HLTH 231-Test 2

Addiction
Continued involvement with a substance or activity despite its ongoing negative consequences
Tolerance
Progressively larger doses of a drug or more intense involvement in a behavior are needed to produce the desired effects
Withdrawal
A series of temporary physical and psychological symptoms that occur when an addict abruptly abstains from an addictive chemical or behavior
Physiological Dependence
Dependency of the mind on a substance or behavior that can lead to psychological withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, irritability, or cravings
Psychological Dependence
The adaptive state of brain and body processes that occurs with regular addictive behavior and results in withdrawal if the addictive behavior stops
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Compulsion
Preoccupation with a behavior and an overwhelming need to perform it
Obsession
Excessive preoccupation with an addictive substance or behavior
Loss of Control
Inability to predict reliably whether any isolated occurrence of the behavior will be healthy or damaging
Negative Consequences of Addiction
Physical damage, legal trouble, financial problems, academic failure, or family dissolution, which do not occur with healthy involvement in any behavior
Denial
Inability to perceive or accurately interpret the self-destructive effects of an addictive behavior
Habit
A repeated behavior in which the repetition may be unconscious, can be broken
Codependence
A self-defeating relationship pattern in which a person helps or encourages addictive behavior in another
How is Codependence defined?
lack of ability to set boundaries, Living in a chaotic, crisis-oriented mode, Assuming responsibility for meeting others’ needs to the point of subordinating own needs or even being unaware of personal needs (let their own needs be sacrificed)
Enablers
Knowingly or unknowingly protect addicts from the consequences of their behavior
Process Addictions
Dependent on (addicted to) some mood-altering behavior or process. Examples: Gambling, Compulsive buying, Compulsive exercise, Compulsive Internet or technology use
Disordered Gambling
A set of behaviors including: Preoccupation with gambling, Unsuccessful efforts to cut back or quit, Using gambling to escape problems, Lying to family members to conceal the extent of involvement with gambling. Biological component
How many people in the US are compulsive gamblers?
2 million, 6 million more considered to be “at risk” to develop gambling addiction
Compulsive Buying Disorder
Shopping is often used as a way to make people feel better about themselves, but for some people it becomes compulsive buying disorder
Symptoms of Compulsive Buying Disorder
Buying more than one of the same item, Keeping items in the closet with tags attached, Repeatedly buying more than is needed or can be afforded, Hiding purchases from relatives and loved ones
Exercise Addiction Warning Signs
Always works out alone, following the same rigid pattern. Exercises for more than 2 hours daily, repeatedly, and when sick or injured. Focuses on weight loss or calories burned. Exercises to the point of pain and beyond. Skips work, class, or social activities for workouts.
Internet Addiction
Compulsive use of the computer, PDA, cell phone, or other form of technology to access the Internet for activities such as e-mail, games, shopping, and blogging.
How many internet users are considered addicted?
1 in 8
What % of college students report that Internet use and computer games have interfered with academic performance?
11
Drugs
Nonfood, nonnutritional substances that are intended to affect the structure or function of the mind or body through chemical action
Drug Misuse
Use for purpose not intended
Drug Abuse
Excessive use
What % of Americans report being currently addicted?
9
By late adolescence, what % have used an illicit drug?
42
What % of high school students have taken a prescription without doctor supervision?
21
What is the brains “pleasure circuit”?
mesolimbic dopamine system
Neurotransmitter
A chemical that relays messages between nerve cells or from nerve cells to other body cells
Psychoactive Drugs
Affect brain chemistry and have the potential to alter mood or behavior
Prescription
Obtained only with a prescription from a licensed physician (ex: painkillers)
Over-the-counter (OTC)
No prescription needed
Recreational
Most are legal substances
Herbal Preparations
Products of plant origin
Illicit (Illegal)
All are psychoactive
Commercial
Found in commercially sold products
Oral Ingestion
Through the mouth
Inhalation
Through the respiratory tract
Injection
Into the body via a hypodermic needle
Intravenous
into bloodstream (most common, quick effect. Also most dangerous)
Intramuscular
into muscle
Subcutaneous
just under the skin
Transdermal
Through the skin (absorb through skin, ex: niccotine patch)
Suppositories
Mixtures of drugs and a waxy medium designed to melt at body temperature after being inserted into the anus or vagina
Polydrug Use
Use of multiple medications, vitamins, recreational drugs, or illicit drugs simultaneously
Synergism (Potentiation)
Interaction of two or more drugs that produces more profound effects than would be expected if the drugs were taken separately
Inhibition
Effects of one drug are reduced or eliminated by the presence of another at the same receptor site
Antagonism
Drugs work at same receptor site so that one drug blocks the action of another
Intolerance
When two or more drugs combine to produce extremely uncomfortable reactions
Cross-Tolerance
Development of a tolerance for one drug creates a similar reaction to another, similar drug
What % of college students reported trying any drug; the vast majority used marijuana?
over 50
What are college offices concerned about?
the link between substance abuse and poor academic performance
Why Do Some College Students Use Drugs?
Positive expectations, Genetics and family history, Substance use in high school (2/3 of addicts began using a substance in high school), Mental health problems, Sorority and fraternity membership
Why Don’t Some College Students Use Drugs?
Parental attitudes and behavior, Religion and spirituality, Student engagement, College athletics (more likely to drink but less likely to use illegal drugs), Healthy social network (espicaly when it encourages to nto use drugs)
Stimulants
Increase activity of the central nervous system
Cocaine
Binds to receptor sites in central nervous system, producing intense pleasure; euphoria quickly subsides
Method use of Cocaine
Snorting, Smoking, Injecting, Freebase, Crack
Amphetamines
A large and varied group of synthetic agents that stimulate the central nervous system (CNS). High potential for abuse.
Amphetamines used for medicinal purposes:
Ritalin and Adderall are used for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Methamphetamine
Affects brain and CNS
Euphoria lasts 6 to 8 hours
Methods of use for methamphetamine:
Snorted, injected, smoked, and ingested
Short-term effects of Methamphetamine:
Increased physical activity, alertness, rapid breathing, increased body temperature, insomnia, tremors, anxiety, confusion, and decreased appetite
Long-term effects of Methamphetamine:
Severe weight loss, cardiovascular damage, anxiety, confusion, insomnia
Caffeine
A stimulant drug that is legal in the United States and found in many coffees, teas, chocolates, energy drinks, and certain medications
Side effects of Caffeine
wakefulness, insomnia, irregular heartbeat, dizziness, nausea, indigestion, mild delirium, and heartburn
Let down of Caffeine
mentally/physically depressed, exhausted, weak
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
The chemical name for the active ingredient in marijuana
Medicinal purposes of THC
Controls nausea and vomiting, Improves appetite, Forestalls loss of lean muscle mass associated with AIDS Reduces muscle pain and spasticity caused by MS
Frequent/long-term use of THC
may increase risk for testicular cancer, serious mental health problems, suppressed immune system, and impaired memory
Depressants
Drugs that slow down the activity of the central nervous and muscular systems and cause sleepiness or calmness. Alcohol (most commonly used), Opioids, Benzodiazepines, Barbiturates
Opioids (Narcotics)
Drugs that induce sleep, relieve pain, and produce euphoria; includes derivatives of opium and synthetics with similar chemical properties. Include morphine, codeine, heroin.
Physical effects of opioids
Depress CNS and lower heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure. Cause weakness, dizziness, nausea, euphoria, visual disturbances, lack of coordination
Endorphins
Opioid-like hormones that are manufactured in the human body and contribute to natural feelings of well-being
Benzodiazepines (Tranquilizers)
A class of CNS drugs with sedative, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant effects
Barbiturates
Drugs that depress the CNS, have sedative and hypnotic effects, and are less safe than benzodiazepines
“Sedative-hypnotic” drugs
Synergistic effect. Can produce physical and psychological dependence in several weeks. Cross-tolerance is a complication specific to sedatives.
Rohypnol
A tranquilizer and “date rape” drug. Produces a sedative effect, amnesia, muscle relaxation, and slowed psychomotor responses. Added to punch and other drinks at parties in hopes of lowering women’s inhibitions and facilitating potential sexual conquests.
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)
CNS depressant known to have euphoric, sedative, and anabolic (body-building) effects. Another “date rape” drug. Side effects include loss of memory, unconsciousness, amnesia, hallucinations, and death.
Hallucinogens
Substances capable of creating auditory or visual distortions and unusual changes in mood, thoughts, and feelings
Synesthesia
An effect, which can be created by a drug, in which sensory messages are incorrectly assigned (hear colors, smell tastes)
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
Physical effects: Increased heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature; perspiration; chills; headaches, nausea. Euphoria (good) or dysphoria (bad). Distortions in perception.
Club Drugs
Synthetic analogs that produce similar effects of existing drugs
Ecstasy (MDMA)
Feelings of extreme euphoria, openness, and warmth. Risks include inappropriate emotional bonding, jaw clenching, tongue and cheek chewing, short-term memory loss or confusion. Chronic use can damage the brain. Combined with alcohol, Ecstasy can be fatal.
PCP – Phencyclidine
Effects depend on dose and include slurred speech, impaired coordination, fever, nausea, and total loss of sensitivity to pain. Doses greater than 10 mg can cause convulsions and death. Can produce euphoria or dysphoria.
Mescaline
It is a powerful hallucinogen and CNS stimulant. Generally induces immediate vomiting. Effects within 30 – 90 minutes after consumption; may persist up to 9 or 10 hours.
Inhalants
Chemical vapors that are sniffed or inhaled to produce highs. Legal to purchase and not commonly recognized as drugs, though dangerous when used incorrectly. Users experience dizziness, disorientation, impaired coordination and judgment; combined with alcohol, may be fatal.
Examples of Inhalants
glue, paint thinner, and rubber cement.
Ergogenic Drugs
Substances believed to enhance athletic performance
Anabolic Steroids
Artificial forms of the male hormone testosterone that promote muscle growth and strength. Produce state of euphoria, diminished fatigue, and increase bulk and power in both sexes.
What are the two forms of Anabolic Steroids?
Injectable solutions or pills
Effects of Anabolic Steroids in women?
large doses trigger development of male attributes
Effects of Anabolic Steroids in men?
shut down testosterone production, causing men’s breasts to grow and testicles to atrophy
T/F. Very low levels of alcohol may lower some health risks in older adults?
True
What % of all Americans consume alcoholic beverages regularly?
half
Do men or women typically drink more?
men
What group is more likely to drink daily or nearly daily than other groups?
European-Americans
As age increases, what happens to the number of people who consume alcohol regularly?
Decreases
What % of students report having consumed an alcoholic beverage in the past 30 days?
62
Binge Drinking
A pattern of drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08 gram-percent or above
For a typical adult, what is binge drinking for men?
consuming 5 or more drinks in about 2 hours
For a typical adult, what is binge drinking for women?
consuming 4 or more drinks in about 2 hours
Of college students, what % engages in binge drinking?
39
Alcohol exacerbates risk for what?
suicide, automobile crashes, and falls
Pre-Gaming
A strategy of drinking heavily, usually with friends, before going out to parties or bars
What % of students engage in drinking games that involve binge drinking?
2/3
Drunkorexia
The combination of disordered eating, excessive physical activity and heavy alcohol consumption. Results in: Blackouts, forced or unintended sexual activity, alcohol poisoning.
Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol)
An additive, intoxicating drug produced by fermentation and the main ingredient in alcoholic beverages
Fermentation
Yeast organisms break down plant sugars to yield ethanol
Distillation
Alcohol vapors are condensed and mixed with water to make hard alcohol
Proof
A measure of the percentage of alcohol in a beverage; double the percentage of alcohol in a drink
Standard Drink
The amount of any beverage that contains about 14 grams of pure alcohol
What percent of absorption occurs in the stomach?
about 20
What percent of absorption occurs in the upper third of small intestine?
about 80
Factors that influence absorption
Concentration of the drink, Pylorospasm (spasm of pyloric valve), Amount consumed, Amount of food in the stomach, Mood, Weight and body mass index
What is Alcohol converted to in the liver?
acetaldehyde. Converted by enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase. Rapidly oxidized to acetate.
What is the breakdown of alcohol?
fairly constant at about 0.5 ounce per hour (about one standard drink)
What does Unmetabolized alcohol do?
circulates in the bloodstream until enough time passes for the body to break it down
Alcohol contains how many calories per gram?
7
Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
Ratio of alcohol to total blood volume; used to measure the physiological and behavioral effects of alcohol
Learned Behavioral Tolerance
The ability of heavy drinkers to modify behavior so that they appear to be sober even when they have high BAC levels
A drinker’s BAC depends on
Weight and body fat, The water content in the body tissues, The concentration of alcohol in the beverage consumed, Alcohol concentration is higher in people with more body fat, Women have half as much alcohol dehydrogenase as men.
Hangover
The physiological reaction to excessive drinking, including headache, upset stomach, anxiety, depression, diarrhea, and thirst. Occur for more than half of drinkers when BAC reaches 0.11. 20-25% of those who drink enough to reach that level do not experience them.
Congeners
Forms of alcohol that are metabolized more slowly than ethanol and produce toxic by-products
What % of adults hospitalized for overdoses involve excessive alcohol consumption?
30%
Alcohol is involved in what percent of fatal injuries during activities such as boating and swimming?
70
Alcohol is involved in what % of fatal injuries due to house fires?
40
Alcohol Poisoning (Acute Alcohol Intoxication)
A potentially lethal BAC that inhibits the brain’s ability to control consciousness, respiration, and heart rate; usually occurs as the result of drinking a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time.
Effects on the nervous system of alcohol
Shrinkage in brain size and weight
Loss of intellectual ability
Cardiovascular effects of alcohol
Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is related to reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Drinking too much alcohol is associated with high blood pressure and higher calorie intake.
Cancer
Esophagus, stomach, mouth, tongue, liver, breast cancer
Long-Term Effects of Alcohol
nervous system, Cardiovascular effects, cancer, and Liver disease.
Cirrhosis
The last stage of liver disease associated with chronic heavy use of alcohol, during which liver cells die and damage becomes permanent; fatal
Alcoholic Hepatitis
Condition resulting from prolonged use of alcohol, in which the liver is inflammed; can be fatal
Teratogenic substances
Cause birth defects
What percent of children have been exposed to alcohol in utero?
7.6
What percent of pregnant women report binge drinking?
1.4
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
A disorder involving physical and mental impairment that may affect the fetus when the mother consumes alcohol during pregnancy. Categorized by Mental retardation, impaired learning, poor memory, small head, tremors, impulsive behaviors, reduced attention span, and abnormalities of face, limbs, heart, and brain.
What % of all traffic fatalities in 2010 were alcohol related?
31
Among college students, what % drink and drive?
15.1
Nicotine
The primary stimulant chemical in tobacco products
physiological effects from nicotine
Aroused, alert mental state. Stimulates adrenal glands. Increases heart and perspiratory rates. Constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
Tar
A thick, brownish sludge condensed from particulate matter in smoked tobacco
Carbon Monoxide
A gas found in tobacco smoke that reduces the ability of blood to carry oxygen
What % of people have tried a cigarette?
60-80, 68 become dependent.
Nicotine Poisoning
Symptoms often experienced by beginning smokers, including dizziness, diarrhea, light-headedness, rapid and erratic pulse, clammy skin, nausea, and vomiting
Pairing
An environmental cue that triggers nicotine cravings
Bidis
Produce three times more carbon monoxide and nicotine and five times more tar than do cigarettes
Cigars
Contain 23 poisons and 43 carcinogens
Chewing Tobacco
A stringy type of tobacco that is placed in the mouth and then sucked or chewed
Dipping
Placing a small amount of chewing tobacco between the lower lip and teeth for rapid nicotine absorption
Snuff
A powdered form of tobacco that is sniffed and absorbed through the mucous membranes in the nose or placed inside the cheek and sucked
What is the leading cause of cancer death?
Lung
What does Cancer risk for smokers depend on?
Amount you smoke per day. When you started smoking. If you inhale deeply when you smoke.
Leukoplakia
Leathery white patches inside the mouth, produced by contact with irritants in tobacco juice
Platelet Adhesives
Stickiness of red blood cells associated with blood clots
Respiratory Disorders of Tobacco Products
Over time, smoking can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Emphysema
A chronic lung disease in which the tiny air sacs in the lungs are destroyed, making breathing difficult
Unique Risks for Women from Tobacco Products
Higher rates of osteoporosis, depression, and thyroid-related diseases. Increased risk for blood clots, especially in smoking women who take birth control pills. Heavier menstrual bleeding, longer duration of cramps, less predictable length of menstrual cycle.
Other Health Effects of Tobacco Products
Gum disease, macular degeneration, premature skin wrinkling, staining of the teeth, yellowing of fingernails, and bad breath. Nicotine speeds up the process by which the body uses and eliminates drugs, making medication less effective. Smoking significantly increases the risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS)
Smoke from tobacco products, including secondhand and mainstream smoke
Mainstream Smoke
Drawn through tobacco while inhaling
Sidestream Smoke (Secondhand Smoke)
The cigarette, pipe, or cigar smoke breathed by nonsmokers
Nicotine Withdrawal
Symptoms, including nausea, headaches, irritability, and intense tobacco cravings, suffered by nicotine-addicted individuals who cease using tobacco
Nicotine Replacement Products
Nicotine chewing gum and patches; nasal spray; nicotine inhaler; smoking cessation medications
Benefits of Quitting Smoking
Many tissues will repair themselves. Circulation and the senses of taste and smell improve within weeks. Risk of heart attack falls by half after only 1 year without smoking. After 10 smoke-free years, can expect to live out normal life span. Women who quit smoking before 40 avoided more than 90% of the added risk of dying early. A pack-a-day smoker can save about $2,184 per year.
Nutrition
The science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the essential elements of foods eaten
Hunger
The physiological impulse to seek food, prompted by a lack or shortage of basic foods needed to provide the energy and nutrients that support health
Appetite
The learned desire to eat; normally accompanies hunger, but is more psychological than physiological
Other forces of eating
Social/cultural meanings attached to food, convenience/advertising, habit/customs
Nutrients
The constituents of food that sustain humans physiologically: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. Essential Nutrients, Macronutrients, Micronutrients.
Digestive Process
The process by which the body breaks down foods and either absorbs or excretes them
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Intake levels necessary to meet the nutritional needs of 97-98 percent of healthy individuals
Adequate Intake
Average daily nutrient intake by healthy people when there is not enough research to determine an RDA
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Highest amount of a nutrient that can be consumed without the risk of adverse health effects
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range
Range of intakes for carbohydrates, fat, and protein that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease and that provides adequate levels of essential nutrients
Calorie
unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy obtained from a particular food
Kilocalorie
1 kilocalorie is equal to 1,000 calories. Most nutrition labels use the word calories to refer to kilocalories.
Energy
The capacity to do work
Fat
9 calories per gram
Carbohydrates/proteins
4 calories per gram
Alcohol
7 calories per gram
Dehydration
Abnormal depletion of body fluids; a result of lack of water
Hypernatremia
Too much water; serious health risk characterized by low sodium levels
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