her inscriptions stated that the god himself and Hathor guided the expedition to the new lands. After the appropriate sacrifices had been made, tributes from the Land of Punt were transferred to the temple.
Inscriptions in her temple reveal that the return of the expedition was marked with great celebrations. They brought from Punt: – Thirty one fresh myrrh trees and piles of myrrh resin – Electrums – Eye cosmetics – Throw-sticks of the Puntites – Ebony – Ivory – Alive Southern Panther – Shells – Many panther skins -3300 small cattle – Incense – Gold rings
Building program: Deir- el Bahri, Karnak, Beni Hasan (Speos Artemidos) and her tombs Commonly regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs. Remembered for her extensive building programs, such as obelisks and various temples. Temples and obelisks provide much information for historians and Egyptologists as it Officials involved: Vizier Hapusoneb, Senenmut (Steward of Amun), Thutiy, Ineni and many more. Temple of Hathor at Cusae & Temple of Thoth at Heliopolis: Purpose was to emphasise that after the Hyksos invasion, Egypt would never be invaded again.
It has a continuity with the past because her father Thutmose I secured Egypt’s borders against further Hyksos invasion, and in her reconstructing these Temples she is able to support what was found on some of her coronation reliefs, …I have restored that which was in ruins, I have raised up that which was unfinished since the Asiatics were in the midst Avaris of the Northland… Red Chapel at Karnak (Chapelle Rouge): It was originally a barque shrine. The decoration of the Chapel is extremely rich. The reliefs depict various images.
There are depictions of Hatshepsut running a ritual race of the Heb-sed wearing the crown of Upper Egypt and in a second scene the crown of Lower Egypt. One scene found in the Red Chapel depicts Hatshepsut being blessed by Amun. It also depicts the Opet festival and scenes of offerings to the divine and noble Amun. The most common image portrayed is Hatshepsut standing behind her co-regent Thut II, both wearing the Khepresh (Blue Crown) to help assert her right to co-rule with Thut III. The purpose of construction of the Red Chapel was to glorify Amun and obey his will and as result, gain support of Amun priesthood. Pylons & Obelisks at Karnak in the Vicinity of the Great Temple of Amun: Obelisks are seen by many architects as one of the greatest man made inventions of all time. Hatshepsut raised four obelisks at Karnak, but only one remains standing today. The Obelisk stands at 29. 56 metres tall and weighs 323 tons (both these statistics are debatable). The top of the Obelisk is known as a Pyramidion and it portrays Amun crowning and blessing Hatshepsut as king. Obelisks were placed in pairs at the entrance of Temples.
Hatshepsut built the Obelisks in order for Amun to bless her and proclaim her as pharaoh, hence, justifying her seizure of the throne. This is evident as it states on her Obelisk, I was sitting in the palace and I remembered the One who created me; my heart directed me to make for him two obelisks … I acted for him [Amun] with a straightforward heart, as a king does for any god… I am his daughter in very truth, who glorifies him. Mortuary Temple (Djeser-Djeseru meaning Holy of holies) at Deir el Bahri: Considered by many historians to be among the great buildings of the ancient world.
Hatshepsut built this temple as an ideal propagandist way to serve her posthumous worship long after her death and to honour the glory of Amun and other Gods. The Temple was designed and implemented by Senenmut, royal steward and architect of Hatshepsut. Discovered within Hatshepsut’s temple area were fourteen rock-cut pits containing foundation deposits. On some of the alabaster unguent jars, the following inscription was found, She made as her monument to her father, Amun on the occasion of stretching of the cord over Amun- Djeser-Djeseru, may she live like Re forever!
The inscription above, as well as many other written and visual sources reveal to the historian the cleverness of Hatshepsut’s justification to the throne through her use of propaganda. Punt Colonnade is found on the left (southern) side of the ramp. It was dedicated to commemorate the voyage to the Land of Punt, hence, emphasising how Hatshepsut’s reign was prosperous. It depicts booty gathered from the land of Punt such as myrrh, frankincense, woods, sweet-smelling resin, spices, gold, ebony, ivory and aromatic trees.
Birth Colonnade depicts the legend of Hatshepsut’s “divine birth” and her coronation by Amun. Has various scenes showing Amon in the form of Thutmose I courting her mother and a pregnant Ahmose being cared for by goddesses. It also depicts the creation of Hatshepsut and her Ka. Thus, Hatshepsut’s coronation was seen as her gaining legal control of the throne, overlooks the reign of Thutmose II and gives Hatshepsut continuity after her father’s reign. Chapel of Anubis: Mortuary Temple for Anubis and was built this temple to lionize Anubis by following original Mortuary traditions.
Temple of Hathor: Built to acknowledge Hathor as the “Lady of Punt” of foreign lands because she was able to take Egypt into new boundaries and Hatshepsut needed to show gratitude towards her by building her a Mortuary Temple. At Speos Artemidos are two temples dedicated to Hathor at Cusae and the lion goddess Phakhet (and other Gods). Many inscriptions on these temples describe Hatshepsut boasting of having doubled offerings of predecessors to Gods and restoring temples ruined by Hyksos, and keeping her army in a state of readiness for war.
She also expresses her love for Amun and by doing this, she is trying to make sure that present and future generations understand that her reign is/was prosperous. Religious policy: Devotion to Amun and promotion of other cults The God Amun in the Early 18th Dynasty: The rulers of Thebes had worshipped the God Amun since the Middle Kingdom. He was a God of air and was referred to as the Hidden One. When King Ahmose of Thebes (first king of New Kingdom) successfully expelled the Hyksos from Egypt and re-united the Two Lands once more, it was the God Amun who was given the credit.
Also, Amenhotep I, Thutmose I and Thutmose II believed that Amun was responsible for leading the Egyptian armies to victory in Western Asia and Nubia. Amun became a war-God and the God of the empire. So that Amun could have no rival in Egypt, his priests associated him with the Sun-God, Re who was the creator God and protector of royalty. Amun absorbed all the features of the sun-God and became known as Amun-Re. Amun evolved from a local Theban God to an imperial God during the first half of the eighteenth dynasty and Thebes became the religious center of Egypt and its increasing empire.
Hatshepsut & Amun-Re: It was during the reign of Hatshepsut that the priesthood of Amun-Re really began to rise to power. Hatshepsut’s association with Amun began when she was still a young princess. She held the influential position of God’s Wife of Amun or High Priestess of Amun. When she became king she passed this title and its privileges to her daughter, Neferure. Hatshepsut attributed everything of importance in her life to Amun. She followed his commands and glorified him at every opportunity.
On one of the giant obelisks she had erected in Amun’s Temple at Karnak she said I acted under his command and I did not stray from what he commanded. An inscription on the walls at Deir el-Bahri said that Hatshepsut sent a trading expedition to Punt to open up the land according to the command of my father, Amun. The God’s Temple also benefited from her trading expedition to the Land of Punt. The reliefs recorded that: – Sacred incense used in the cult ritual and incense trees that could be planted in Amun’s Temple garden were brought back – Other exotic products such as gold, ebony, ivory etc.
These were offered to Amun when the expedition returned. By glorifying her father, Amun and promoting his cults, Hatshepsut created a serious situation for the future. Her immediate successors followed her example until the power of the priesthood of Amun almost rivalled that of the pharaoh. Despite her promotion of Amun, it is possible that towards the end of her life, part of the priesthood felt it was more in its interests to support Thutmose III. Relationship with the Amun priesthood, officials and nobles including Senenmut Amun Priesthood:
Hatshepsut took control of the throne and maintained her dominance with the support of the High Priest of Amun, Hapusoneb and the rest of the powerful priesthood. Attributing her militant successes to him, dedicating her major building projects to him and ensuring that great wealth flowed into the temple of Amun at Karnak. As a result, the priesthood of Amun also benefited from the temple of Amun at Karnak became one of the largest and most affluent institutions in Egypt. The priesthood increased its religious and economic influence and members of the priesthood began to acquire political power.
One of the most influential members of the Amun priesthood during Hatshepsut’s reign was the high priest of Amun Hapusoneb. The person appointed as the High Priest of Amun was one who usually had a high profile and a successful career at court. This was a political appointment and carried extensive powers. Hapusoneb bore the titles ‘Overseer of Upper and Lower Egypt’, ‘Overseer of Temples’, ‘Overseer of every office of the estate of Amun’, ‘Great Chief in Upper Egypt’ and ‘Overseer of Upper Egypt’.
These titles gave him: – Jurisdiction over all phases of the operation of the Amun cult – Control of the cults and temples of all other Gods – A position of authority in the civil administration Officials & Nobles: At the beginning of her reign, Hatshepsut was supported by a group of officials, some of whom had served her father and some of whom had been appointed by her husband. Gardiner emphasises that Hatshepsut could not have ruled without strong male officials to aid her- but all Pharaohs did. It is generally believed that Senenmut, Hatshepsut’s closest adviser, organised and supervised most of her building works.
He claimed that he was responsible for her monuments in Thebes and is often referred to as the royal architect. The following sources provide us with some clues to some of the other high officials and architects involved in Hatshepsut’s building program. Inscribed name stones, discovered in the foundations of some of the buildings. Statues of a number of officials such as Senenmut and Puy-em-re. Graffiti at excavation sites. Reliefs and inscriptions on the temple themselves. Autobiographical inscriptions in the tomb’s of several officials such as Ineni, Puy-em-re and Thutiy.
The stones discovered in the foundations of Hatshepsut’s Mortuary Temple of Deir el Bahri provide evidence that all of the following men at some time were Hatshepsut’s architects. Vizier, Hapusoneb Steward of Amun, Senenmut Treasurers, Thutiy and Thut-nofre First Herald, Dew-aenheh Second prophet of Amun, Puy-em-re Scribe, Tety-em-re Name stones, statues, graffiti at excavation sites, inscriptions on the walls of temples and autobiographical inscriptions in the tombs of officials provide strong evidence for Hatshepsut’s officials. Officials Involved in Hatshepsut’s Building Program | |Source of Information |Name of official |Title of Official |Building Activities | |Architectural achievements are most fully recorded|Senenmut |Steward |Conducted all of the works of the king; in Karnak;| |on a black diorite dedicated to the goddess Mut | | |in Hermonthis (Armant), in Deir el Bahri, of Amun;| | | | |in the Temple of Mut in Ishru; in southern Opet of| | | | |Amun (Luxor) | |Statue found in the Temple of Mut. His tomb |Puy-em-re |Architect |Puy-em-re was an architect for both Hatshepsut and| |inscription deals predominantly with his building | | |Thutmose III. | |activities under Thutmose III. | | | |The inscription on his statue reveals his role in |Hapusoneb |High priest of Amun |Leader of the works, on… in Karnak and conduct the| |her building program. | | |work upon Hat cliff-tomb | |In his tomb, Ineni describes how he was foreman of|Ineni |Foreman of the foreman (architect) and |He was responsible for the construction of | |the foreman (architect) under Thutmose I and | |Overseer of the double gold and silver |Thutmose I’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings. | |Thutmose II. | |houses | | |His tomb inscription and was originally featured |Thutiy |Overseer f the double gold and silver |Who gives instruction to the craftsmen how to | |in the Punt reliefs on the walls of Hatshepsut’s | |houses |work, and who reveals to him who is skilled in | |temple at Deir el Bahri, however, like other loyal| | |work | |supporters of Hatshepsut, his name was erased | | | | |after her death. | | | | Senenmut:
Senenmut is generally regarded as the person chiefly responsible for Hatshepsut’s success. His rise to power seems to have paralleled Hatshepsut’s own career. Senenmut held great influence over Hatshepsut as he was a faithful official, who convinced Hatshepsut to take the throne and even suggest that he actually ruled however contradicted by Hatshepsut still maintaining her rule after his disappearance however there is no doubt they were close including the fact that 25 states were dedicated to Senenmut by Hatshepsut although there’s no evidence to support this. Hatshepsut entrusted her daughter senemut and Meir suggest he acted as a father to the child.
Very little is known about Senenmut’s early life and career although a tomb inscription implies that he spent time in the army. At some point in his youth Senenmut entered the service of the Temple of Amun at Karnak and held a succession of positions. Although Senenmut was selected as the tutor of the princess Neferure during Thut II’s reign, it was during Hatshepsut’s regency that he was appointed to his most lucrative posts. Over eighty different titles appear on Senenmut’s monuments although probably only twenty of these were official. The remainder were honorary. Senenmut rose to be Hatshepsut’s most favoured official, adding one important office after another until be became, in his own words, the greatest of the great in the entire land.
Our information about Senenmut’s titles and responsibilities come from inscriptions on: – A number of statues of which that dedicated to Mut are the most informative. – The walls and funerary stelae of his toms (he constructed two) – The rocks at Aswan – Fragments of his smashed quartzite sarcophagus – Name stones in one of his tombs – Pottery funerary cones from his tombs Although Senenmut was not vizier, J H Breasted says that his titles indicate that he controlled many of the functions of the vizier and all but held that office. [J A Breasted J H, Ancient Records of Egypt, pg. 145] The title Steward appears frequently in the following source. A steward is an official associated with the management of property (land, crops, animals, mineral resources and labour). Titles on Senenmut’s smashed quartzite Sarcophagus |Titles on the Name stones in Senenmut’s Tomb |Title on the Pottery Funerary cones from Senenmut’s | | | |tomb | |Steward of Amun |Steward of Amun |Chief Steward of Amun | |Chief Steward of the King |Overseer of the Double Gold House |Priest of the Barque Woser-het-Amun | |Overseer of the Treasury |Overseer of the Gardens of Amun |Steward of the King’s Daughter Neferure | |Overseer of the Granary Fields |Overseer of the fields of Amun |Overseer of the Cattle of Amun | |Overseer of Cattle of Amun | | | |Controller of Works | | | |Prophet (priest) of the Barque Woser-het-Amun | | | |Overseer of the Prophets of Montu | | | |Overseer of the Administrative Offices of the Mansion| | | |Imy-weret Priest | | |Conductor of Festivals | | | Senenmut disappeared from the records some time after Year 16 of Hatshepsut’s reign. We don’t know how or when he died or if he was still in favour with Hatshepsut when he died. What we do know is that: – He never occupied the tomb beneath the temple – His sarcophagus was smashed to pieces – Some of his statues were deliberately damaged – His name was chipped out of some of the records Some scholars believe that Senenmut had a falling out with Hatshepsut.
They maintain that when he she became aware of his images engraved in her temple at Deir el Bahri she had them hacked out. However, Hayes has shown that Senenmut’s images in the temple at Deir el Bahri were permitted by royal decree. Relationship with Thutmose III; co-regency and later defacement of her monuments Relationship with Thutmose III: There is much controversy over their relationship. Many historians believe that T3 resented Hat for “taking over” and hence after her death chiselled out her name and destroyed her monuments in vengeance. Regent: Hatshepsut was T3’s aunt and stepmother. After T2 died, Hatshepsut became a regent with T3 along with her titles as GRW and God’s Wife of Amun. In both cases, in all their portrayals, Hat stood behind T3.
She played a minor role, as shown by her portrayals in inscriptions. In Semna temple there is an image shows T3 receiving Upper Egypt white crown from a Nubian god Dedwen and Hat played a subordinate role. Scholars have puzzled over the relationship between Hatshepsut and Thutmose III. Some questions posed are: Was Thutmose III frustrated and resentful towards Hatshepsut for usurping the Double Crown, which should have been his alone? Did he accept the situation without too much opposition to her? What was he doing while his step-mum was administering the land? Did he play the warrior king, like his predecessors, while she concentrated on more peaceful policies?
What support did he have at the time amongst the members of the civil bureaucracy and the priesthood? Was he just prepared to bide his time until Hatshepsut died or until an opportunity presented itself for him to overthrow her? We may never know the answers to some of these questions although it appears that Hatshepsut did not see him as a threat to her security. There are two opposing views of Thutmose III’s reaction to his stepmother’s seizure of the throne. |View 1 |View 2 | |Thutmose did not like the situation but was incapable of doing anything about it. Thutmose did not feel he had grounds for complaint against | | |Hatshepsut. | |By the time he was old enough to resent his loss of authority, | | |Hatshepsut controlled the treasury, had full support of the civil |He may even have welcome Hatshepsut’s guidance when he | |services and the High Priest of Amun Re. |was young and preferred to show his gratitude by waiting for | | |her death rather than demoting her when he came of age. |In other words ‘the reins of power were fully gathered in | | |Hatshepsut’s capable hands. ’ |He would have expected to outlive his aunt (step-mum) and | | |then enjoy a solo reign. | Co-regency: As Regent: When Thutmose II died, Thutmose III was only about ten years old. Meant that though he was king, he was too young to rule alone. Hatshepsut appointed regent Position allowed her to act on behalf of the king and control Egypt, and indeed she did so Was she in her rights to do so? 1.
Lawless argues that the regency was customary, as the chief queen was the usual choice for regent 2. Callender and Tyldesley argue that the regency was unprecedented because Thutmose III was not her son If it had been just a regency, Hatshepsut would have stepped down when Thutmose III came of age, but instead she became coregent with him. As Coregent: • Soon after Thutmose III was crowned, Hatshepsut was also crowned (year 2 or year 7) • Nefurure was given titles “Lady of the Two Lands” and “God’s Wife of Amun” • Legality of the co-regency has been questioned 1. Callender argues the timing was “unconstitutional” 2. Robins says that Hatshepsut “probably found the prospect of giving up power unpleasant” 3.
Lawless says that generally the heir to the throne only became coregent in the last years of his father’s reign so the heir can gain experience and acceptance • Hatshepsut was clearly the senior Pharaoh, and is positioned in front of Thutmose III in all but one of the reliefs • It is believed that Hatshepsut still had respect for Thutmose III, and did not resent his power • She represented him frequently on her monuments, and dated her own rule by his regnal years • Later in their rule Thutmose III seems to have taken a more prominent role • Brier believes that during the co-regency, Thutmose III was given a role in the army- possible that Hatshepsut hoped he would take control of the foreign campaigns and she would take care of the homeland • If Hatshepsut gave control of the army to Thutmose III she couldn’t have seen him as much of a threat to her power- would have been easy from his position in control of the army to stage a hostile takeover • Brier considers it possible that Thutmose III was happy to let Hatshepsut keep ruling, because he just wanted to have fun • He probably expected to outlive his aunt, so he may have just been waiting for her to die naturally so he could take over • Evidence points to less hostile feeling- after her death, Thutmose III did not dismiss her officials • Historian’s opinions: 1.
Robins believes that, even if Thutmose III were too meek to stand up to Hatshepsut at first, it would be unlikely that as an older man he still felt the same way. 2. Bradley says, “it appears he did not challenge Hatshepsut’s authority,” and that he was thus not unhappy with the situation. Later defacements of her monuments (damnatio memoriae): Her names, titles and images were erased from the walls of the temples and replaced with those of her father, Thutmose I, her husband Thutmose II and her stepson, Thutmose III. Her name was absent from all later lists of kings. Dozens of her statues were smashed and dumped in a pit at Deir el Bahri while fragments of many others were strewn over the area. Her giant obelisks in the Temple of Karnak were enclosed behind a wall in order to hide them from sight.
Some historians maintain that Thutmose III, on assuming sole rule, began an immediate and ferocious campaign to completely efface the memory of Hatshepsut. The land of Egypt trembled under the fury of Thutmosis’ wrath and the mute evidences of it still speak from the walls and from the tombs. His wholesale destruction of anything Hatshepsut had ever touched…[B Mertz, Temples, Tombs and Hieroglyphics, p 179] Gay Robins suggests that Thutmose III was motivated not by hatred but by a desire to expunge the memory of a woman who had improperly ascended the throne. He wanted and needed to restore Maat, and that could only be done by eliminating any traces of a female ruler, i. e. Hatshepsut. 4. Evaluation:
Impact and influence on her time See Mrs. Redmayne… Assessment of her life and reign The success of Hatshepsut’s reign can be seen in her economic accomplishments, buildings, connection with the Amun priesthood and military campaigns. The temple of Speos Artemidas is one of the places in which Hatshepsut does list off the things she believes to be her major accomplishments. The diplomatic trading expedition to Punt was considered by Hatshepsut to be foremost among her successes led by the official Nehasi and accompanied by 8 soldiers, reliefs of this expedition features across from reliefs of Hatshepsut’s divine birth scenes in her mortuary temple in Deir el Bahri.
The success of the expedition increased Hatshepsut intimacy with Amun as Amun commanded the expedition to her “the ways to Punt should be searched out…” The expedition to Punt allowed exotic goods to be brought back benefiting the nobility and Amun priesthood also ordered by Amun, the expeditions brought back trees of myrrh used as plants and the resins could be used to make incense and perfumes. The expedition also opened up of new trading routes leading to expansion of industry and goods benefiting society in particular the priesthood of Amun, the nobility and wealthy. Hatshepsut was always seen weak; but did have some military expedition. She pressured herself to be a male ruler and led the Egyptians army against ‘the vile rush’. prophecy predicted Hatshepsut would defeat enemies as the prophecy writes ‘smit with your mace to the Nubians’. In one scene she is shown with the Nubian god bringing her prisoners. Hatshepsut’s success as a ruler was not only in her economic accomplishments. In Speos Artemidas, Hatshepsut also claims that prior to her reign, the army had been ‘unequipped’ where after he start to being ruler, restored this army to a proper level of maintenance while also exploiting the turquoise mines in the deserts. Hatshepsut was an innovative ruler, who carried an extensive building program. At Karnak she extended the complex, and built the red chapel and obelisks which the highest in Egypt made form red granite and her mortuary temple at Deir el Bahri.
The temples designed by her official senemnut contained new religious innovations including the inclusion of Hathor headed columns and the ceiling paintings depicting the constellation movement over a day. The existence of large scale constrictions such as Hatshepsut’s mortuary temple and construction work at Karnak demonstrates Hatshepsut was rulers who created and stabilised prosperous economy for Egypt. Hatshepsut’s success as pharaoh is a result from fulfilling the roles of the traditional pharaoh as she maintained maat and kept a close relationship with the priesthood of Amun. The fact that her reign was relatively long and prosperous shows Hatshepsut’s greatness at being a ruler.
Although not as aggressive as some pharaohs, Hatshepsut maintained peace, defended Egypt and expanded her empire. Legacy Hatshepsut’s major achievements: Even thought her name was removed from all king lists, most modern Egyptologists recognise her as one of the most powerful pharaohs of the new kingdom. • By the strength of her personality and intelligence she was able to maintain the support of a group of powerful officials in the bureaucracy, the priesthood and military. This enabled her to maintain control of Egypt for over twenty years without any real opposition. • She was able to carry out extensive building program throughout Egypt and Nubia.
This included – Rebuilding damaged temples and sanctuaries and restoring the rituals and festivals associated with those neglected temples. – Adding substantially to Amun’s temple at Karnak by repairing middle kingdom temple; constructing a Barque Sanctuary and a Red Chapel. She also added a great pylon and erected 4 granite obelisks gilded in electrum. – Constructing the most beautiful temple in Egypt, her Mortuary Temple at Deir el-Bahri. It was one of the greatest works of ancient Egyptian architecture. – Building a rock-cut temple to Paket at Cusae, on the facade of which she inscribed many aspects of her policy. • Her building program- it gave employment to countless people, labourers, craftsmen etc. To support her building program and further add to the prosperity of the country, she sent out expeditions to Punt, Nubia and the Levant. This was one of her greatest achievements. • She undertook a number of successful military campaigns in Nubia and also several in the north. These campaigns, some of which were led by Thutmose III, secured egypt’s borders and also maintained the hold over Nubia established by her father, • Hatshepsut kept her army in a state of readiness. She proudly recorded that her troops were better equipped than when she came to the throne. She also used her army to her her rebuild Egypt. Ancient and modern images and interpretations of Hatshepsut
In ancient times Hatshepsut was interpreted as a difference in the line of traditional ‘warrior-pharoahs’. It is put forward the claim by traditional historians that she was only interested in peaceful pursuits such as construction and trade and was no warrior pharaoh. This was a conflict between the older concept of the Egyptian state according to A. Wilson. An isolated and superior culture, which needed to express no major concern about other countries because no other countries presented an important challenge to Egypt, and the new concept of the Egyptian state, a culture which felt obliged to assert its superiority by capturing and holding foreign territory.
In ancient interpretations, the fact that Hatshepsut was a woman could be seen as a limity factor to her social position, and whose rule would have been seen as a direct offence against ma’at. Though she proved this was not the case, as she was able to maintain her rule for 22 years from 1504 BC to 1482 BC according to Steindorff and Seele. Ancient interpretations by traditional historians of her not being a warrior pharaoh have pointed out that her successor Thutmose III had to conduct a long series of campaigns in Syria and Palestine to reverse the loss of Egyptian influence that had occurred in Hatshepsut’s reign. An example of this is made by A. Gardiner, descibing the reign of Hatshepsut being barren of any military enterprise except an unimportant raid into Nubia.
However, modern interpretations by DB Redford concludes that there could have been four or more campaigns waged during Hatshepsut’s regency with Thutmose III. Fragmentary evidence points to a campaigns against the Nubians, Palestine and Syria, with the capture of Gaza and another campaign in Nubia led by Thutmose III later in their co-regency. It is carveded o
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