The general construct of Social Work is defined by human behaviour and the environment. These two constituents are the tools that give significance to the profession and narrate its maps in the broadest footings. Behavior is a feature of life things which is frequently identified with life itself. Modern twenty-four hours Social Work pattern day of the months back to several societal motions of the nineteenth century and beyond and to two really outstanding positions on the beginning of human jobs: those facets that viewed the ‘person’ as the cardinal point for alteration and those that saw the jobs in the environment as subscribers to human jobs.
Human behaviour is complex and the Social Work profession is wide. which is apparent by back uping theories as presented by experts on Human Behavior. These theories support human growing and development every bit good as the overall operation of the person in the thick of societal service bringing. Almost all these theories come out of a socio-historical context and are value-laden.
After birth a child rapidly realizes that resources for his survival semen from the parents or defenders and he discovers through contact with these people the schemes for precaution of the resources. The differences between kids in one household could be every bit great as the differences between kids chosen at random from other households. Normally in a household puting. siblings compete for available resources provided by the parents/guardians. As such schemes are adopted by the kids for endurance and such schemes could be the beginning of motivations. Eldest kids usually assume the dominant function in a household puting through moving as foster parents towards younger siblings. Middle kids usually have broader involvements. hold lower self-pride and are sometimes more independent.
However these besides face competition in a household puting from older siblings. who are stronger and more articulate. The youngest siblings are more or less non every bit ambitious as both the center and older siblings. In some households. lastborns frequently enjoy considerable parental attending and great support from older siblings although such support is sometimes fraught with ambivalency. Of class we can non discourse the construct of human behaviour in its entireness without adverting development. This may sound absurd to most people. particularly those who may non desire to admit that non merely our organic structures. but besides our heads and behaviour reflect an evolutionary heritage.
Charles Darwin was one of the world’s first psychologists whose influence was felt by most of the pioneering psychologists of the twentieth century. In his Hagiographas. he mentioned that mental abilities and emotions that we think of every bit clearly human. such as love. trueness. linguistic communication. intelligence and even aesthetics are found in other species. He besides noted that human behaviour has its evolutionary roots in the behaviour of other species. comparing the similarity in our facial looks and positions to that of other non-human Primatess. particularly the great apes. Another psychologist. Murray Bowen. presented a theory in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s referred to as the Bowen household systems theory. In this theory. Bowen alluded to Darwin’s perceptual experience on human behaviour as earlier stated in his books. Harmonizing to Bowen. human existences are a merchandise of development and human behaviour is controlled by the same processes that control the behaviour of all other living things. His theories besides viewed adult male as a portion of life instead than as a separate unit. Following in line of the determiners of human behaviour is the society in which we live as persons.
The society. without uncertainty. has a great trade of influence in organizing our characters and assisting us go who we truly are in the universe. The influence of the society is frequently perceived in a assortment of signifiers and forms and most of this is sometimes unconsciously utilised by single. Research has revealed that modern-day society has a immense impact in determining the life and other properties of an person. Some of these alterations are identified in speech patterns. simple and day-to-day wonts and even nutrient. “It is even a widely held belief that society can determine or plan the life of a kid to be a really good and productive person in the community. whilst on the other manus it can besides make the contrary by turning the kid into a monster and a really awful and unsafe person in the society/community. Whatever the fortunes. society plays a really of import function in the all-around development of an person. be it in a positive or negative way” . I. Carter. ( 2011 ) .
Last in our determiners of human behaviour we will see the construct of creativeness or invention. “This is merely the alteration factor that arises as a consequence of imaginativeness. Behavior based on imaginativeness and creativeness are the easiest and the most simple to alter. “As human existences we have the unconditioned potency to conceive of something in a really originative mode that we can use to convey a important alteration and alteration into our lives” . Elizabeth Hutchison ( 2007 ) . The acquisition procedure and its part to behavior are really cardinal to both biological and societal development of the person. The construction of the human encephalon supports larning procedures. Due to exposure to stimulus in the environment. alterations occur that have an impact on the encephalon every bit good as determine specific behaviour in response to the specific stimulation.
This procedure is called memory and it describes the action of the encephalon in interpretation and transforming assorted informations received to be stored in the encephalon. Such transformed information is subsequently utilized as the demand arises. Bodily maps that have to make with memory have many characteristics. Stimuli responses are interpreted through Sensations and Percepts by the human organic structure and these are responded to selectively by the person based on the mode and nature of the response. Behavior is modified with the response of stimuli thereby changing perceptual experience. These activities have a profound consequence on the consequences of larning experiences and they contribute to the eventual behavioural response that is the terminal consequence. Behavioral conditioning is the eventual consequence of the acquired acquisition procedure which is used in finding the information received by the encephalon that is in bend utilised to convey about the coveted response. Apparently there are two types of behavioural conditioning – Classical and Instrumental conditioning.
Classical Conditioning is the systematic response produced by a impersonal stimulation that is ever connected to the acquisition of a wages or the turning away of penalty and negative behaviour. The happening of a stimulation is verification that Operant or Instrumental conditioning is active. Behavior that earns wages has the inclination to go on. whilst the behaviour that consequences in penalty has the inclination to be discontinued or stopped instantly. Some behaviour is reinforced when certain conditions exist:
a ) . When the behaviour and the stimulation occur at the same time.B ) . Response is enhanced due to a repeat of the association.degree Celsius ) . When the consequence of the behavior elicits pleasance or reduces pain.vitamin D ) . Without intervention that could take to a cancellation or weakening of the response.
Wagess and penalties determine the eventual behaviour in persons through encephalon activity. The limbic system is the country of the encephalon that reacts to trouble and pleasance. Social behaviour is acquired through conditioning and these are rooted in the biological and familial rules that are in line with ability of the person in reacting to stimuli in the environment.
Other indispensable human behaviour that occur by inherent aptitude like eating. reproduction and defensive behaviour complement our endurance and these are good structured and regulated with the passing of clip to accommodate every person. Changeless alterations affect the encephalon for it to be able to accommodate to our environment thereby back uping our endurance capablenesss. We can therefore rightly say that human existences behave in a specific manner as a consequence of the biological and societal conditions that present itself at the peculiar minute in clip. However most behaviours have the inclination of adaptative significance. significance that persons have the inclination to accommodate to the environment. doing it possible for surveies to be conducted in an evolutionary context.
An illustration of such behaviour is aggression. which is besides associated with extreme unnatural environmental conditions. It is besides really just to state that the physical and societal context within which people conduct themselves normally put a bound on their picks and eventual actions. The resources around us in the environment have really important deductions on our lives in a assortment of ways. Consequently changes in our entree to physical resources will usually do a corresponding challenge for us to acquire adapted to our present societal environment as a response. Human actions and behaviour are really much determined by the environment. Human existences are controlled by fortunes in the environment and non all behaviour or action that occurs or takes topographic point is out of a free will by the person. Decisions have the inclination to be influenced by the environment and other factors in the environment.
Human behaviour and genetic sciences are besides really closely linked together and there are multiple ways in which research workers can analyze the part that familial factors make to human behaviour. This type of research work is known as quantitative genetic sciences because it has as its purpose the issue of finding how the degree of fluctuation in a trait can be affected by familial factors in a population. Statistical methods and numerators are used to pull comparing between groups of people and non concentrating on peculiar cistrons that cause trait fluctuation in features or between persons. Some researches nevertheless have been carried out in seeking to place and acquire an in deepness cognition about cistrons that have relevancy to aggression. But the inquiry that stands out is. how could our cistrons cause us to move in a peculiar manner? It is sometimes hard and really sensitive to set up which cistrons bring about trait and how it happens because of a figure of grounds – :
a ) . There are more than one familial factor that normally leads to a peculiar trait.
B ) . Both familial factors and non-genetic factors ( environmental ) may lend to a trait.
degree Celsius ) . Different familial factors may hold different effects after interaction. depends on which factors are present in the individual’s genotype.
vitamin D ) . Environmental factors may besides interact with each other.
vitamin E ) . Environmental factors may impact which familial factors have an consequence and frailty versa.
degree Fahrenheit ) . A protein map can be altered after produced from a cistron and modified.
g ) . The cistrons in our organic structures may be turned on and off since they do non hold a uninterrupted consequence. both during our overall development and within the life clip of an single cell. As a consequence it is ever right to state that a peculiar familial discrepancy is portion of the cause of multiple traits but non a sufficient status for the trait to be exhibited.
The complex nature of human behaviour and the jobs associated with understanding the engagement of cistrons is immense in the human behavioural procedure. It is obvious that cistrons have an indirect consequence on behaviour. Nonetheless some critics have suggested that any effort to understand the procedure by which cistrons influence behaviour will decidedly neglect. which most research workers consider a incorrect construct. Genes have the potency to find the proteins that are made but do non find the behaviour or the personality of persons. The behaviour of cistrons. the proteins they manufacture and the manner they behave within the organic structure and the encephalon are all ways to explicate the behaviour of persons. taking us to the decision that human behaviour is influenced both by cistrons that we inherit and the environment we find ourselves.
Social scientists have pointed out that alterations have taken topographic point over the many old ages of research in human behaviour in which both familial and environmental factors have played really important functions and provided the footing of accounts to the assorted theories on human behaviour. This analysis now relates to a combination of other issues in different subjects in both mental wellness and unwellness and a figure of other constructs. Antisocial behaviour is a critical constituent in the alteration procedure and there is grounds to back up the fact that both genetic sciences and the environment are immense factors that have important impact on this construct and they are utile factors in finding and explicating single differences in antisocial behaviour. Different researches performed by different psychologists have produced different consequences on this construct. The survey of the behaviour of twins and adopted kids has shown that heredity plays an of import function in antisocial behaviour every bit good as turn toing assorted signifiers of aggression and other related behaviour.
Assorted sections of antisocial behaviour. including personality factors such as risk-taking. callous-unemotional traits and impulsivity traits. are known to be genetically influenced. as presented by O. Dale. R. Smith and others. ( 2008 ) . If it is possible to place which cistrons influence behaviour. so it may be possible to modify people’s behaviour by developing a series of attacks or intervention which include – : 1 ) . Familial Intervention – or cistron therapy – the replacing or fix of a cistron or merely the inclusion of a on the job cistron alongside a faulty 1. could be used to alter behaviour. 2 ) . Medical Intervention – medical specialties can be used to alter behaviour. for illustration. anti-depressant drugs or drugs to minimise shyness or promote memory. 3 ) . Environmental Intervention – the usage of societal scheme such as alterations in diet. instruction or parental attention.
However there is no graduated table to find which of these steps is most effectual in altering behaviour and each instance should be tried individually. An issue of sedate concern is that research in behavioural genetic sciences might decline the tendency towards ‘medicalization’ . where the behaviour that was antecedently thought to be normal is now viewed as a upset. This could finally take to people being put under unneeded societal force per unit area to utilize medical intercessions. when in fact it is non ever necessary. In add-on it is of import to observe that familial or medical intercessions are merely adopted after equal consideration has been given to environmental attacks.
Behaviorism: The treatment on human behaviour will be really much incomplete without the reference and ultimate treatment of BEHAVIORISM. This construct exemplifies the belief that behaviours can be measured. trained and perchance changed. A major advocate of this theory was John. B. Watson. 1913. and his school of psychological science with the publication of his land interrupting paper. Psychology as the behaviourist positions. The term behaviourism describes the procedure of larning that clearly explains that. behaviour is acquired through conditioning which takes topographic point as a consequence of interaction with the environment. A common and consentaneous belief held by behaviourists is that our responses to environmental stimuli form our behaviours. They besides believe that behaviour can be studied in a systematic and noticeable mode without consideration of internal mental provinces. In discoursing conditioning there are ever two theories that present themselves – : 1 ) . Classical Conditioning and 2 ) . Operant Conditioning.
Classical Conditioning. This is a construct which explains that behaviour is a acquisition procedure which takes topographic point as a consequence of an association between an environmental stimulation and a natural stimulation. This larning theory was foremost introduced by the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov. “Pavlov obtained his accounts for behaviour through an experiment he performed with Canis familiariss. The experiments involved a impersonal signal and a automatic action that occurred of course. In Pavlov’s universally acclaimed experiment. the impersonal signal that was used to pull the attending of the Canis familiariss was the sound of a tone and this prompted the salivation of the Canis familiariss as the automatic action that followed in response to the nutrient that was presented” . Ashford. Jose. B and Lecroy. Craig. W. ( 2008 ) . By tie ining the sound of the tone with the nutrient. the Canis familiariss could automatically salivate merely by the mere sound of the tone as this was ever associated with an expected result. which was the presentation of nutrient. However classical conditioning occurs instead otherwise in the existent universe. rather unlike the type of behaviour exhibited by Pavlov’s Canis familiariss. Classical conditioning has been applied otherwise and in different state of affairss. Some illustrations of such applications apply to schools that have made usage of the construct. edifice more assurance in the students during the learning procedure. This will assist the pupils to experience more confident and relaxed alternatively of being the antonym. Classical conditioning can be used to find the sum of behaviour that takes topographic point. whether to increase or diminish the behaviour.
Operant Conditioning – This is a learning procedure that affects behavior through wagess and penalties and it is besides known as Instrumental Conditioning. A particular characteristic of this acquisition procedure is the behaviour and what it produces at the terminal of the procedure. Unlike classical conditioning. this signifier of larning procedure dressed ores on the alteration of voluntary behaviour and it is linked to the environment and controlled by wagess and penalties. It is the wagess and penalties that would find the concluding result of behaviour of the being. B. F Skinner is ever referred to as the male parent of Operant Conditioning. but a great trade of his work was linked to Thorndike’s jurisprudence of consequence. known as Reinforcement. which is the determiner of the behaviour. Skinner identified three different responses or operant that takes topographic point after behaviour:
a ) . Impersonal Operant – Like the name implies. these are responses that do non find an addition or lessening of the possibility of a repetition in behaviour.
B ) . Reinforcers – These can either be positive or negative and they accelerate the responses from the environing that determine the possibility of a behaviour being repeated.
degree Celsius ) . Punishers: this is the negative response from the environment that decreases the likeliness of a behaviour being repeated. Punishment is meted out to cut down behaviour.
Through his experiments with rats. Skinner showed how positive support worked with hungry rats in the popular Skinner box. This box had a lever on the side with some hungry rats placed inside the box. The motivation of the experiment was to hold the rats to strike hard off the lever that was attached to the box. This action by the rats would do some nutrient pellets to drop inside the box. After a series of repeat of the behaviour wherein the rats repeatedly knocked off the lever and received nutrient pellets in compensation for their behaviour. they became really cognizant it was necessary to travel directly to the lever each clip they were placed in the box. The wages of having nutrient if they pressed the lever prompted the rats to reiterate the action a twosome of times each clip they were placed in the box. This type of support is known as POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT and it can beef up behavior because of the wages that follows the behaviour. Skinner was able. through his theory. to convert other psychologists that positive support strengthens behavior by supplying a consequence an single considers honoring
On the other manus. negative support strengthens behavior as a consequence of the remotion of an unpleasant reinforcing stimulus. Skinner even went farther to explicate how negative support works with an experiment affecting rats for a 2nd clip. The rats were placed in a box and were subjected to an unpleasant electric current that caused them uncomfortableness. But when the rats moved about. they would strike hard off a lever on the side of the box. This will instantly exchange off the electric current in the box. As a consequence the rats so learned to travel directly to the lever when placed in the box so as to halt the electric current. Harmonizing to Skinner. the major influence of our behaviour is larning from our environment. This is apparent by the reaction of the rats in the box when nutrient was placed inside it. The rats learned to reiterate the behaviour in order to acquire the coveted wages. The theories and constructs on behaviour and acquisition discussed in the old paragraphs finally lead us to six cardinal rules that guide behavior in behavioural direction:
1 ) . Behavior is changed as a consequence of negative effects. but this does non alter attitudes. This is demonstrated by kids in a school state of affairs who face negative effects such as limitation of privileges. physical penalty and other signifiers of negative effects by demoing a really temporal behavioural alteration. These can really likely lead to negative attitudes unless it is used in combination with positive support schemes to avoid an addition in misbehavior. 2 ) . Positive support schemes support long-run attitudinal alteration. This fact is apparent when kids grow older and make maturity. However during this clip. positive behaviour is non ever present due to the menace of negative effects ; it is nevertheless nowadays in due class because of the individual’s committedness. which determines right and incorrect behaviour.
The kids show proper behaviour out of ego will and non because of menace from another beginning. 3 ) . The frequence and strength of misbehaviour is increased through negative effects instead than bettering the behaviour. This is more noticeable in unprompted kids who do non see effect before the induction of behaviour. Irrespective of the extent of the negative effect. behaviour is unchanged unless antecedently considered. In such kids the consideration of the effect comes merely after the behaviour. If punished for behaviour outside their control. they become incapacitated and respond with choler and eventual depression. 4 ) . The usage of appropriate positive systems can convey approximately cognitive control of behaviour. Cognitive schemes that are good laid out can take to major behavioural control even in unprompted and behaviorally hard kids. These schemes occurred in assorted signifiers and largely in the signifier of clip outs followed by treatments of the ground for the inappropriate behaviour every bit good as suggestions for better options to replace the bad behaviour.
Sometimes the alternate positive behaviour must be practiced and positively reinforced. 5 ) . The kid should be able to detect every betterment in behaviour through positive support systems being incremental. If the outlooks of positive support systems are set excessively high. the kid may hold troubles to gain wagess and may do disheartenment and a negative consequence. On the other manus the systems should non be really low and allows all the kids to have the same wages. This might be less honoring for a kid that makes important progress thereby doing disheartenment to such a kid. There should be incremental wagess to separate between mild to intense support. By this manner the kid will be able to see touchable degrees of advancement. 6 ) . There must ever be an big authorization to reenforce behaviour. Most kids require bids or counsel in order to carry through grownup outlooks. This action from the grownup complements the child’s attempt in the effort to exhibit expected behaviour and it is non about supplying positive support after many reminders.
Reflexes irrespective of being conditioned or non are ever more directed towards the internal physiology of the being. This is due to the fact that we are frequently more interested in behaviour which has an impact on the encompassing universe. The consequences of the behaviour may come back as feedback to the being or the single and this will finally alter the likeliness that the behaviour will reoccur. The most serious and obliging efforts to analyze alterations brought approximately by the effects of behaviour was done by E. L. Thorndike in 1898. Thorndike is celebrated because of his experiments with a hungry cat that was put in a box with pieces of nutrient placed outside the box to see if it can get away by unlatching a door. During this experiment. the cat tried many different sorts of behavior some finally prima to the possibility of the cat being able to open the door. an action called opportunity success. With a series of repeats of this experiment. it was apparent that the cat could easy open the door without much attempt. Thorndike described this behaviour of the cat as stamped in behaviour. Harmonizing to him. behaviour is stamped in when it is followed by certain effects.
Thorndike called this. the jurisprudence of consequence. which was merely a regulation to heighten behaviour. He besides noted that certain behaviour was more likely to readily happen in comparing to other behaviours of similar nature or state of affairs. Because of the consecutive holds by the cat to acquire out of the box. Thorndike constructed a acquisition curve. This was an effort intended to demo a quantitative procedure in behaviour. about like in natural philosophies and biological science and this received a immense planetary attending. The curve besides shows a procedure that took topographic point over a certain period of clip. Thorndike’s find was a immense measure frontward in mensurating behaviour and has since so go the footing in larning in psychological science texts. However the acquisition curves do non depict the procedure of stomping in. Harmonizing to him. the clip that was used up by cat to get away from the box involved the cancellation of other behaviour and the curve explained the figure of different things a cat might make when placed in a box. Learning curves illustrate how different sorts of behaviour evoked in really complex state of affairss are handled and recorded.
In add-on to the ‘law of effect’ . Thorndike came up with two other Torahs – The jurisprudence of Readiness and The jurisprudence of Exercise. The former. the jurisprudence of preparedness. explores the learner’s preparedness for action. This is determined by the extent to which the scholar is prepared before the action. This is farther summarized into two classs:
1 ) . when person is ready to execute an act that brings satisfaction and
2 ) . when person is ready to execute an act that causes irritation. due to interference with purposive behaviour. Thorndike even went farther to include other subordinate Torahs in his theory like – :
a ) . jurisprudence of Multiple Responses: This takes topographic point when a peculiar response fails to give the coveted consequence. This leads to a sequence of responses until success consequences and larning become enhanced.
B ) . The jurisprudence of Set: This by and large describes the overall attitude or preparedness of the person and how these affect acquisition.
degree Celsius ) . The jurisprudence of Response Analogy: This jurisprudence refers to an individual’s response to new state of affairs as influenced by innate inclinations and elements as in old state of affairss to which responses were successfully acquired in the yesteryear.
vitamin D ) . The jurisprudence of Selectivity of Response: This jurisprudence describes the ability of the animate being or an single to larn and to be able to disregard certain facets of procedures that are irrelevant. whilst reacting to the more rewarding 1s.
vitamin E ) . The jurisprudence of Association Switching: This occurs when responses from old stimulations are finally transferred to other responses of other stimulations.
degree Fahrenheit ) . The jurisprudence of Spread Effect: An action or response that produces pleasance has the inclination to be transferred to other Acts of the Apostless. stimulation and actions that took topographic point at the same clip.
Harmonizing to Thorndike. wagess play a really important function in larning. It enhances the happening of positive behaviour in many ways although sometimes it can besides convey approximately negative behaviour. In malice of the many good properties attached to Thorndike’s theory. it has over the old ages been criticized for a few defects associated with the general theory. However it still remains to be seen that the good side of the theory far surpasses the positions of the critics.
BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT THEORYIn discoursing behaviour in Social Work. it is but just to do reference of Behavioral Management Theories and how much they impact the profession of Social Work. The Behavioral Management Theory besides referred to as the human dealingss motion due to its consequence on the human dimension of work. promotes a better apprehension of human behaviour at work. An illustration of such behaviours like struggle. motive group kineticss and outlooks can better productiveness or better still yield favourable consequences. Among some of those Behavioral psychologists are names like Abraham Maslow and others. “This adult male Abraham Maslow. 1908-1970. propounded one of the most widely accepted need theories – the hierarchy of demands. This was a theory of motive that was rooted in the consideration of human demands. happening in a hierarchal order from the least to the highest” . Greene. R. R. . Kropf. N. ( 2009 ) . This theory had three premises:
a ) . Human demands are insatiate.
B ) . Human behaviour has a intent and a motive for satisfaction.
degree Celsius ) . Needs occurs in a hierarchal construction of importance from the least to the highest. Maslow explained the theory of the demands hierarchy in five countries:
1 ) . Physiological demands. Maslow alluded to all physical demands necessary that supports basic human wellbeing. such as nutrient. imbibe etc. into this class. This demand automatically becomes a lesser incentive after it is satisfied. harmonizing to Maslow.
2 ) . Safety needs. Maslow discussed the importance of basic security. stableness. protection and the freedom from fright. These demands are highly of import to the person and go primary motive if left unsated.
3 ) . Belonging and love demands. This demand involves the single nisus to set up relationships with important others after physical and safety demands have been satisfied and are no longer incentives.
4 ) . Esteem needs. This comes to play when the single strives for position. repute. celebrity and glorification.
5 ) . Self-actualization demands. This eventually occurs after all other demands have been satisfied. doing the single indulge in the hunt to happen himself.
Maslow’s hierarchy of demands theory helps Social Workers to visualise client motive. He besides pointed out that a demand that is higher in the hierarchy is ever a ground for behaviour every bit long as the demand below it has been satisfied. There is ever the inclination for unsated lower demands to rule unsated higher demands. This is besides an indispensable characteristic in the work of Social Workers as cognizing where a individual is located on the pyramid of demands facilitates the occupation procedure every bit good as provide aid in finding the right incentives. The demands pyramid is really nomadic and allows for frequent motion upwards or downwards. No 1 stays indefinitely in a peculiar topographic point. Clients who have their basic needs met become much better and easy to work with from the Social Working position. as they are able to concentrate on visions presented to them instead than fighting between options.
INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP FUNCTIONING Social Workers are frequently confronted with the undertaking of working with a group alternatively of individual persons. Peoples who are members of these groups and place with it frequently behave otherwise from the individual person. The behaviour of persons in these groups usually depends on the manner the group is perceived. “There is ever a really significant and important consequence of group rank on behavior peculiarly so in state of affairss with an audience and where feedback is provided” . I. Carter. ( 2011 ) . The construct of group kineticss is borne out of the societal procedure wherein persons interact with one another in a individual environment on a day-to-day footing. This includes the influence of personality. power and behaviour on the group procedure. The actions and behaviour of members bit by bit present inquiries that command the attending of Social Workers. These inquiries differ from group to group. but there are some that are really characteristic in nature to all types of groups and these include: –
a ) . Is the relationship between group members in line with accomplishing group ends?
B ) . is the construction and size of the group supportive of both the undertaking and care of the group?
degree Celsius ) . which function does informal and formal power drama in constructing consensus or stretch determinations within the group?
vitamin D ) . is civilization influenced due to the combination of persons?
It is as a consequence of how these persons. civilizations and other forces interact with the group that the Social worker will be able to understand group effectivity and program his attack. By and large there are two types of groups. formal groups and informal groups. 1 ) . Formal Groups – this describes the groups that are good structured and committed to prosecute a specific end for the good of all the members.
2 ) . Informal Groups – these are like random groups who emerge of course as a consequence of the organisation or member involvement. These involvements may differ and can run from merely a research group holding the duty to develop to a new merchandise. or a group of workers coming together to better their activities etc.
An effectual group public presentation is readily achieved to a big extent as a consequence of the size and composing of the group. By utilizing the word group. we mean from merely two people to every bit much as 500. For a group to be effectual and efficient in its attempt to accomplish the laid out aims. the size of the group plays a really cardinal function. It is besides deserving observing that the larger the group. the more is at that place a likeliness of struggle due to the differences in sentiments and positions coupled with a decreased chance for single acknowledgment. “Membership to a group based on diverseness. expertness or compatibility is non an confidence for success of the group. In order to accomplish ends and aims. members of the group should every bit be committed to the general ends and aims. every bit good as the overall undertaking of the group whilst at the same clip acclimatising themselves to the environment” . J. B. Ashford and W. C. Lecroy. ( 2008 ) .
For any group to be successful there is the demand for social-emotional support by some group members. usually provided by other more capable members. The nature of such support can be in the signifier of the followers: 1. Standard puting – a changeless reminder of members of the group on the norms. regulations and functions of the group. 2. Encouraging – screening grasp and regard for the parts of all members towards the development and care of the group. 3. Harmonizing – Finding ways to settle differences and misconstruing between members of the group. thereby cut downing tenseness within the group. 4. Compromising – members should larn to accept their errors and failings and learn to fall back to ways of rectifying such jobs. 5. Share ideas – free communicating and thought sharing chances for member of the group. 6. Gate maintaining – guarantee the flow of communicating. ease the engagement of all group members and discuss processs for new schemes. No member should experience left behind!
In malice of these positive stairss mentioned supra. there are some actions by some group members that are by and large referred to as self-interest behaviour. This is behavior exhibited by some members of the group that strongly contradicts the initiation values and rules of the group. Sometimes groups face the menace of decomposition or a really slow gait in carry throughing the aims of the group if they are non readily addressed. Behaviors that can be identified as self-interest behaviour include:
a ) . Manipulating – this is the proviso by some members of the group of a self-seeking information or a individual point of position with the purpose of accomplishing consequences that serve merely their involvements.
B ) . Barricading – this refers to an effort by members to alter issues either manner from the point of position of other members to prefer their ain selfish involvements.
degree Celsius ) . Dominating/Controlling – this is the deliberate effort by some members to other members off. garbage to listen to them and even construe their suggestions otherwise.
vitamin D ) . Dividing hairs – This is the act of intentionally detaining on undistinguished issues by some members so as to decelerate down the advancement of the group. with the purpose of sabotaging the positions and purposes of other members of the group.
A really strong concern of Social Workers is the successful direction of both the clients every bit good as groups. It is a affair of precedence to ever run into the demands of the clients and the groups. As human existences. we possess the ability to act in a manner that is appropriate to run into our demands and the response to this behaviour is by manner of physiological reaction instead than understanding. Additionally people respond in defence of their demands or from misconstruing the purposes of others. “All human behaviour consequences from the desire to run into the following demands – physical. societal. emotional. rational and spiritual” . C. Zastrow and K. K. Ashman-Kirst. ( 2006 ) . As a Social Worker there are certain attacks that play an of import function in work outing behavior jobs. These are usually referred to as the five-step Approach to Behavior jobs. In order to accomplish the end of these stairss. it is necessary that the Social Worker keeps a record of the responses to the five stairss by the persons. The stairss in inquiry usually appear in the undermentioned order:
1 ) . Describe the state of affairs – You must ever endeavor to objectively sum up the behaviour and the grounds for the behaviour. No decisions should be made ; alternatively the Social Worker should sketch the facts environing the state of affairs.
2 ) . What is the job? – Make a description of the action and behaviour that poses the job. This should include everything and everybody that is involved.
3 ) . Whose job is it? – Try to place all those that would be affected by the behaviour that is deemed as a job and the extent to which it will impact them.
4 ) . What are the demands? – Attempts should be made by the Social Worker to find the demands of the person every bit good as ballad out schemes on how these demands will be met.
5 ) . Solutions – Look at assorted solutions that could be utile in work outing the job behaviour. Try to entree the solutions in regard to run intoing the existent demands of the group or even the single client.
Working with groups ever airss challenges for the Social Worker as there is ever the inclination to meet behavior jobs. However there are a few guidelines that could be of huge aid to all Social Workers working with either persons or groups. These guidelines relate to the basic worlds of human nature and group behaviour. These guidelines include: –
1 ) . Accept all persons at their different rates of development. Always go to lengths in set uping a affable relationship. This promotes assurance edifice and helps you in your occupation.
2 ) . Work on edifice trust and regard. Always try to do positive remarks and encouragements where possible.
3 ) . All personal feelings and motivations of persons must be recognized and dealt with candidly.
4 ) . Try to be flexible at all times in your attitude in covering with jobs so as to accomplish the best consequences of a job.
5 ) . Rules should non be against the involvement of the group or persons and do certain everybody understands them and their intent. Use elusive methods to set across your message and be certain you are ever impartial in covering with members of the group.
6 ) . Desist from doing menaces you can non or will non transport out. Menaces should ever be avoided and larn to move fleetly and resolutely.
7 ) . Take your clip to explicate every point and make non reason or peck.
8 ) . If you can. seek to disregard some behaviour of the persons as that can besides back up accomplishing consequences.
9 ) . Learn to demo regard to all and handle everybody with equal regard. the same you would desire for yourself.
10 ) . Admit your errors and learn from them.
As a professional Social Worker working successfully with persons and groups. an apprehension of the demands of both the persons and groups coupled with other properties like forbearance and tolerance is of tremendous importance. Like I stated in the old paragraphs. Social Work takes topographic point in different establishments runing from schools. medical installations. household places. rectification installations. local communities and a batch more other establishments. The diverseness of the establishments that demand the aid of Social Workers lends acceptance to the fact that as a Social Worker. you will be meeting different people from different backgrounds.
This diverseness in the civilization and moralss of the different people encountered during the exercising of responsibility demands a thorough professionalism and a well-structured and experient attack form the Social Workers. There are ever immense challenges confronting Social Workers. but the nature of contact and attack from the workers is ever a really strong determiner in work outing the jobs that may originate during the procedure of job resolution. A good Social Worker is one that easy identifies a job behaviour and rapidly reacts to rectify the behaviour. The coming of the profession of Social Work has so made the universe a better topographic point as it is poised to turn to all societal issues faced by persons. groups and communities. This is apparent since the yearss of Mary Robinson in the nineteenth century and even before and it continues to today in the modern epoch. Without Social Workers the universe will be a different topographic point. full of pandemonium and so many untold societal jobs.
Human Behavior is a really complex construct due to its diverse and complicated nature. It is hence the duty of Social Workers to be able to cover with these diversenesss in the behaviour of the persons and groups they come into contact with on a day-to-day footing. This duty demands preparation and a really tolerant and elusive attack on the portion of the workers in order to accomplish their aims. The function of the environment and the society is really polar in finding behaviour particularly in kids ; as a consequence it is really of import for societal workers to be grounded in the traditions and norms of the societies and communities they operate. An in-depth apprehension of these traditions and norms play a critical function in helping the Social Workers with their duties. It is ever a good thing to set the persons before the work and non frailty versa.
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2 ) . Carter. I. ( 2011 ) . Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 6th edition. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
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8 ) . Hutchison. Elizabeth. D. ( 2010 ) . Dimensions of Human Behavior. 4th edition. United kingdom: Sage Publications.
9 ) . Parrish. M. ( 2009 ) . Social Work Perspectives on Human Behavior. 1st edition. United kingdom: Open University Press.
10 ) . Zastrow. C. . Ashman-Kirst. K. K. ( 2006 ) . Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment. 8th edition. USA: Academic Internet Publishers.
1 ) . Kurzban. R and Mace. R. Evolution and Human Behavior – official diary of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society. 2008. Vol. 3. pg. 17-23. 7p
2 ) . Cashmore. Anthony. R. The Lucretian Swerve: The biological footing of Human Behavior and the condemnable justness system. January 12. 2010. Vol. 107. no. 10. pg. 11-16. 6p
3 ) . Familial and Environmental influences on Human Behavioral differences – vol. 21 – 24
Cite this Human Behavior and the Social Environment Sample
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