“Words indistinguishable in signifier but rather different in their significance and distribution are called homonyms” [ 1. 74 ] . “Homonym is a word that is spelt like another word ( or pronounced like it ) but which has a different meaning” [ 2. 464 ] . The term is derided from Grecian “homonymous” ( homos – “the same” and onoma – “name” ) and therefore expresses really good the sameness of name combined with the difference in intending The traditional formal categorization of homonyms is as follows: 1. Homonyms proper which are indistinguishable both in sound and spelling. e. g. ball ( ì’ÿ÷ ) – ball ( áàë ) . hail ( ãðàä ) – hail ( îêëèêàòè ) . 2. Partial homonyms are subdivided into:
1 ) Homographs which are indistinguishable in spelling but different in sound. e. g. bow/bou/ ( ëóê ) -bow/bau/ ( í³ñ êîðàáëÿ ) . lead /led/ ( ñâèíåöü ) – lead/li: d/ ( âåñòè ) . 2 ) Homophones which are indistinguishable in sound but different in spelling. e. g. key ( êëþ÷ ) – quay ( íàáåðåæíà ) . sow ( ñ³ÿòè ) – sew ( øèòè ) [ 1. 74 ] . Homonyms may be classified by the type of their significance. In this instance one should separate between: 1. Lexical homonyms which belong to the same portion of address. e. g. plane n. ( ë³òàê ) – field n. ( ð³âíèíà ) . light a. ( ñâ³òëèé ) – light a. ( ëåãêèé ) . 2. Grammatical homonyms which belong to different parts of address. e. g. row v. ( ãðåáòè ) – row n. ( ðÿä ) . conditions n. ( ïîãîäà ) – whether conj. ( ÷è ) . 3. Homoforms which are indistinguishable merely in some paradigm components. e. g. aroma n. – sent ( Past Ind. and Past Part. of send ) . prehend v. – sees ( Pr. Ind. . 3d p. sing. of see ) [ 1. 74 ] .
Professor A. I. Smirnitsky classified homonyms into two big categories: 1 ) Full homonyms are words. which represent the same class of parts of address and have the same paradigm. e. g. Wrens n. ( a member of the Women’s Royal Naval Service ) – wren n. ( a bird ) . 2 ) Partial homonyms are subdivided into three subgroups: a ) Simple lexico-grammatical partial homonyms are words. which belong to the same class of parts of address. Their paradigms have merely one indistinguishable signifier. but it is ne’er the same signifier. e. g. ( to ) found v. – found v. ( past indef. . past portion. of to happen ) . ( to ) ballad. V – ballad. V ( past indef. of to lie ) . B ) Complex lexico-grammatical partial homonyms are words of different classs of parts of address. which have indistinguishable signifier in their paradigms. e. g. rose n. – rose v. ( past indef. of to lift ) . maid n – made V ( past indef. . past portion. of to do ) . degree Celsius ) Partial lexical homonyms are words of the same class of parts of address which are indistinguishable merely in their corresponding signifiers. e. g. to lie ( ballad. lain ) v. – to lie ( lied. lied ) v. . to hang ( hung. hung ) v. – to hang ( hanged. hanged ) V [ 1. 74 ] .
1 ) “It’s made out of wood. The skaters would usually execute their stunts and fast ones at that place. ” May explains ( 5. 12 ) . 2 ) “A half – pipe can be unsafe. Skateboarders wear protective cogwheel. ” May points out. “Staying safe is of import. ” Buzz agrees. “Now where is my notebook? ” ( 5. 13 ) . 3 ) “Good fortune! ” Buzz Tells May. “Go take the lead in this competition! ” “I feel nervous” . May says. “My legs feel as if they are made of lead” ( 5. 24 ) . 4 ) “May I sail with you in May? ” ( 9. 31 ) .
5 ) Mouse: Deer. I’m really glad to hold such beloved friends ( 6. 12 ) . 6 ) But he’s unable to see that Oscar prefer his presence to his nowadayss one time in a while… ( 11 ) . 7 ) “It’s my birthday present to him. ” “I can make full in. ” Ollie says. “I’d be happy to show the Big Air Jam. with Buzz” ( 5. 18 ) . 8 ) “Dad. purchase me a ball! ”
“Bye. Osc. I’m in a haste. ” answered Mark and hung on ( 11. 135 ) . 9 ) “What a nice aroma. Nicky! Hilary Duff “With love? ” asked Ally. “Ughmn. My male parent sent it to me last Christmas. ” said Nicky mounting the ladder ( 11. 66 ) . ( 10 ) “I’d like to travel to the sea. I think it’s amazing to see the fall sundown. ” said Carolyn a spot cryptically ( 12. 45 ) .
“Words that have straight opposite significances are called antonyms” [ 1. 73 ] . “Antonym is a word with a significance that is opposite to the significance of another word” [ 3. 58 ] . Antonyms autumn into two chief groups: 1. Root opposite word ( those which are different root ) . e. g. long – abruptly. up – down. to get down – to complete. etc. 2. Affixal opposite word ( in which particular affixes or their absence express semantic resistance ) . e. g. hopeful – hopeless. happy – unhappy. look – disappear. etc. [ 1. 73 ] . Polysemous words normally have antonyms for each of their lexico-semantic discrepancies: a dull knife – a crisp knife. a dull male child – a bright male child. etc. Examples:
1 ) “Flash Wiggins makes hiting look easy. ” Harold tells Cassy. “But crushing the goalkeeper is difficult” ( 8. 210 ) . 2 ) “Krupp and Smythe worked together to flush the mark. ” Harold adds. “Nothing can rupture them apart! ” ( 8. 77 ) . 3 ) “You can assist me do this unsmooth ice smooth once more! ” says the driver ( 8. 93 ) . 4 ) Father Bear “I’m Father Bear. and I sit in this great large chair. ” Baby Bear “I’m Baby Bear and I sit in that small chair” ( 10. 23 ) . 5 ) “Ah. but sometimes it is more brave to make the right thing. than Rebel and make the incorrect thing. you know. ” she said quietly. run intoing my oculus ( 11. 119 ) .
6 ) He blushed and all of a sudden paled from nervousnesss at the state of affairs he was in ( 11. 25 ) . 7 ) “Oh. no. Nicky! ! For you it’s difficult. but for me…it’s really easy. I have known him for ages” ( 11. 81 ) . 8 ) “And so we couldn’t sleep in the broad room after being promised. But I suppose. it will be better to kip in narrow rooms” ( 4. 211 ) . 9 ) Anne had a immature. brighter face and more delicate characteristics than the others ; Marilla saw at her and felt herself old plenty to alter her life ( 4. 267 ) . 10 ) “I can ; and A-n-n looks awful. but A – n – N – vitamin E looks so much more distinguished. but name me Cordelia! It looks fantastic! ” ( 4. 43 ) .
List of literature
1. Êâåñåëåâè÷ Ä. ². . Ñàñ³íà Â. Ï. Ïðàêòèêóì ç ëåêñèêîëîã³¿ ñó÷àñíî¿ àíãë³éñüêî¿ ìîâè : Íàâ÷ . Ïîñ³áíèê . – Â³ííèöÿ : Âèäàâíèöòâî «Íîâà êíèãà» . 2001. – 117 ñ . 2. Agnes M. Webster’s New World College Dictionary / M. Agnes. D. B. Guralnik. – Cleveland: IDG Books Worldwide Ink. . 2000. – 1716 p. 3. Oxford Paperback Thesaurus / Maurice Waite. – Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press. 2006. – 930 p. 4. Ë. Ì. Ìîíòãîìåð³ . Àííà ç Ãð³í Ãåéáëç : Êíèãà äëÿ ÷èòàííÿ àíãë³éñüêîþ ìîâîþ äëÿ ñòóäåíò³â ôàêóëüòåò³â ³íîçåìíèõ ìîâ ³ ô³ëîëîã³÷íèõ ôàêóëüòåò³â/îáðîáêà òåêñòó . êîìïëåêñ âïðàâ . òåñò³â ³ çàâäàíü . äîâ³äêîâ³ ìàòåð³àëè ³ ô³ëîëîã³÷íèé êîìåíòàð Â. Â. ªâ÷åíêî . Ñ. ². Ñèäîðåíêî . – Â³ííèöÿ : Íîâà Êíèãà . 2008. – 440 ñ . 5. Anna Prokos. Half-Pipe Homonyms / Prokos Anna. – Gareth Stevens. 2009. – 27 p. 6. Any Talbot. Deer and His Beloved Friends: a narrative from India / Talbot Any. – Benchmark Education Company. 2006. – 16 p. 7. Catherine Alliot. The Real Thing / Alliot Catherine. – Headline Book Publishing. 1996. – 471 p. 8. Claudia Pattison. Wow! / Pattison Claudia. – Pan Books. 2001. – 374 p. 9. Judy Goodard. Fun with homonyms / Goodard Judy. – Industry Way Westminster. 2005. – 43 p. 10. Karma Wilson. Bear stays up for Christmas / Wilson Karma. – Margaret K. McElderry Books. 2011. – 40 p. 11. Melissa Nathan. Learning Curve / Nathan Melissa. – Arrow Books. 2006. – 549 p. 12. Robert Waller. The Bridges of Madison County / Waller Robert. – Great Britain: Mandarin Paperbacks. 1995. – 171 P.