Caffeine is a bitter white crystalline alkaloid. Its chemical formula is CaH10N4O2. Caffeine also affects the human body. It is widely consumed by people of all ages. In the last period a market of caffeine-containing products, particularly energy drinks and food supplements increased. Caffeine for years is under discussion, whether it has positive adverse impact on health. Children are a group of special anxieties. Caffeine is a stimulant of central nervous system and therefore is probably the most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world.
The physiological effect of caffeine and the lack of nutrition value cause a great interest its impact on health, especially with reference to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. According to the current knowledge moderate caffeine intake by healthy adults at a dose level of 400 mg a day is not associated with adverse effects, but it also depends on other health determinants of a lifestyle. Excessive caffeine consumption can cause negative health consequences such as psychomotor agitation, insomnia, headache, gastrointestinal complaints.
Adverse effect of caffeine in intoxication is classified in world Health Organization’s Classification of Diseases. Adolescents should limit daily caffeine consumption. It results from the influence of caffeine on the central nervous system in the period of rapid growth and the final stage of brain development, calcium balance and sleep duration. Average daily caffeine consumption in countries what results from the great consumption of the coffee. As far as caffeine consumption by polish population is concerned there is very few data in this subject so far.
In the nineties of previous century it was 141 mg per day, whereas according to recent survey daily caffeine intake by women from the Warsaw region was 251 mg and 51% of examined women consumed an excessive quantity of caffeine. Smokers consume more caffeine than nonsmokers, similarly to people with mental illnesses. With reference to the caffeine consumption it should be underline that caffeine content in coffee and tea beverages varies greatly depending on the method of brewing whereas the content of caffeine in many brands of energy drinks can much vary.
This should be taken in account in the daily caffeine intake. (Wierzejska R. ) Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. Caffeine may raise blood pressure. (Wolk BJ, Ganetsky M, Babu KM. ) Blood pressure is a measurement of the force applied to the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body.
The pressure is determined by the force and amount of blood pumped, and the size and flexibility of the arteries. Blood pressure is continually changing depending on activity, temperature, diet, emotional state, posture, physical state, and medication use. Blood pressure is usually measured while you are seated with your arm resting on a table. Your arm should be slightly bent so that it is at the same level as your heart. Your upper arm should be bare, with your sleeve comfortably rolled up.
Blood pressure readings are measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and are given as two numbers. The top number is the systolic blood pressure reading. It represents the maximum pressure exerted when the heart contracts. The bottom number is the diastolic blood pressure reading. It represents the minimum pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. In adults, the ideal top number (systolic pressure) should be less than 120 mmHg. The bottom number (diastolic pressure) should be less than 80 mmHg.
Works cited Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7). Rockville, Md. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US Department of Health and Human Services; 2004. National Institutes of Health Publication No. 04-5230. Victor RG. Arterial hypertension. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 66. http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/22426157