Hospital Management System Essay

Hospital Management System for Sta. Cruz Hospital A Project Paper Presented to the Faculty of the College of Information and Communications Technology Bulacan State University In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor in Science in Information Technology Project Description Overview of the Current State of Technology A hospital is a place where patients received treatment. Hospital provides facilities such as doctor’s consultation, diagnosis, and treatment facility in admitting patients; also it provides beds, nurses, medicines and immunization.

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Sta. Cruz Hospital was established in the year 1979 at Caniogan, Calumpit, Bulacan. It is only started as a small clinic. Due to the increasing number of patients, Dr. Norman L. Josue, a surgeon and his wife, Dra. Corazon-Josue, an OB-Gynaecologist together with her siblings, Dra. Levita de Jesus- Panis, a paediatrician, and Dr. Jessie P. de Jesus, a Dentist, put up a hospital to accommodate them. In 1985, Sta. Cruz Hospital formally functioned as a Primary hospital. In 1991, an extension building was built to give more rooms to patients in need of medical services.

Presently, Sta. Cruz Hospital is a Secondary hospital, with 30 beds capacity offering Medical and Surgical, Dental and Ancillary Services, equipped with highly competent and professional doctors and surgeons in the province, to service the people of Calumpit as well as the nearby municipalities. As to date it has Operating Rooms, Delivery Rooms, NICU, and Nursery, Pharmacy, X-Ray, And Clinical Laboratory, duly licensed by the Department of Health and Accredited by the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation(Phil Health). The vision of Sta.

Cruz hospital would be the leader in upholding the highest standards of care and the center of excellence in providing quality health care services to Calumpitenos and to its neighbouring communities. The mission of Sta. Cruz hospital provides reasonable, efficient and quality health care services at all times because they were guided by the Almighty, driven by the conviction to serve, passionate devoted in improving the health of our patient. Project Objectives General: The purpose of the study is to develop a Hospital Management System for Sta. Cruz Hospital. Specific: . To design a Hospital Management System for Sta. Cruz Hospital which will: a. stored data properly. b. assure accuracy which entails all operation would be done correctly and all information are accurate. c. increase the reliability of information now that there would be proper storage of information. d. determine redundancy of information. e. provide quick and efficient retrieving of information whenever the user requires. f. provides security in visiting confined patients. g. provide precise information on retrieving medicines in purchasing medications. . To create the system as planned. 3. To test and implement the developed system for the use of the hospital in order to speed up their development. 4. To write and document about the hospital and the developed system for the use of the Sta. Cruz Hospital. Scope and Limitations of the Project The project will be used by Sta. Cruz Hospital for maintaining patient details and their test results. It maintains two levels of users consist of administrator level, the doctor, and user level which is the data entry operator.

The limitations of the system are the viewing of the suppliers of the medicines and the payroll of the staffs in the hospital. The main facilities available in this project are maintaining records of indoor or outdoor patients, maintaining patient’s diagnosis details; provide patients different test facilities for diagnosis. Maintaining patient’s injection entry records, maintaining patient’s prescription, medicine and diet advice details, providing billing details for indoor or outdoor patients, maintaining backup of data as per user requirements between mentioned dates nd if user forgets his or her password then it can be retrieved by hint question can be done. It also has security system to monitor a visitor’s information who will visit a patient. In this project collection of data is from different pathology labs. Results of test, prescription, and diet advice will be updated in the database. Related test reports, patients details report, prescription and billing reports can be generated as per user requirements. The user or administrator can search a patient’s record by his or her name or their registration date.

Significance of the Project The significance of the project involves the following: Nurses. The project benefits the nurses wherein their job in retrieving and saving of information about the patients become faster and reliable. Their working will be well planned and organized. Their job becomes lighter because of computer that they can input information in quick and well organized manner. Doctors. They have a reliable and consistent of data in recording the needed information of patient. They have a quick access on patient’s information and can give advice easily.

Patient. In the proposed project, a patient has the benefit of a quick service on doctors and nurses by just retrieving their information. They have an easy access of information that they can view and correct if the information is unacceptable. Related Literature According to Walshe and Smith (2006) that the purpose of the book is to support the learning and development of practising managers in healthcare organizations and health systems, and those undertaking postgraduate study on programmers concerned with health policy, health management and related areas.

The future leaders of the healthcare systems need to be able to integrate theory and practice, and to have the adaptability and flexibility that comes from really understanding the nature of management and leadership. The book described about the challenges of the political and social environment in which healthcare system and organizations exist, and how the environment is changing. It then describes some of the particular challenges of those organizations – some of the characteristics and dynamics hich make healthcare organizations both so interesting and so difficult to lead. Then ir also explained how we anticipated that it might be used, both in support of formal programmers of study and by managers who simply want to develop and expand their own understanding and awareness. Colling and York (2009) stated that the concerns about healthcare security have proliferated in recent years, with one recent study reporting that 17% of registered nurses surveyed had been physically attacked at work over a 1-year period.

From privacy concerns to the mandates of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to the rapid growth in the number of aging and ailing baby boomers, healthcare has undergone dramatic change, and security in hospitals and other settings must keep pace. Most educators, healthcare executives, and healthcare agencies and associations agree that Hospital and Healthcare Security, a Butterworth-Heinemann classic, has set the standard of care for healthcare security systems and programs. Drummond said that over the years the book had become the standard textbook in the field world-wide.

It mirrors the huge expansion of the field of economic evaluation in health care, since the last edition was published in 1997. The methodological features of the basic forms of analysis are then explained in more detail with special emphasis of the latest views on productivity costs, the characterisation of uncertainty and the concept of net benefit. There is discussion of new methodological approaches, including cost effectiveness acceptability curves, net benefit regression, probalistic sensitivity analysis and value of information analysis.

There was an explanation on the use of economic evaluation, including discussion of the use of cost-effectiveness thresholds, equity considerations and the transferability of economic data. According to Bowling (2009), research is the systematic and rigorous process of enquiry which aims to describe phenomena and to develop and test explanatory concepts and theories. He aims to provide an overview of the range of research methods that are used in investigations of health and health services.

Ultimately the purpose was to guide the reader in choosing an appropriate research method and design in order to address a particular research question. However, it was not possible to place research methods in a hierarchy of excellence, as different research methods were appropriate for addressing different research questions. In 2007, Hunter stated about the struggle taking place in many health care systems around the world to rebalance their policies and practices away from an almost exclusive focus on downstream health care to one of that gives increasing priority to an upstream focus on health.

The word “struggle” was used advisedly. Though the essential to protect and improved the health of the population as well as to reduce health inequalities, and as the CMO for England makes clear, public health services’ were vulnerable, in ways that clinical specialties were not, to lack of growth, to the effects of repeated management reorganization and to the compelling and emotive competition for resources from clinical services. Kumar (2011) stated that the “HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM’’ is a computerized management system.

This management system has been developed to form whole management system including Employees, Doctors (consultants), Nurses, Patients, Bills, and Complains etc. This system also keeps the records of hardware assets besides software of this organization. The proposed system will keep a track of Employees, Doctors, Patients, Accounts and generation of report regarding the present status. This project has GUI based software that will help in storing, updating and retrieving the information through various user-friendly menu-driven modules. This century witnessed a giant leap in information technology.

Computers are not only used to diagnose the illness or for doing surgery with one hundred percent accuracy, but also they are used to increase the efficiency in all fields ranging from fixing the appointment with the Doctor to keeping the record of the Patient. Software application can provide solution and services for the global health care industry. By using the cutting edge technologies, Hospital Management can be improved with efficient work flow and communication. Any time anywhere facilities of the INTERNET have helped the Medical fields to integrate into a single unit.

Various Hospitals across the globe can be connected together. They can share information and even services. Details of the Patients, their previous visits etc. are totally not perceptible without a computer. Relevant Information is always stored in the computer and are available instantly in front of the user. Hospital Information Systems is a thesis completed by Mittal in which a Hospital Information System (HIS) can be defined as a computerized system that is designed to meet all the information needs within a hospital.

This includes diverse data types such as patient information, billing, finance accounting, pharmacy ordering, prescription handling, and inventory and orders management, diagnostic reports related to laboratory, radiology and patient monitoring as well as providing decision support. According to Shaw in his thesis The Hospital Management System, the goal of any system development is to develop and implement the system cost effectively; user-friendly and most suited to the user’s analysis is the heart of the process.

Analysis is the study of the various operations performed by the system and their relationship within and outside of the system. During analysis, data collected on the files, decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Different kinds of tools are used in analysis of which interview is a common one. ? According to Andersson (2010), the cost of health care in Sweden has increased and is projected to continue doing so, while at the same time the financial resources are limited.

As studies show that different management control systems (MCS) can decrease the cost within the health care sector, it is interesting to see how MCS can solve the financial problem that has a risen. Combined with a new payment reform installed in October 2009, a deregulation of the market has been enacted and brought new health care providers to the VastraGotaland region. The new legal setting in combination with studies showing MCS differences between public and private health care providers make it relevant and interesting to analyse the effect on the MCS.

In 2010, Helm and Lapp said that proper management of hospital inpatient admissions involves a large number of decisions that have complex and uncertain consequences for hospital resource utilization and patient flow. Further, inpatient admissions have a significant impact on the hospital’s profitability, access, and quality of care. Making effective decisions to drive high quality, efficient hospital behaviour is difficult, if not impossible, without the aid of sophisticated decision support.

Wadhwa & Saxena stated that the evolving paradigm shift resulting from IT, social and technological changes has created a need for developing an innovative knowledge-based healthcare system, which can effectively meet global healthcare system demands and also cater to future trends. The Hospital Information Management System (HIMS) is developed with this sole aim in mind, which helps in processing and management of hospital information not only inside the boundary, but also beyond the hospital boundary, e. g. , telemedicine or e-healthcare. The purpose of this paper is o present such kind of functional HIMS, which can efficiently satisfy the current and future system requirements by using Knowledge Management (KM) and data management systems. The HIMS is developed in a KM context, wherein users can share and use the knowledge more effectively. The proposed system is fully compatible with future technical, social, managerial and economical requirements. According to Rubin Pillay (2010), a lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa.

As part of the overall management development process, this research aimed to identify the skills important for health services management and to evaluate managers’ self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill.

The results of this study show that both the public and private sector managers rated competencies related to ‘people management’, ‘self-management’ and ‘task-related skills’ highest, followed by ‘strategic planning’ and ‘health delivery’, respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills.

Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the needs of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualisation, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa. In 2009, McCoy, Chand & Sridhar discussed that the global health funding has increased in recent years. This has been accompanied by a proliferation in the number of global health actors and initiatives.

This paper describes the state of global heath finance, taking into account government and private sources of finance, and raises and discusses a number of policy issues related to global health governance. A schematic describing the different actors and three global health finance functions is used to organize the data presented, most of which are secondary data from the published literature and annual reports of relevant actors. In two cases, we also refer to currently unpublished primary data that have been collected by authors of this paper.

Among the findings are that the volume of official development assistance for health is frequently inflated; and that data on private sources of global health finance are inadequate but indicate a large and important role of private actors. The fragmented, complicated, messy and inadequately tracked state of global health finance requires immediate attention. In particular it is necessary to track and monitor global health finance that is channelled by and through private sources, and to critically examine who benefits from the rise in global health spending.

Zhang stated about the platform integration study on hospital management information system with common interface had the data exchange and sharing on several information platform come true. The external study is to apply the results to bigger score and operating surroundings. The study about Computer-Based Patient Record (CPR) on Health Level Seven (HL7) combing the middleware is to achieve the uniform data and function so that we can exchange and share the medical information.

After analysis of the data requirement between the hospital and the medical enterprise, the community medical platform was designed on the HL7 engine to satisfy the data communication and transmission. Combing the middleware the integration platform had the function of query and sharing. Elkhuizen, Bor, Smeenk, Klazinga & Bakker discussed about Capacity management systems that create insight into required resources like staff and equipment. For inpatient hospital care, capacity management requires information on beds and nursing staff capacity, on a daily as well as annual basis.

This paper presents a comprehensive capacity model that gives insight into required nursing staff capacity and opportunities to improve capacity utilization on a ward level. A capacity model was developed to calculate required nursing staff capacity. The model used historical bed utilization, nurse-patient ratios, and parameters concerning contract hours to calculate beds and nursing staff needed per shift and the number of nurses needed on an annual basis in a ward.

The model was applied to three different capacity management problems on three separate groups of hospital wards. The problems entailed operational, tactical, and strategic management issues: optimizing working processes on paediatric wards, predicting the consequences of reducing length of stay on nursing staff required on a cardiology ward, and calculating the nursing staff consequences of merging two internal medicine wards. In a recent study of Hospital & Health Management (Butler, et. al. 2011), healthcare executives were often finding themselves at a cross road in their organizational transformation journey, and are faced with the dilemma of pursuing conflicting paths; i. e, reduce costs while increasing access, improve quality of results at a time of shrinking reimbursements, and improve satisfaction ratings while minimizing staffing levels. The task is daunting enough with- out the inclusion of the complexities and uncertainty of new and pending regulations and legislation.

There are a group of professionals who have the required training and toolsets to aid hospitals and healthcare organizations in navigating this challenging operational landscape; the Management Engineering and Process Improvement professional. Management Engineering (ME) and Process Improvement (PI) professionals bring the advantages of an extensive variety of work experience and educational credentials to their work. Their role is to address the design, installation and improvement of integrated systems of people, material, facilities, information, equipment, and energy.

ME-PI professionals draw from many disciplines, providing unique perspectives and skill sets to improvement initiatives and professional knowledge. These include management, business administration, and organization development disciplines that have grown from the Total Quality Management, known twenty years ago to today’s Six Sigma, Lean and other performance improvement practices. The footprints of ME-PI in an organization can be found in an increase in productivity, revenue, process and quality outcomes, and a decrease in costs and inefficiencies.

Ferenc stated that as the use of computers and other information technology (IT) devices becomes more common in hospital clinical areas, it is critical to ensure that the power supply to those devices operates without interruption. Rapid growth in the use of network-linked devices in patient rooms and operating suites makes unplanned IT downtimes increasingly unacceptable, says Dan Draper, manager of strategy and research for the Liebert products business of Emerson Network Power. About one-third of hospitals surveyed by Emerson reported that they had experienced nplanned IT system downtimes. Of that group, 7 percent said patients were impacted significantly, 18 percent said patients were impacted mildly and 7 per cent said patients were not impacted, according to survey results published in a white paper called “Hospital IT and Facilities Special Report” (available online at http://bit. ly/dBgMjn). Hospitals need to take a hard look at installing uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems to prevent unplanned downtimes from occurring in clinical areas, Draper says.

More than 60 percent of patient rooms are not supported by UPS and only 28 percent of operating rooms have emergency power receptacles serviced through a UPS, according to the survey. According to de Vrij and de Haar (2009), the health care sector is changing from a supply-oriented to a demand-oriented market. The increasing mobility of clients also increases their demands of hospital standards. Hospitals thus have to improve their quality, work more cost efficiently, shorten their health care processes and use their medical facilities and human resources more cleverly.

This complicates the realization of goals as specified in a business case, also because of the lack of a coherent vision, linking strategy and execution. There are many developments in the health care sector that complicate the realization and management of the strategic goals of a health care institution. Continuous changes of the finance model, increasing competition; managers can no longer focus on costs alone, but have to take their performance into account as well.

Improvement of performances regarding quality, safety, finances and services, has a positive effect on your client satisfaction level and your market position accordingly. The health care sector is changing from a supply-oriented to a demand-oriented market. The increasing mobility of clients also increases their demands of hospital standards. Hospitals thus have to improve their quality, work more cost efficiently, shorten their health care processes and use their medical facilities and human resources more cleverly.

This complicates the realization of goals as specified in a business case, also because of the lack of a coherent vision, linking strategy and execution. Hospital Management System; approach to gain comprehensive control The comprehensive approach allows the management to manage the business better, and to improve the performance of the entire business through insight and control. The approach is based on the Value Chain approach of Porter and combines this with sub-approaches like the alanced scorecard and IDEF-process mapping. Wasson (2009) said that states, communities, healthcare organizations and a host of public and private entities were establishing secure networks to facilitate the exchange of clinical and financial patient information. As business demands and government incentives accelerate establishment of these networks, healthcare organizations must quickly choose whether they are going to take a leadership role in coordinating patient care across multiple setting of care delivery.

Health information exchange (HIE), at its most basic, is the provisioning of healthcare information within or across organizations. Examples of such provisioning—which can happen at the community, regional, and/or national level—include interacting with a lab for ordering tests/receiving results, transmitting prescriptions from physicians to pharmacies, sharing patient health history between physicians, relaying data from patients’ home medical devices to physicians and giving patients access to their health information.

The clearer the connection between HIT and such benefits as decreased costs, increased access and enhanced quality, the greater the demand for things that enable that connection, from EHRs and PHRs to electronic prescribing and patient portals. Unfortunately, the challenges—cost, ownership, interoperability—are significant, as the many failed implementations of HIE show. Fortunately, just as business demands and increasing governmental involvement make HIE an imperative, the virtual delivery model has evolved to make it possible.

And as healthcare organizations weigh current needs for internal and community data exchange against imminent demand for regional and national connectivity, established VIE providers like RelayHealth will prove the best solution for feasible, reliable, affordable and scalable HIE. According to Reed (2011), the Heritage Provider Network wants to do for healthcare what technology in the film “Minority Report” did for police work. In other words, it wants to use technology to pre-emptively predict when illness is likely to strike and take measures to prevent costly hospitalizations.

This week Heritage announced that it was offering a prize of $3 million for any developer who successfully created a “breakthrough algorithm that uses available patient data, including health records and claims data, to predict and prevent unnecessary hospitalizations. ” HPN says that the winning algorithm must be able to “identify patients who are at risk for hospital admissions” so that “healthcare providers can develop new care plans and strategies to reach patients before emergencies occur. All contest participants will be given access to data sets of anonymous patient data that will include outpatient encounter data, hospitalization encounter data, medication-dispensing claims data and outpatient laboratory data. From there, the contestants will be judged on how accurately their algorithm sorts data and correctly predicts the likelihood of future illnesses. HPN says that it is holding the contest as part of a broader effort to cut medical expenses in the United States.

HPN expects the competition will last for at least two years and it says that registration will be open for new participants throughout the competition. According to Chauhan (2009) in Hospital Management System, presently all Patient and staff management operations are being done manually. Various books and registers are maintained for entries about patients and staff enquiry, registration, and fees submission. Final report preparation is very cumbersome and time consuming, as even for a single record, several books have to be referred, in all immediate updating, validation, and reporting is just too large.

This result in unnecessary delay in various operation of organization and could be detrimental to the progress. By this system, it becomes easier to get the updated information about any student such as fee deposited, different course offered and also for the management to have updated information of their students regarding fees, results etc. We can get a formatted and specialized printout of the output system, which is easy to keep and to be read to get the desired information.

Due to the high capacity of computerized system, the user can store vast amount of information with easy access without time loss. Dsoza (2010) indicated that a hospital management software incorporates several important features that help in the smooth running of the day to day operations of a hospital. The program is designed in such a way that it takes care of the inpatients, outpatients, database of patients, billings, hospital information In a nutshell, hospital management software takes care of the every aspect of the running of a hospital in a cost effective manner.

According to Aragona (2006) The Hospital Management System is a computer-based system or software developed by the Department of Health, through the National Center for Health Facilities Development and Information Management Service. The primary objective of HMS is to support the hospital management for effective and quality health care by providing timely, relevant and reliable information. It is developed to systematically collect, process, store, present and share information in support of hospital functions.

The development and implementation of HMS is a defined information systems development strategy under Hospital System Reforms of the DOH. According to Chauhan (2009) in Hospital Management System, presently all Patient and staff management operations are being done manually. Various books and registers are maintained for entries about patients and staff enquiry, registration, and fees submission. Final report preparation is very cumbersome and time consuming, as even for a single record, several books have to be referred, in all immediate updating, validation, and reporting is just too large.

This result in unnecessary delay in various operation of organization and could be detrimental to the progress. By this system, it becomes easier to get the updated information about any student such as fee deposited, different course offered and also for the management to have updated information of their students regarding fees, results etc. We can get a formatted and specialized printout of the output system, which is easy to keep and to be read to get the desired information. Due to the high capacity of computerized system, the user can store vast amount of information with easy access without time loss.

According to McNutt (2008) that in the health care industry, hospital management system has emerged as one of the most important areas within the industry because, as a discipline, it integrates medical, practical, social, and economic factors in ensuring the smooth and effective management of hospitals as the main sources of health care provision and services. Related Systems The DHIS or District Hospital Information System was piloted in Rogaciano M. Mercado Memorial Hospital (RMMMH) in Sta. Maria, Bulacan in the year 2003.

To date, all the other district hospitals in Baliuag (Baliuag District Hospital), Hagonoy (Emilio G. Perez Memorial District Hospital), Bulacan (Gregorio Del Pilar District Hospital), Calumpit (Bulacan Maternity and Children’s Hospital), and San Miguel (San Miguel District Hospital), are starting to utilize the system in their daily operations. Introducing the technology to matured hospital staff was a challenge to the PITO staff (who were mostly younger). The PITO staff simply persisted; in time their diligence paid off. When the users discovered the benefits of the system, they became champions for the DHIS.

The adoption of the system has now increased employee productivity and confidence! DHIS transforms the administration of the district hospitals under the Provincial Health Office from manual to digital. The system automates transactions, linking data entered at the Admission Section or OPD Department, the Pharmacy, Laboratory, X-Ray, Billing, Collection and Records Section. Inventory and supplies data are entered at the Supply Section. Because the system uses an integrated database, it reduces the volume of redundant paper files kept in separate locations within the District Hospitals.

The centralized database also makes it easier for users to process and retrieve data. The DHIS thus enables the hospital staff to deliver services faster in a more organized manner, more accurately, and more conveniently. They can now process data and provide feedback to clients. The automation has also decreased the time spent by staff on their routine work. Below are some measured indicators of service improvement: 1) Processing Time in Entry of Incoming Supplies, Requests, and Issued Supplies – from 4 hours, decreased to 30 minutes (87. 5% improvement). ) Processing Time in Preparing Patient’s Bill – from 5 minutes to 2 minutes (87% improvement). 3) Processing Time in Accomplishing Patient’s PhilHealth Form – from 5 minutes to 1 minute (93. 33 % improvement). The Hospital Operations and Management Information System is a computer-based system or software developed by the Department of Health, through the National Center for Health Facilities Development and Information Management Service. The primary objective of HOMIS is to support the hospital management for effective and quality health care by providing timely, relevant and reliable information.

It is developed to systematically collect, process, store, present and share information in support of hospital functions. The development and implementation of HOMIS is a defined information systems development strategy under Hospital System Reforms of the DOH. Comlogik Business Systems is a 100% Filipino owned company primarily engaged in providing computer-based information, systems development, management services, eBusiness, collaborative commerce software solutions for midmarket companies and the leading provider of integrated hospital information system in the country today.

Our initial line of software products started as medical imaging with patient information for Microsofts® Visual Basic. Installed in several practicing physicians in Quezon City and Manila, Philippines. In 1999, the company released the first version of the hospital software, The HIMS™ Hospital Information ; Management System, a significant improvement in features, data flexibility and processing speed. Object-oriented programming and an excellent design and development platform now allow for lightning fast, solid software development.

Comlogik hospital software products were designed to grow with your success, providing maximum return on your initial investment. HIMS™ was composed of several applications offering a variety of hospital software solutions. These 32-bit, Windows-based systems were among the easiest, most flexible and most complete practice management software programs available today. They are continually refined and updated to keep your business ahead of the competition and the rapidly changing healthcare industry.

Hospital Management System for Sta. Cruz Hospital PROCESS: Iterative Process * Initial Planning * Planning * Requirements * Analysis and Design * Implementation * Deployment * Testing * Evaluation INPUT: Knowledge Requirements * Hospital Operations and Management Information System * Methods of work in a hospital without a system * Importance of the system * Competitions of Hospital products and services * Contents of the system Hardware Requirements: * Intel® Pentium® CPU P6000 @ 1. 87GHz(2 CPUs), 1. 9 GHz * 2. 0 GB Memory * 32-bit Operating System * Windows 7, windows XP, Windows Vista * DirectX 11 * Intel Graphics Media Accelerator HD Software Requirements: * NetBeans IDE 6. 9. 1 * SQLYog * Microsoft Word 2007 / 2010 * Adobe Photoshop CS4 OUTPUT: Technical Background Figure 1: Conceptual Model of the Study NURSE Patient’s Payment Information Invoice Data Flow Diagram Prescription PATIENT DOCTOR Prescription Information for Patient Doctor Fee Information Invoice Patient Information Details Payment 0 HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

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