Health and Safety in Childcare
Unit 009 Health and Safety Activity Find out what your settings policy and procedure is on health and safety and where it is kept. Write down your understanding of this policy and procedure. At Highfield children’s centre copies of the health and safety policies and procedures are kept in the main office, in the head teacher’s office and in the family support office. Highfield children’s centre has a family support team linked to the nursery. The health and safety policy and procedure is set out to protect and safeguard children and staff both in the school and on school visits.
The head teacher is the named officer in charge of the health and safety within the setting. The officer in charge will give other staff members certain tasks that they will be able to carry forward linked to the health and safety policy and procedure. These tasks and responsibilities are given to staff members and the officer in charge will keep up to date with the goings on of the setting through talking to the member of staff responsible for that certain task. The officer in charge will also inform the LEA (Local Education Authority) of the staff she has allocated for each task. Health and Safety policy and procedures are reviewed annually. ? All staff needs to have a copy of the Health and Safety policy statement. This includes Permanent and Temporary staff. ? Risk Assessments are carried out and reviewed on a regular basis. ? Health and Safety tours carried out frequently to accommodate significant changes to the building, equipment, work practices and personnel. ? Accidents must to be recorded in the accident book. ? Incident forms must be filled in when needed and filed in the correct folder. ? Accident book is kept in the main office with other policies and procedures.
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The accident book is for staff as well as children. ? Named first aider is stated in the policy and procedures. Activity Write down more suggestions on how you would ensure safety in your setting and how you would adapt the environment to ensure safety for all the children. Take into account their age, needs and abilities and any special educational needs. ? Make sure you know and understand the settings Health and Safety policy and procedures. ? Always check the equipment before use for any signs of damage and also that it is clean. ? Make sure you are never left with a large group of children and no other staff member. The legal adult to child ratio has been set within the Health and Safety policy and therefore needs to be abided by for the Safety of the children and the staff. I have noticed that when the children come in from outside play in the morning and the afternoon they will hang their coats up in a hurry together with hats, scarf’s and gloves. This will cause other coats to fall off coat pegs and scatter the floor. I pick up coats that have fallen onto the floor so that children do not trip or slip on them. Hats, scarfs and gloves may get lost if they are left lying around the floor.
Children that have laces that are not tied properly could trip over themselves and cause accidents. Activity Find out the adult to child ratios for the following age groups. 0 – 12 months 1 adult to 3 children – At least one member of staff must hold a full or relevant level 3 qualification as defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC) and have suitable experience of working with children under two and at least half of other staff must hold a full and relevant level 2 qualification defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC).
At least half the staff must have received specific training in the care of babies. 0 – 2 years 1 adult to 3 children – At least one member of staff must hold a full or relevant level 3 qualification as defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council and have suitable experience of working with children under two and at least half of other staff must hold a full and relevant level 2 qualification defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC). At least half the staff must have received specific training in the care of babies. – 3 years 1 adult to 4 children – At least one member of staff must hold a full or relevant level 3 qualification as defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council and at least half of other staff must hold a full and relevant level 2 qualification defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC). 3 – 5 years 1 adult to 4 – 8 children – At least one member of staff must hold a full or relevant level 3 qualification as defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council and at least half of other staff must hold a full and relevant level 2 qualification defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC).
When a person holds a Qualified Teacher Status or Early Years Professional Status or another suitable level 6 qualification which is full and relevant and defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC) and is working directly with the children, it is 1 adult to 13 children and at least one member of staff must hold a full or relevant level 3 qualification as defined by Children’s Workforce Development Council (CWDC). Activity Write down any safety equipment that you use in your setting! Also When, How and Why you use it!
At Highfield Children’s Centre we use the following safety equipment: Locks on cupboards – The cupboards in each of the rooms have locks on the doors. This means a key is needed to unlock them. The cupboards are used all the time for equipment and other valuable resources. Therefore the cupboards have to be kept locked for the safety of the children so that accidents with the equipment do not happen. Also if you have hazardous substances in a store cupboard and you don’t want children to get hurt by them then you will have to keep the door closed and locked by doing this the children are kept safe.
Fire Exit Door – The fire exit door is used when there are concerns of a fire and the fire alarm is sounded. Fire exits have to be kept clear at all times in case an emergency arises and staff and children need to evacuate the building in the events of a fire. Staff have to stay calm in the events of a fire. They have to keep their minds focused and keep the children calm so they can get the children out of the building in the shortest time possible. Fire drills on a regular basis get the staff and children prepared for an event like this should it come about.
Store Cupboard in Children’s Toilets – The store cupboard in the children’s toilet near the library has a half door that has a bolt lock on the inside of the door that allows the staff to lock and unlock whenever it is needed. This store cupboard is used to store the bulk load of paper tissues, toilet roll, hand wash soap etc children’s medication e. g. inhalers, piriton and other medications that are needed are stored in a wall mounted cupboard that is out of the reach of children. This cupboard would also have a lock on the door.
Safety Scissors – When the children are using scissors for cutting they use the childproof safety scissors that are rounded at the tip. They still need supervision when using the scissors and they need to be reminded about their fingers and about being careful but the staff know that they are safe for the children to use. High door handles – Having high door handles on doors give the staff piece of mind when they close the staff kitchen door to keep the children out of the kitchen and away from the dangers of the kitchen. The staff kitchen door is kept closed at all times.
Staff entering and leaving the kitchen need to make sure the door is closed behind them and children are out of danger. If the oven is on because a class is doing a cooking activity then it is important that children are told the dangers of the kitchen and why they are not allowed in the staff kitchen. Having high door handles on the doors prevents the children getting into danger. Keypad Locks – As well as having a heavy bolt that slides across the gate to lock it the nursery has a keypad locking system that can only be opened by using a fob or the keypad code.
The garden gate is always kept closed and therefore the keypad lock is always active. Having the keypad lock on the garden gate prevents intruders from entering the garden or the children from leaving the garden. It is only the staff of the nursery that knows the code for the outside gate. Students or visitors to the nursery needing to enter or leave the garden area would have to speak to a member of staff who will let them in or out by punching in the code being careful not to display the code to anybody. Activity Write a list of any more hazards and why you think they are hazards!
Cleaning equipment – Cleaning materials are hazardous to children especially if they spray each other’s eyes, drink cleaning solution not knowing what it is but may think it is juice e. g. Mr Muscle surface spray or Dettol disinfectant. Trailing wires – Wires trailing the floor is a hazard because children could trip and fall over them. There may be a reason for the trailing wire and you will need to make sure the children are careful when they are near such a wire or you will need to try your best to keep them away from it altogether.
Finding out why the wire is there and can it be moved and put away to prevent accidents would be a good idea. Nobody wants to come into nursery in the morning to go home with a bump on the head or another injury due to a trailing wire. Sloped floor – Some children were on their way to the garden when I noticed a member of staff mopping up some water on the sloped floor leading to the coat pegs and the garden. I followed the children telling them to walk and not to run. I saw this as a hazard because the children could have being running and slipped on the wet floor.
Plug sockets – When a plug socket does not have socket covers they are deemed a hazard as they may encourage children to use their little fingers to explore the little holes or they may insert tiny objects into the holes. Inserting things into the holes of the plug socket is very dangerous and should not do. Stacked chairs – Sometimes the chairs need to be stacked up because of needing to practice for the Christmas nativity. If the chairs are stacked to high they may topple over and hurt someone or maybe children may decide to climb onto them and they will hurt themselves if they fall off.
Activity Find out what risk assessments you have in your workplace. Why are they important? Risk assessments are very important as they show careful examination of things that may cause harm to people or children within the workplace/childcare setting. As childcare practitioners we have a duty to ensure that all children in our care have access to a safe environment. At Highfield children’s centre risk assessments are done by in each room. This is done by the staff that occupies the room. Throughout the day the senior members of staff (i. e.
Head teacher, Deputy Head) will come into each room checking that everything is ok and everything is running smoothly. ? We check toys and other equipment for damage, if it is clean enough for the children to play with, is it age appropriate and does it fit in with the child’s ability. This applies to the outdoors as well as indoors. ? We keep the cleaning equipment out of the reach of children (i. e. Washing up liquid, cleaning cloths, anti-bacterial spray), other cleaning equipment is kept is kept in a locked cupboard and the keys are given to the Head teacher who keeps them safe in her office. If there is water on the floor it is cleaned up promptly with a mop depending on the amount of water spillage, sometimes just a cloth/paper towels is needed to clear up the water. This is so that children don’t injure themselves by slipping on a wet floor. The yellow wet floor sign will be placed by the slippery wet floor warning people, staff and children to be careful. If there is water on the table or chair then it would be cleaned up by a cloth/paper towels. This is so that clothes do not get wet. Wet clothes on children will make them ill.
Children’s wet clothes will be changed and their parents notified. ? When the school want children to go on educational outings/trips they would need to send letters home to parents informing them on the trip, what time leaving school, when they due back, how much is the cost for the trip, how they will be getting there etc. This is asking for their permission that their child/children go. With the letter they would attach a reply slip/consent form. When this form is returned to school they will need to a head count on how many children going.
Risk assessments should clearly state the date, the age group of the children, where/what risk/hazard has been spotted, what action will/has been taken and the signature of the member of staff filling in the form. This needs to be done for each risk/hazard spotted throughout the day. Risk – Looking around to assess the potential risks around you. A risk is a probability that someone could be harmed by the hazard and how serious the harm could be. Hazard – Hazards are there in front of you. A hazard is anything that may cause any harm.
Hazards can be found in any workplace. Risk assessments look at identifying hazards, deciding who may be harmed, evaluate the risks and find the suitable precautions to eliminate the risks. Recording the findings and reviewing assessments and updating when necessary. Activity What does COSHH stand for? COSHH stands for Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health. Hazardous substances should be clearly labelled so that people know that they are not safe to use without being properly protected. Below are some of the labels that you may come across. pic] [pic] [pic] [pic] Activity What is the Kitemark? [pic] The kite mark is issued by the BSI to those items that have been tested and confirmed that the product complies with the British Standards and is safe and reliable to use. [pic] The CE mark that you see on toy packaging, together with European Union address of the first supplier, is meant to give toys the right of circulation across the community and is a declaration that the toy satisfies the essential safety requirements of the EU toy safety directive.
This mark is for enforcement purposes only and is not meant to indicate to the consumer that a toy is safe or of good quality, and is required to appear on all toys. The CE Mark is now appearing on many other products including cycle helmets and knee and elbow protective pads used by skateboarders and others. [pic] The Lion Mark was developed in 1988 by the British Toy & Hobby Association as a symbol of toy safety and quality for the consumer. The Lion Mark is used exclusively by members of the BTHA to indicate that their toys are made to current British and European standards and that they are following the BTHA Code of Practice.
European Standards EN71 consists of six parts covering mechanical and physical properties of toys, flammability, specification for the migration of certain elements (toxicity) specification for experimental sets for chemistry and related activities, chemical toys (sets) and other experimental sets, graphic symbols. Recently, Acoustics were added regulating sound levels for certain toys especially for infants. [pic]Toy warnings: This symbol indicates that a toy is not suitable for children under 3 years of age. With this symbol there must be reference to the hazard, e. g. “because of small parts” which might cause choking.
Activity Choose a room in your setting. How many items can you find that display the kite mark? Write down some of these items! ? Soft seating – Soft seating in the library area for the children to sit on while they look at books. ? Books – Board books and Paperback books for children ? Dress up clothes – Dressing up clothes near the post office, dress up as a post person ? Mr Teddy – A class friend who is passed around and the children tell him what they have done over the weekend. Activity Pick three items from your list above. Why do you think they need to conform to British Standards?
Dress up clothes – Dress up clothes need to be safe to put on and take off. This means that they need to be comfortable for the children to wear and not too tight. They must not come with ties that can be tied too tight as children can cause injury to themselves or others. Dress up clothes must be machine washable and cleaned on a regular basis to get rid of any germs and they must be in good condition. Books – Books need to be age appropriate for children to take an interest. Picture books, story ‘lift-the-flap’ books and even pop-up feature books will catch the attention of a child and feed their interest.
Books for children need to be welcoming e. g. colourful pictures, touch and feel books offer a range of textures that will capture the attention of children. Mr Teddy – Mr Teddy is a soft loveable teddy with embroidered facial features, he was introduced to the children to help them open up and speak about what they did over the weekend. The children named the bear Mr Teddy. Mr Teddy enjoys coming to nursery to listen to the children’s adventures over the weekend. This lovable class member gets the children talking and the children love making up stories of the adventures that they go on with him.
All cuddly teddies have to be safe for youngsters. They need to be checked on a daily basis, at the slightest sign of damage they must be removed as the stuffing inside the cuddly teddies may cause a choking hazard. We need to make sure that the eyes; nose and hair cannot be bitten or pulled off by inquisitive little fingers. Activity Find out your settings emergency evacuation procedure and write down your understanding of this. At Highfield Children’s centre the evacuation procedure is followed by all in the nursery.
My understanding of the evacuation procedure here at Highfield is that at all times for the safety of the children and the staff, everyone should stay calm. Also when the fire alarm is sounded someone would need to make sure windows in their room are closed and locked. When the alarm is sounded each room leader will get the children to form a line and in a calm and orderly way and lead the children through the designated fire exit. As the children are lead outside to the assembly point there will be a head count of the children. The door needs to be closed behind the last child as the children are lead to the assembly point.
The children in each class must be reassured and kept calm at all times by the class leader. The assembly point is in the corner of the garden area along the blue fence. When all children and staff are in the garden at the assembly point there will be another head count for the children. If there are any missing children the head teacher or deputy head will need to be informed. The registers need to be taken to check that all the children are accounted for. Staff and visitors will also need to be checked by doing a staff head count and a visitor head count this will be done by the head teacher or deputy head.
Staff and visitors names should be called out and accounted for. Activity Why is it important to use equipment that is appropriate for the age, needs and abilities of children? All children, even babies enjoy playing. There are many things children can learn through play; this is especially if adults help by providing the interesting toys and equipment. Children also learn through sharing. When children are playing with Lego or building blocks they will be using their Cognitive development to learn about shape, space, colours. Physical development is to learn about movement, how to use their hand and eye co-ordination, body control.
Social development is to learn how to share and be with others. Language is to learn about speech, listening and understanding. Emotional development is to express feelings e. g. enjoyment, happiness. Play helps to promote children’s overall development. All children develop at different rates. Some children develop quicker and reach their milestone quicker than others. This is normal. Equipment that is used helps children to develop to their full potential. Some equipment may help children’s physical play because it provides them with challenges. Children may also make equipment part of their pretend play.
Pay attention to the age advice on the packaging of children’s toys. This age advice that is set out on children’s toys has been tested and set for only that age. It is sensible to obey the age guidelines as they help to decide if the toy will be fun for the child to play with, will it prove to be stimulating and above all will it be safe for the children. Activity How would you ensure that all equipment and toys in your setting is safe for the children and staff to use? In my setting risk assessments are done when any new equipment comes within the nursery setting.
By doing a risk assessment on new equipment that comes into the setting will decide if it is safe for the children and staff to use. Risk assessments are not only done when new equipment comes within the setting. They are done on a daily basis when staff are using equipment or even pulling out activities for the children to play with. Some of the checks that may be made are as follows: ? Age appropriate (does it have an age warning sign) ? Does it have a registered kite mark that is recognised ? Is it in good working order or is it faulty ? Checks for damage will be made as toys are set out Do the toys need a clean? How long ago was the toys and equipment cleaned? Activity Find out where hazardous materials are stored in your setting and how they dispose of waste! Where hazardous materials are stored In my setting all hazardous materials are stored out of reach of children. This could be in a high wall mounted cupboard or in a store cupboard. Where ever you store hazardous materials you should always make sure they are stored away from children under lock and key. Cleaning equipment such as washing-up-liquids and anti-bacterial sprays are found in two class rooms on a high shelf situated next to the sink.
This is accessible to staff only. Cleaning equipment such as washing-up-liquids, anti-bacterial sprays, washing powder etc can also be found in the kitchen. The kitchen and staff room join together and can be accessed through either door. The kitchen and staff room doors have high door handles that the children are unable to reach. The kitchen and staff room doors are kept closed at all times. When we keep these doors closed we are keeping the children away from hazards caused by items/ equipment in the kitchen. In the resource room you will find all electrical equipment i. e. taff computers, printers, photocopier, laminators etc. All the cupboards in this room are kept locked and only accessible to staff members only. Each room has cupboards that can be locked if they contain equipment that can be of a hazard to children. How they dispose of waste Recycling – In my setting we have recycle bins for the disposal of paper and plastics. General/ kitchen waste – All general or kitchen waste is placed in refuse sacks and at the end of the day the bags are tied and the cleaner takes them to the wheelie bin which is situated in the nursery car park. If a child dirties their clothes (i. . wets or soils them) they will be changed by their key worker. The key worker would ask another member of staff to stand by and be a witness. This is for the safety of the staff and the child. The child will be asked to remove any wet or soiled clothing and dress themselves. The child’s wet or soiled clothing would then be placed in a plastic carrier bag and sent home with the child at home time. All children that attend nursery must be potty/toilet trained before they are able to start nursery. All parents are asked to send their child/children to nursery with a spare set of clothes just in case. Activity
What legal requirements are in place to protect children and adults in the workplace? There are several legal requirements in place to protect children and adults in the workplace. ? The Health and Safety at work Act 1974 – This is the main legislation that regulates health and safety within the workplace. There are several other legal and regulatory requirements in place to protect children and adults in the setting. Including in these are: ? COSHH – Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health regulations 2002 ? RIDDOR – Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 ?
Childcare Act 2006 ? Food Hygiene Legislation 2006 ? Smoking Ban UK wide 2007 ? OFSTED – Ofsted will need to be notified of any changes in address, phone numbers. They will also need to be aware of any after school activities that maybe taking place or holiday play schemes that have been scheduled and also when have they planned to take place and for how long will they be running for. ? Risk assessments – Regular risk assessments need to be undertaken to monitor risks within the setting to prevent any harm coming to children and adults. ? Adult to child ratio – Keep to the adult to child ratio.
The adult to child ratio was put in place to protect both the staff and the children. These legal requirements have been put in place and must be followed at all times. Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow. Jasmine is planning an outing with a colleague to the local woods with two groups of children from her childcare setting. She hopes that she can include some nature work, physical-skill development and artwork with the children. She is planning to take a group of six 4 year olds from the pre-school group and a group of eight 7 and 8 year olds from the after school group. ) What are the different safety risks for each of the groups? Pre-schoolers (4 year olds) ? Little understanding of danger ? Keen to explore and do things for themselves ? May copy things that adults do – e. g. try out medicines, smoke ? May wonder off ? May get themselves lost ? Children could wonder off with strangers ? Children could fall and hurt themselves ? May pick berries form plants (poisonous berries) ? May go near roads or streams/ponds After-school club (7 and 8 year olds) ? Some awareness of danger ? Will want to explore by themselves ? May want to wonder off outside permitted boundaries ?
May get over excited when playing ? May get into disputes over wanting things done their way ? More vocal and independent in what they do ? May let their excitement over rule their listening and taking mental note of the instructions 2) What will Jasmine need to think about for each group? Pre-schoolers (4 year olds) ? Allergies to certain plants, insects etc ? Staff to child ratio ? Carry out risk assessments both for the staff and the children ? Taking the sensible children (which children) ? Contact records just in case needing to get hold of parent/carer ?
First aid kit ? Consent forms for going on outing for each child ? Identity badge or wrist band with schools details printed on it. ? Activities for that age group that will keep them busy and away from danger e. g. tree bark rubbings to make collage when they get back to school After-school club (7 and 8 year olds) ? Carry out risk assessments both for the staff and the children ? Allergies to certain plants, insects etc ? Identity badge or wrist band with schools details printed on it. ? Staff to child ratio ? Consent forms for going on outing for each child ?
Taking the sensible children (which children) ? Contact records just in case needing to get hold of parent/carer ? First aid kit 3) How much freedom will each group be able to have in the area of wood Jasmine plans to work in? Pre-schoolers (4 year olds) ? Staff will need to stay near children ? Children will be able to explore as long as there is a staff member with them at all times, to supervise them ? Staff will need to keep a close eye on children at all times ? Listen out for signs of children that arguing After-school club (7 and 8 year olds) Children can explore by themselves, but staff member/members need to stay close by ? Children are allowed to gather information and have some freedom to explore but staff should always be close by to supervise ? Listen out for signs of arguments or disputes Now read the next case study and answer the questions that follow. Lee is working in a childcare setting that also has an after-school club for older children. The older children enjoy ball games on the outdoor play area. Last night he was concerned that some of the bigger boys had been using the swings meant for younger children.
When he goes outside he notices that the outside gate has been left open and there is a dog wondering around the play area, especially in the sandpit. 1) Should Lee allow the children to play outside? No I do not think Lee should let the children out into the outdoor play area because he does not know what the dog is like. He does not know if the dog will attack any of the children if they go out to play. ? When Lee sees the outdoor play area gate open he should keep the children indoors, as the gate been left open would cause concerns if the children went outside. The concerns would be that some children may wonder off the school premises.
This is a very serious issue as children are in danger of all sorts of hazards and risks outside of school i. e. the road, strangers etc. ? The sandpit may contain faeces from the dog as the dog has had contact with the sandpit there is no saying what the sandpit would have in it now. If the children were to go outdoors and play in the sandpit it would cause serious health issues for the children. 2) What action should Lee take now? ? Inform supervisor immediately or senior staff member ? Do a head count of all children to make sure all children are present ?
Complete risk assessment giving details of what was found, what time, date and what was done about it ? Keep children indoors with activities and staff to supervise them ? Make sure the door leading to the play area outdoors is secure so that no children can get outside and nothing can come inside ? Keep garden monitored at all times in order to inform staff members when the dog has left the play area and it is safe to go outside to secure the gate so that nothing/nobody else can enter the garden without permission 3) What might the manager of the setting do to stop the things happening that concern Lee? Inform all children and make the age restrictions clear for those particular areas and play equipment that are needing to be age restricted ? Notices around particular areas i. e. picture and message for age restrictions of the area of play. This is so the older and younger children will know which areas to play in ? Risk assessments reviewed and revised ? What was the present procedure for the security of children in the outdoor play area ? Procedure to be reviewed and extra security measures put into place so that it does not happen again ?
If this situation should happen again, what procedure should be followed. All staff should be informed of this procedure as the security, health and safety measures for the staff as well as the children 4) Produce a sign to remind the workers about health and safety requirements! Attach copy of sign to this page Read the following case study and answer the questions that follow. Lily, aged 2, is tall for her age. She is also extremely curious and has just discovered that she can now reach the door handles at home and feel the pattern on them.
She lives in an old house with a cellar and front door that opens onto a busy main road. When she is out and about she doesn’t always like to have her hand held, preferring to ‘do it herself’. 1) Can you think of any dangers that Lily might be at risk from? ? Strangers and their dogs ? Traffic on the roads ? Cooker left unattended ? Cupboard which contain cleaning materials left unlocked or open ? Trailing kettle wire ? Electrical sockets missing covers ? Sharp objects left lying around the kitchen ? Access to the cellar ? May fall down stairs Medication left lying around – some tablets look like sweets ? Chairs, tables etc – some tables have sharp corners ? Boiling tap water ? Open windows or windows without safety locks ? Trip and fall easily ? Cigarettes left within reach of child ? Lighters not suitable for youngsters ? Tables with sharp corners ? Hot drinks left unattended ? Wires and flexes left dangling ? Choke on foods ? Allergies 2) Why do you think these are dangers to Lily? ? Lily has little understanding of danger ? She is keen to explore but does not know her limits at this age ?
She may easily trip and fall ? She may put objects into her mouth and choke ? May pull hot pan off the cooker while trying to see what is cooking and may end up with serious burns to her body ? May imitate things that adults do i. e. try to take medication, smoke etc 3) What steps should her parents be taking to protect her from possible injury? Some security measures that Lily’s parents may want to consider for the safety of Lily. ? All the doors in Lily’s home must be kept locked and the keys kept in a safe place out of reach of Lily but still accessible in emergency ?
Door opening alarms on all doors – If Lily decides to escape through any door then the opening of the door will set off the alarm and this will make Lily’s parents aware that Lily is trying to get out ? Consider getting higher door handles fitted on all doors. This does not mean removing the other door handles that are at Lily’s height ? Child safety locks on the cupboard doors ? Locks on all cupboards that contain cleaning materials/ hazardous substances and medicine cupboard needs to be locked ? Get window safety locks put on all the windows.
This will allow you to have the windows open but the children are not able to climb out ? Never leave the kitchen unattended when hot saucepans are on the gas ? Think about getting smoke alarms fitted ? All kitchen appliances should be out of reach of children – should be placed towards the back of the worktop ? Clutter and spillages need to be cleaned up straight away – this is for everyone’s safety not just Lily’s ? When Lily’s parents take her out they should encourage her to wear a safety harness.
They should speak to her about how a safety harness will keep her safe and how it is worn and how Lily will still be able to use her hands and still stay safe. ? At Lily’s age children will imitate what adults do. Lily will try to imitate what grown-ups do so her parents will need to teach her of the dangers of the house and the outdoors. They will need to make her aware of dangers and how to act in such situations. ? Peep hole fixed in the front door and cellar door so that you will be able to check who is there on the other side of the door and is it somebody that you know and want to let in
Activity How would you recognise a child choking and what would you do if this happens? A child who is gasping for breath and trying to cough. Child may go blue around the mouth as a sign of them choking. Check inside the child’s mouth to see if the obstruction is visible. If the obstruction is visible try to hook it out with your finger, but don’t risk pushing it further down. If this does not work then you will need to: ? Sit down and lean the child forward Or ? Lay the baby face down along your forearm with your hand supporting his/her head and neck, and his/her head lower than their bottom ?
Give five brisk slaps between the shoulder blades ? Check the mouth and remove any obstruction ? Check for breathing ? If baby/ child is not breathing give five breaths ? If airway is still obstructed give five chest compressions ? If baby/child still not breathing, repeat the cycle of back slaps, five breaths and five chest compressions ? If baby/child still not breathing dial 999 for an ambulance NOTE ? Babies up to 1 yr old (mouth to mouth and nose resuscitation) ? Children 1 – 10 yrs old (mouth to mouth resuscitation) Write down what you would do in the following accident situations.
Think of the age of children you work with. Where and how do you record information on these incidents? 1) A child has fallen over in the playground and cut his/her knee If a child has fallen over in the playground and cut his or her knee I would speak calmly to the child reassuring them that everything will be ok and that I/someone would be taking them to First Aid. I would then let the member of staff outside with me know what happened. The child would then be taken to the known first aider to be cleaned up and given the all clear on their injuries.
The parents would be notified of the child’s injuries when they come to nursery to collect them. The information would be recorded on an incident form stating child’s name, details of the incident, time, date, persons reporting the incident, action taken, signature of person reporting the incident. Also on the incident form it will state the action taken by the Head teacher/Designated Senior Teacher (DST) and the signature of the DST and dated by the DST. 2) A child is displaying breathing difficulties ? Stay calm and reassure the child who may be very frightened ?
Encourage the child to sit up to increase lung capacity ? If the child has a reliever inhaler or nebuliser, then supervise him/her while using the inhaler ? Never leave child alone during an attack ? Try not to let other children crowd around ? If these measures do not stop the wheezing and the exhaustion caused by the attack then call 999 ? If this was to happen in my setting then it would be essential that staff would contact the child’s parents/carer 3) A child has fallen over a toy and bumped his/her head on the carpeted floor ?
Approach the child who has fallen over and bumped his/her head on the carpeted floor ? Reassure the child that everything is going to be ok ? Check the child over and get a cold compress for the bump on their head ? All the time speaking to the child calmly and letting them know what you are doing and why ? Keep a close eye on the child at all times to make sure the child doesn’t lose consciousness ? If you do notice the child losing consciousness you would call 999 for an ambulance ?
If this was to happen in my setting then it would be essential that staff would contact the child’s parents/carer Activity Write down your understanding of your settings emergency procedures including the following types of incidents. ? Emergency procedure Emergency procedure in my setting is that at all times for the safety of the children and the staff, everyone should stay calm. Also when the fire alarm is sounded someone would need to make sure windows in their room are closed and locked.
When the alarm is sounded each room leader will get the children to form a line and in a calm and orderly way and lead the children through the designated fire exit. As the children are lead outside to the assembly point there will be a head count of the children. The door needs to be closed behind the last child as the children are lead to the assembly point. The children in each class must be reassured and kept calm at all times by the class leader. The assembly point is in the corner of the garden area along the blue fence. ? Fire procedure In the event of a fire carry out the following procedures immediately SOUND THE ALARM – make sure you are familiar with the sighting of the nearest of the nearest alarm – Collect registers if you have them, if not, they will be brought out to your assembly point – Evacuate by the nearest fire exit taking all children, closing the door after the last child – Assemble with your class in the corner of the garden area along the blue fence – Call the register to check all children are present. Do not leave your children – Report any missing children to the Head Teacher or Deputy Head If the alarm sounds, the admin officer, Head Teacher or Deputy Head will call the fire service. Security incidents ? All staff members have been given an electronic fob which allows them to enter and exit the building when necessary ? Head teachers office, main admin office and garden gate all have keypad code system ? To enter the nursery through the main nursery gate (off the main Highfield road) staff are able to use their fob but parents and visitors must buzz the intercom and wait for admin staff to respond. When you get a response you will need to let them know who you are, where you are from and you nature of business at the nursery ?
Visitors to the nursery must sign in, in the visitors book detailing date, time and where you have come from (company) ? Staff sign in, in the staff log (time in, time out) ? Students must sign in, in the visitors book (date, time in, time out, stating they are on placement) ? All staff, students and visitors must wear a badge stating who they are Staff have ID badge with photo and name. Student badges have STUDENT (TEACHER) printed on them Visitor badges have VISITOR printed on them ? Student and visitor badges are given when admin staff know the nature of the business your visit Missing children or persons ? Staff to retrace child’s last known steps ? Playground, toilets, all classrooms, car park (side and rear of the nursery building) garden including shed, summer house, gazebo, main Highfield rd (checking right and left also the entrance to the main school) ? Staff allocated to check all these places. Two members of staff needed to check the main Highfield rd by staff members splitting up and one going right and checking that side and the other going left and checking that side also the entrance to the main school must be checked ?
Head teacher would contact parents/carer and the police as a missing child is a serious matter ? While these staff members are searching for the missing child, all other staff members and students will bring the children together in one room (big room) and the door closed so no other children go missing ? Head teacher would re-assess the previous missing children’s policy and amend it where necessary to make sure it does not happen again ? Staff and students and any other people working at the nursery should be given an updated copy of this policy and made aware of the procedure to follow ?
Parents are advised to make sure when they collect their child, they leave with only their child and they are also asked to close the gate behind them ? If parents are unable to collect their child they should give the nursery staff prior notice of this and let the staff know who will be collecting the child, relationship to child and a name i. e. Bobby’s aunt Helen will be collecting him from nursery today ? Evacuation ? Butterflies – go through double doors into busy bees room and then leave by the fire door, through the gate and into the garden area ?
Busy bees – leave by the fire door, through the gate and into the garden area ? Ladybirds – leave through the main nursery entrance, ? Highfield Hoppers – leave through the back playgroup door, through the wooden gate and into the garden area ? Stay and play – leave by the fire door, down the ramp and into the garden area Activity How can we prevent slips and trips? ? Suitable footwear ? Management of spillages and cleaning regimes ? Design of the workplace and work activities ? Specification of appropriate flooring Obstructions cleared away from doorways, fire exits etc Activity Write an example of how a slip and trip accident could happen in your workplace? How would you prevent it from happening again? Indoors ? A slip could happen when children are doing water play. The floor gets pretty wet and children could hurt themselves. The water play could be taken outside where on the cushioned tarmac it would be safer to walk around after water has fallen on the cushioned tarmac as it soaks up the water quite well, so there will be less of a risk of children slipping on the wet floor ?
Trips could happen on a regular basis in a childcare setting when there are toys around the room, left on the floor in doorways or scattered across the floor where children are running around not looking where they are going Doing a risk assessment of the room you will be using i. e. is the room going to be big enough for the number of children and staff planning to use the room. By thinking of size and number of children this will cut down the risk of trips and injury.
Also trips can be prevented by keeping a close eye on what is around the room and moving scattered toys to a safer part of the room, so they are not a risk or hazard to children or staff Activity Describe how you would pick up a 12 month old baby and put the baby onto the nappy changer! When you pick up a 12 month old baby and put them onto the nappy changer you will need to: ? Wash hands and wear disposable apron and gloves ? Make sure you have everything ready – cotton wool, fresh warm water and a clean nappy ? Stand in front of the child with your feet at shoulder width apart ?
Bend your knees and keep your back straight ? Make sure you have a firm but not too tight hold on the child ? Lift the child onto the nappy changer ? When placing a child onto the nappy changer you must make sure their head is supported by your hand as you lay them down slowly so they do not bang their head ? While you do this continue to talk to the child calmly letting them know that you are going to change their nappy and that they do not need to worry Activity Describe the procedure you would take if moving large items of furniture in your setting.
At Highfield Children’s Centre the staff does not move large items of furniture as this is the job of the caretaker. If I needed to do any moving or lifting of furniture or equipment I would speak with my supervisor to check that it would be ok. Before lifting anything I would do a mental risk assessment as to whether it would be too big or heavy for it to be lifted in which case I would not even attempt to lift or move such item on my own. The importance of lifting equipment, in the correct way is crucial. If equipment are not lifted in the correct way you could cause injury to yourself.
If incorrect lifting techniques are used it could result in serious back injuries as well as the risks of fractures and maybe sprains to the limbs. These lifting techniques should be used for your own safety as well as the safety of others: ? Stand in front of the object with your feet at shoulder width apart ? Always bend your knees, not your back when attempting to pick up something KEEP YOUR BACK STRAIGHT ? Make sure you assess the weight of the object you want to lift (DO NOT LIFT more than you can carry) ? Make sure you have a firm but not too tight hold on the object ?
Test that you can safely lift object before you actually attempt to make the lift ? Avoid twisting or bending as you lift anything Activity What are the regulations covering manual handling and the risks associated with lifting and carrying children? The importance of lifting equipment, children in the correct way is crucial. If equipment or children are not lifted in the correct way you could cause injury to yourself as well as the child you may be trying to lift. If incorrect lifting techniques are used it could result in serious back injuries as well as the risks of fractures and maybe sprains to the limbs.
These lifting techniques should be used for your own safety as well as the safety of others: ? Stand in front of the child or object with your feet at shoulder width apart ? Always bend your knees, not your back when attempting to pick up something KEEP YOUR BACK STRAIGHT ? Make sure you assess the weight of the child or object you want to lift (DO NOT LIFT more than you can carry) ? Make sure you have a firm but not too tight hold on the child or object ? Test that you can safely lift child or object before you actually attempt to make the lift ?
Avoid twisting or bending as you lift anything Activity Find out how you’re setting monitors cleaning? Write down your findings. Attach any relevant forms your setting uses. At Highfield Children’s Centre the cleaner takes care of the cleaning. The cleaner comes to our nursery from 3:30 – 5:30pm where they will sweep the floor, clean tables, worktops and other surfaces within each room. They will clean the toilets and mop the floors and they will also take out the rubbish to the rubbish bins in the car park area. The cleaner has other duties within his/her job role.
The Head teacher is around at the times that the cleaner is in the building which gives the cleaner chance to report on any cleaning issues that they may have i. e. – Toilet is blocked paper towels are been used instead of tissue and have been put into the toilet which has caused toilet to be blocked. – Handle on the cupboard door needs looking at and may need replacing – Lock on the inside of one of the staff toilets is jammed and is unable to be locked The nursery staff will mop up spills off the floor, clean tables between activities, sweep the floor between activities.
In the kitchen the staff also wash up after themselves and put food items back inside the cupboards that they came from, this is done as and when things are used. The nursery does not have cleaning monitor charts as the cleaner comes in and does the main big clean at the end of each day. The Head teacher and the sites and buildings committee have a duty of monitoring the cleaning procedures and the levels of cleanliness in the school/nursery settings. Activity Write down any more ways we can promote good hygiene in your workplace! ? Hand washing after going to the toilet After cleaning/wiping your nose make sure you put your tissue in the bin and then wash your hands ? Put your hands to your mouth when you cough and then wash your hands to get rid of germs ? Wash hands before eating and after eating ? After coming in from outside wash your hands ? Clean toys and equipment frequently ? When cooking always wear protective clothing i. e. apron, gloves, hat/hairnet if you prepare food on premises ? Use disposable paper towels or wall mounted hand dryers for drying hands ? Wipe down surfaces i. e. cupboards, tables, chairs etc between activities Activity
What do you do in your setting to prevent cross contamination? ? Hand washing after going to the toilet ? Put your hands to your mouth when you cough and then wash your hands to get rid of germs ? Wash hands before eating and after eating ? After coming in from outside wash your hands ? Clean toys and equipment frequently ? When cooking always wear protective clothing i. e. apron, gloves, hat/hairnet if you prepare food on premises ? Wipe down surfaces i. e. cupboards, tables, chairs etc between activities ? When food is placed in the fridge make sure some foods do not contaminate other foods ?
Keep eye on fridge temperature. The ideal temperature for the fridge is between 1°C – 5°C ? When doing a cooking activity children are reminded that they need to keep their hands away from their mouths and their sleeves need to be rolled up their arms Activity What systems are in place regarding disposal of different types of waste? Clinical waste – In accordance with local policy clinical waste and domestic waste should always be separate from one another. Used nappies, aprons, gloves should be stored in the correct clinical waste bags in foot operated bins and must be removed by registered waste contractors.
Sharps – Sharps should be discarded straight into a sharps bin conforming to BS7320 and UN3291 standards. The sharps bin must be kept off the floor and out of reach of children. Sharps injuries – If skin is broken, encourage wound to bleed, wash thoroughly with soap and water. Contact GP, Occupational Health or go to A & E immediately. Animals in schools – Ensure animals’ living quarters are kept clean and away from food areas. Waste should be disposed of regularly and litter boxes not accessible to children. Children should not play with animals unsupervised.
Check with a veterinary and ask their advice on animal welfare and health issues and most importantly the suitability of the animal as a pet. Reptiles are not suitable as pets in schools and nurseries as all species of reptiles carry salmonella. Activity How would you promote good hygiene practice regarding handling body fluids and issues concerning the spread of HIV and AIDS virus and Hepatitis ? Hand washing is one of the most important ways of controlling the spread of infections especially those infections that can cause vomiting and diarrhoea ?
Always wash hands after using the toilet, before eating or handling food and most importantly after handling animals ? Cover mouth and nose with a tissue when you sneeze and make sure you wash your hands after using or disposing of tissues ? Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) when there is a risk of splashing or contamination with blood or bodily fluids. When there is a risk of splashing to the face use protective goggles ? Spillages of saliva, blood, vomit, faeces should be cleaned up immediately not forgetting to wear your personal protective equipment.
To clean spillages use a product that is detergent and disinfectant combined and by following the instructions carefully to make it more effective against viruses and bacteria ? Cleaning blood and bodily fluid spillages always wear PPE and use disposable paper towels ? Children’s soiled clothing should be bagged to go home, never rinse by hand Activity Describe how you would recognise a child of 12 months with a raised temperature and what would you do? ? Refusal of foods ? Just wanting fluids ? Looking flushed or pale ? Will feel hot to the touch Very sleepy ? High temperature may trigger a seizure or convulsion ? Persistent crying If a child of 12 months is suffering from a raised temperature I would: – Check the child’s temperature with a thermometer if possible and keep a note on the time temperature was checked and what it was – Make sure the room is comfortably warm (not hot, cold or draughty) – Dress the child in only a nappy or pants – Offer cooled boiled water and encourage child to drink as much fluid as possible – Sponge child down with tepid water and soft towel Give a 5 ml dose of CALPOL Infant Suspension 2+ months (sugar free) up to 4 times a day – As well as keeping note of what the child’s temperature is keep note of when you administer medication – Reassure child who may be frightened. – Always remain calm and try to stop the child from crying as too much crying will add to the increase in the child’s temperature – If after all this the child’s temperature has not subsided contact the doctor as the child may need some stronger medicine i. e. CALPROFEN Ibuprofen Suspension 3+ months Activity
What are the procedures in your setting if you have a child who is unwell? When you see a child in your setting is showing signs of being unwell you would speak with the key worker of that child making them aware of this. The child would be made as comfortable as possible and another staff member brought in to help with the other children so that the key worker can sit and comfort the child. If the child became distressed and emotionally upset or their condition worsened then the key worker would contact the child’s parents/carer and have them collect the child from nursery.
When the parents/carer came the staff would hand over the child while filling them in on what happened and advising them to take the child to the doctors and by keeping the child at home until the child is well enough to come back to nursery. Activity Describe how you would recognise a child of 3 years with an ear infection and what would you do? When a child has an ear infection they may rub or pull at their ear constantly or they may have discharge coming out of their ear. If a child does not show signs of discharge from the ear they may have a raised temperature and may be in pain.
If there is no discharge from the ear but the child was in pain then they would approach someone and let them know. If this happens to a child in my nursery setting I would approach the child’s key worker and make them aware of the child who is in pain. They would then speak to the child and contact the child’s parents/carer to come and collect them. Upon collecting their child the parent would be advised on taking the child to the doctors to get them checked over and get them some antibiotics to treat the infection. Activity What do you do if you noticed a rash on a child?
When a child has a rash on their body it could mean that it’s due to the heat. Other rashes may mean more severe problems such as meningitis. At the sign of any sort of rash the best and most sensible thing to do is consult the doctor and keep an eye on the child for other symptoms that they may develop before or after the rash had appeared. The doctor will be able to take a careful look at the rash and the doctor will know what the best sort of treatment is (i. e. medication and rest at home or hospital treatment). Some other types of rashes that you may notice on a child are: ?
Eczema Eczema is one of the commonest skin complaints in kids and adults. There is no cure for eczema, but it can sometimes be controlled by diet. Some children suffer hay fever and asthma. These children are at a higher risk of suffering eczema. Eczema is not contagious. Eczema shows itself as: – Patches of dry, cracked, flaky and inflamed skin – Can be very itchy – If scratched will bleed and become infected – Any area where the skin is under stress can be affected – Eczema can affect joints, the backs of knees and elbows, and the face. Stress and heat can also make the condition worse. There is no cure for eczema, and if your child suffers you’ll need to visit your GP, but there are lots of things you can do to manage the condition. Scratching makes the discomfort worse, so discourage this and keep your kids’ fingernails cut short. It’s also very important to keep the skin properly hydrated, so avoid conventional soap, which dries the skin out. Your doctor will prescribe emollients – intensive moisturising creams which can be applied all over the body. Mild steroid creams can also be prescribed by your doctor.
In some cases certain foods, such as dairy products, exacerbate eczema. You should talk to your doctor and a dietician about keeping a food diary and, if necessary, cutting out certain kinds of foods. The physical discomfort of eczema can be hard for kids to deal with, but there are psychological issues too, both personal and as a result of teasing. The important thing to remember is that millions of people do live with the condition, that it may get better as your child grows up, and that with the right treatment it isn’t hard to control. Heat Rash Prickly heat, also called heat rash is an itchy, irritating skin condition that kids can get when they spend a long time in any hot or humid environment. It’s a result of the sweat ducts becoming blocked – because these aren’t fully developed in children. The sweat rises up towards the surface of the skin but instead of then cooling kids down, it gets trapped in the skin itself and causes a spotty red rash. Prickly heat is extremely common, especially in babies and young children.
It can show up anywhere on the body but you’re particularly likely to see it around folds of the skin: at joints and around the tummy or bottom, but also on the arms, legs and face. If it looks as if it is beginning to flare up on your child, the first thing to do is cool them down. Make sure they are not wearing anything too tight, as this increases sweating, as can things like waterproof clothes. In a hot, humid environment, light cotton fabric is best. The natural temptation is to try and soothe rashes with creams or moisturisers, but with prickly heat these can actually make it worse because they further block the urface of the skin and prevent it from breathing. Try calamine lotion, or just apply a cold compress to the area, but avoid using talcum powder, as this also clogs up the surface of the skin. Prickly heat is not serious, it won’t cause any lasting damage, and it passes quickly once your child is out of hot, sweaty or humid environment. The key is to try and keep kids who suffer out of situations where it’s likely to flare up, and to let them wear clothes that let the skin breathe. Activity What are the symptoms and treatment of chicken pox? What would you do if you suspected a child had chicken pox?
The symptoms of chicken pox is spots on the chest, back, and in more younger children 0 – 2 years may find spots in the nappy area. Chicken pox start off as red spots and develop into blisters that can be very itchy. When a child has chicken pox you should encourage them not to scratch their spots as they will start to weep and become sore. They should also be warned that if they scratch their spots then they will be left with scars. The blisters will form into dry scabs. If you suspected a child in your setting has chicken pox then you would talk to a staff member about this and ask them take a look.
After taking a look they would then contact the child’s parents and get them to collect their child from nursery/school and take them to see the doctor who will be able to confirm it as chicken pox and give you the right lotion on prescription to apply on the spots to make it less itchy. If you know by the look of the spots that they are chicken pox then you can get a lotion called camomile lotion over the counter at the pharmacy. Chicken pox confirmation then an incubation period of 14 – 16 days. This means that the child will not be able to attend nursery/school until all the spots over the whole body have scabbed over.
Within these 14 – 16 days you should not let your child come in contact with pregnant women as it could course complications for the pregnant mother and her unborn child. Activity How would you recognise a child with meningitis? What would you do if you suspected a child had meningitis? Meningitis is an infection that causes tissues round the brain and spinal cord to become swollen, reducing blood flow to the brain, and in its most severe form – bacterial meningitis – it is an extremely dangerous, potentially life threatening condition that can lead to septicaemia (blood poisoning) and needs to be treated immediately.
Anyone can get either form of meningitis, but babies and young children are more at risk because their immune systems aren’t fully developed. It’s passed through contact with the bodily fluids of someone infected, much like a cold. If a child is ill or obviously getting worse, please do not wait for a rash to appear, a rash may appear later or never appear at all. A fever with a rash that does not fade under pressure is a medical emergency. Activity Write down your understanding of allergies. What are your setting’s procedures in response to allergies? Some children are found to be allergic to certain foods.
An allergy is the body’s rejection of a food which can result in a response that may be life threatening, including breathing difficulties, severe rashes, wheezes, vomiting and diarrhoea, or shock. It’s very important that an allergy is checked and diagnosed by a doctor, and for everyone to be notified, who is involved in the caring for that child. If a child is allergic to a certain food then that food must be avoided at all cost as even the smallest amount can trigger a severe response in just a matter of minutes. Examples of foods that may cause allergic reaction: Strawberries Shellfish Nuts
Chocolate Dairy products – e. g. milk, butter, yoghurt etc While I was on placement one Monday afternoon the children had been making Christmas tree biscuits and one child handled the dough to make their biscuit and within the space of about 3 minutes the child’s face flared up and the child was rushed out of the room by a member of staff and her hands thoroughly washed with soap and water and she was given piriton which counteracts the allergic reaction. The child was allergic to eggs and the biscuit dough contained eggs. The child was taken by her key worker to a quiet room to give her space.
Another member of staff contacted the child’s parents who came to collect her. An incident form was filled out by a member of staff and signed to say that it had happened on the school premises. The parents were told what had happened and also that medication was administered. The parents sign the form to say that they were notified of what happened and the child was taken home. Activity What are the regulations and your setting’s procedures for the storage and administration of medicines? Unless the medication is for an illness that a child has i. e. sthma, eczema, diabetics etc medicines cannot be administered at nursery. If a child has prescribed medication i. e. cough medicine, antibiotics etc from the doctors then they will have to be given by the parents themselves. A child needing an inhaler for an asthma attack will be able to go to a member of staff who will give them their medication but they would have to administer the inhaler on their own while they are been supervised by a member of staff. An incident form will be filled out detailing the reason why the child had an attack in the first place.
How much medication was taken, what time etc Activity Write down the appropriate contents of a first aid kit and where in your setting is the first aid kit stored? These are the contents of a first aid kit ? Disposable vinyl or latex – free gloves ? Scissors ? Sterile gauze pads ? Adhesive tape ? Large combined dressing (large gauze pad and bandage) ? Stretch bandage ? Crepe bandage ? Triangular bandage or sling ? Safety pins ? Eye dressing ? Plasters ? Plastic bags ? Note pad and pen ? Check list of items in the first aid box