History Chapter 9

dynamo
a machine that generates electricity
Wright brothers
American bicycle makers who designed and flew the first airplanes
Alfred Nobel
a Swedish chemist who invented dynamite
assembly line
a production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks
Michael Faraday
an English chemist who created the first simple electric motor

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Guglielmo Marconi
an Italian pioneer who invented the radio
cartel
a group of companies that join together to control the production and price of a product
Thomas Edison
an American inventor who made the first electric light bulb
Henry Bessemer
a British engineer who developed a new process for making steel from iron
corporation
a business owned by many investors who buy shares of stock and risk only the amount of their investments
stock
shares in a company
interchangeable parts
identical components that could be used in place of one another
Louis Pasteur
a French chemist who showed the link between microbes and disease
urban renewal
rebuilding of the poor areas of a city
Florence Nightingale
a British nurse who introduced new sanitary measures and founded the first school of nursing
standard of living
measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a a society
germ theory
the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes
mutual-aid society
self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers
Joseph Lister
an English surgeon who discovered how antiseptics prevented infection
Robert Koch
a German doctor who identified the bacterium that caused tuberculosis
women’s suffrage
right of women to vote
cult of domesticality
idealization of woemn and the home
Charles Darwin
a British naturalist who argued the theory of evolution
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
a women who crusaded against slavery and later for women’s rights
social gospel
a movement of the 1800s that urged Christians to do social service
John Dalton
an English Quaker school teacher who developed modern atomic theory
temperance movement
the campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
racism
belief that one racal group is superior to another
Sojourner Truth
an African American suffragist
Today’s electric generators work on the same principle as the dynamo invented by
Michael Faraday
The population of Europe exploded between 1800 and 1900 in large part because
medical advances reduced the death rate
The popular saying “A man’s home is his castle” reflected what middle-class value of the late 1800s?
cult of domesticity
The purpose of Normal Schools was to train student to be
teachers
Englishmen John Dalton made an important breakthrough in chemistry by showing that
each element has its own kind of atoms
Romanticism can be described as a revolt against the Enlightenment’s emphasis on
reason
An artist of the mid-1800s who portrayed the harsh levs of slum dwellers was probably using what artistic style?
realism
The Bessemer process was a method for producing
steel
What invention did the internal combustion engine make possible?
the Wright Brothers’ flying machine
What contribution to medical science did German doctor Robert Koch make in the 1880s?
he identified the bacteria that causes tuberculosis
Who discovered that sterilizing surgical instruments with antiseptics would help prevent infection?
Joseph Lister
Reformers in what movement argued that the se of alcoholic beverages harmed family life and reduced worker productivity?
temperance
Bedford College in England and Mount Holyoke in the United States were among the first colleges for
women
In 1869, what chemist developed a table that became the basis for the periodic table of elements used today?
Dmitri Mendeleyev
Which of the following were writers of the realism movement?
Charles Dickens and Victor Hugo
Medical advances in the 19th century
use of antiseptics, better trained staff; better sanitation; vaccinations
Artistic styles of the Industrial period
Romanticism, Realism, and Impressionism
Artists of the Industrial period
Claude Monet (Impressionism), G. W. Turner (Romanticism), and Gustave Courbet (Realism)
Romanticism
reaction to the restraint, reason, and logic of the Enlightenment; emphasized nature, imagination, freedom, and emotion; inspired by historic events
Realism
reaction against romanticism; truthful and objective; based on direct observation of the modern world
Impressionism
reaction to Daguerre photography; short, broken brushstrokes; bright, pure, unblended brushstrokes; scenes of leisure
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