Unit IC01The principals of infection prevention and control| The answers can be achieved either by a candidate’s written statement or through professional discussion with an assessor Aim This unit is aimed at those who work in health or social care settings or with children or young people in a wide range of settings. The unit introduces the central importance of infection control and prevention in such settings. Credit 3 Level 2 Learning Outcomes 1. Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infection.
2. Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections 3. Understand systems and procedures relating to prevention and control of infections.
4 . Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections. 5. Understand the importance of using personal protective equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infections. 6. Understand the importance of good personal hygienebin the prevention and control of infection.
Task One (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 1. 1)| Explain employer’s roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infections. Employer’s roles and responsibilities includes: making sure employees are aware of the health and safety aspects of their work. For example posting information on notice boards, keeping an information file such as COSHH, training, and providing supervision. The need to keep records in relation to infection control using appropriate documentation.
To ensure that the relevant standards, policies and guidelines are available within the workplace. | Task Two (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 1. 2)| Explain employees responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection:To ensure that their own health and hygiene not pose a risk to service users and colleagues. To ensure effective hand washing is carried out when working with service users, giving personal care, handling/preparing food. To ensure they use protective clothing provided when needed and appropriate. |
Task Three (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 2. 1)| Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection: The Health and Social Care Act 2008 and Code of PracticeThe Health and Social Care Act 2008, Code of Practice for health and adult social care on the prevention and control of infections and related guidance (Department of Health 2009) requires all organisations which provide health and adult social care to have policies, procedures and protocols in place which minimise the risk of infection.
This Act came into force in April 2009 for NHS care providers and is used by the Care Quality Commission to assess compliance with the registration requirements on ‘cleanliness and infection prevention and control’. Independent health and adult social care will be brought into registration under the Health and Social Care Act 2008 from October 2010 and the Code has been revised to cover all adult health and social care providersThe Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 – Employers, employees and the self-employed have a duty to protect, so far as is reasonably practicable, those at work who may be affected by work activity.
The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 This includes biological agents such as Hepatitis C Virus and employers are required to assess risk and implement adequate and appropriate control measures. The Management of Health at Work Regulations 1999 – Employers are obliged to make a suitable and sufficient assessment of the risks to health and then apply risk control measures based on this. The Reporting of Incidences, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 – Requires employers to report specific incidents to the Health and Safety Executive.
Incidents involving acute illness requiring medical treatment, when there is a reason to believe it was the result of exposure to infected material. Personal Protective Equipment at work regulations 1992 – personal protective equipment is to be supplied and used at work wherever there are risks to health and safety that cannot be adequately controlled in other ways. The public Health ( Control of diseases ) Act 1984 – The early reporting of communicable diseases is essential in largely preventable diseases.
If a medical practitioner becomes aware or suspects is suffering from a notifiable disease or food poisoning, report to the local authority officerThe Management of Health & safety at work Regulations 1999 – The main requirement on employers is to carry out a risk assessment. make arrangements to implement necessary measures, appoint competent people and arrange for appropriate information and training Employers with five or more employees need to record the significant findings of the risk assessment.
The environmental protection(Duty of care) Regulations 1991 – imposes a duty of care on anyone who has a responsibility for healthcare waste at any stage from its production to its disposal in order to ensure that it is legally and safely managed. Hazardous waste Regulations 2005 – If your workplace produces over 500kgof hazardous waste in any year it needs to register with the Environment Agency. The regulation provides an effective system of control for those wastes that are harmful to human or the environment or are difficult to handle.
Health protection Agency Bill – created under the National Health Service Act 1977 to provide an improved response to the threat from infectious diseasesThe public Health (Infectious diseases) Regulation 1988 – Doctors have a statutory responsibility to notify if they suspect one of their patients has an infectious disease The listed diseases require Notification to the proper authorities. The aim of Notification is to identify infection risks and institute appropriate control measures. Food safety Act 1990 – * Good personal hygiene practices should be observed at all times.
Always wash your hands after using the toilet, before handling food and between handling raw and cooked food. Cuts and boils should be covered with a blue waterproof dressing. Food handlers should wear clean, protective clothing including a suitable hair cover. * Food handlers should avoid handling food in such a manner that allows cross contamination from raw to cooked foods. Separate equipment and work surfaces should be used when handling raw and cooked food. Also a separate wash hand basin must be provided solely for the use of washing hands.
* Raw and cooked food should always be kept apart so as to avoid cross contamination. * Food must be kept piping hot or cold to prevent the growth of bacteria. Refrigerators should operate at 5°C or colder. Freezers should operate at -18°C or colder. The Food safety (General food hygiene) Regulation (DOH) 1995 – you must: * make sure food is supplied or sold in a hygienic way; * identify food safety hazards; * know which steps in your activities are critical for food safety; * ensure safety controls are in place, maintained and reviewed.
NICE (National Institute for clinical excellence) Guideline– provides guidance, sets quality standards and manages a national database to improve people’s health and prevent and treat ill health. | Task Four (Unit ICO1 – Assessment Criteria 2. 2) | Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection:You will need to look up your organisations policies and procedures manual and obtain a copy of their policy for your portfolio. You can then write a short description of each of the relevant policies which cover this part of the outcome.
| Task Five (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 3. 1)| Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection:Standard Operation Procedures (S. O. Ps), it covers the health and safety policy along with other legislations and regulatory body standards in accordance to the prevention and control of infection. These policies include instructions of how to carry out ‘safe’ manual handling; they also include departmental dress codes, health, safety and hygiene codes, corrective and preventive actions, cleaning procedures and pest control.
These standards set up by the company will reduce the risk of infections spreading and reduce the risk of hazards occurring. In a working environment that has lost of infectious substances, there are lots of procedures to ensure the risk of these spreading is reduced dramatically, if all policies and procedures are followed to the highest of standards then infections spreading should not occur and all staff will be able to work in a clean and safe environment Personal Protective Equipment
One important S. O. P procedures involves personal protective equipment to eliminate the possibility of cross contamination. Employees working in each room are clearly identified according to the task in which they are conducting. For example, in what is classed as the “dirty room”, primary sterilisation area you must wear green scrubs, gloves, eye protection and plastic disposable aprons. However for the clean room, you must wear blue scrubs and white clogs and a hair net.
All employees are expected to change their attire before entering another area, the attire worn must be that of the room in which they are entering. | Task Six (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 3. 2)| Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation:Classically the term ‘outbreak’ is used when there are two or more related cases with the same infection at the same time in one clinical area. On occasion the presence of organisms related to only one case may be termed an ‘outbreak’.
The rapid recognition of any outbreak is vital. Members of staff must report any suspicion of an outbreak to a member of the Infection Prevention and Control Service (IPCS). b. The IPCS will assess the extent and severity of any suspected outbreak, provide advice on immediate infection control measures, and decide whether an outbreak has occurred. Viral outbreaks of diarrhoea and vomitingElderly service users may suffer more adverse effects and may develop problems with hydration and nutrition.
If service users become dehydrated the senior care worker should contact the community matron who may be able to provide support and advice to rehydrate the service user and prevent unnecessary admission to hospital thereby reducing the risk of further spread. In the event of an outbreak service users will * be asked to stay in their own room. * The care home you are in may be closed to admissions and transfers. * Staff will be wearing gloves and aprons when they provide any care for service users. * Contact with other service users will be restricted. * Service users visitors will be informed.
* Hand washing for the service user is very important after visiting the toilet and before meals. * Do not share any of food or drink with other service users * Open food and drink i. e. fruit bowls and water jugs will be removed. | Task Seven (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 4. 1)| Define the term risk: * exposure to the chance of injury or loss; * A hazard or dangerous chance. * A probability or threat of damage, injury, liability, loss, or any other negative occurrence that is caused by external or internal vulnerabilities, and that may be avoided through pre-emptive action.
| Task Eight (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 4. 2)| Outline the potential risk of infection within the workplace:Risks of infection in the work place include: spreading disease to customers or employees, not meeting health standards which could get the workplace fined or shut down. Infections can spread in 5 ways: Airborne Contaminated ‘things’ example: transfer from one person to another via an object. Skin to skin contact example: transfer from one person to another directly Transfer of Body Fluids Food Poisoning
An example of each: Coughs and Sneezes Not washing your hands after using the toilet Transfer of dirt on your hand to someone else’s Cleaning up blood or ‘whatever’ without gloves Fridge in staff room at wrong temperature and things kept in it for too long. | Task Nine (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 4. 3)| Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment: 1. Identify the hazards – When you work in a place everyday it is easy to overlook some hazards, so here are some tips to help you identify the ones that matter: 2.
Decide who might be harmed and how – For each hazard you need to be clear about who might be harmed; it will help you identify the best way of managing the risk. 3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions – Having spotted the hazards, you then have to decide what to do about them. The law requires you to do everything ‘reasonably practicable’ to protect people from harm. 4. Record your findings and implement them – Putting the results of your risk assessment into practice will make a difference when looking after people and your business. 5.
Review your risk assessment and update if necessary | Task Ten (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 4. 4)| Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment:Risk assessments are very important as they form an integral part of a good occupational health and safety management plan. They help to: 1. Create awareness of hazards and risks. 2. Identify who may be at risk (employees, cleaners, visitors, contractors, the public, etc). 3. Determine if existing control measures are adequate or if more should be done. 4. Prevent injuries or illnesses when done at the design or planning stage.
5. Prioritize hazards and control measures. | Task Eleven (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 5. 1)| Describe different types of PPE:• Gloves – protect hands• Gowns/aprons – protect skin and/or clothing • Masks and respirators– protect mouth/nose – Respirators – protect respiratory tract from airborne infectious agents• Goggles – protect eyes• Face shields – protect face, mouth, nose, and eyes| Task Twelve (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 5. 2)| Explain the reason for use of PPE:to create a protective barrier between the worker and hazards in the workplace. To also avoid cross infection.
| Task Thirteen (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 5. 3)| State the current relevant regulations and legislations relating to PPE:PPE at Work Regulations 1992 is that personal protective equipment is to be supplied and used at work wherever there are risks to health and safety that cannot be adequately controlled in other ways. The Regulations also require that PPE: * is properly assessed before use to ensure it is suitable; * is maintained and stored properly; * is provided with instructions on how to use it safely; and * is used correctly by employees. |
Task Fourteen (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 5. 4)| Describe employee’s responsibilities regarding the use of PPE: * Ensure that PPE provided is used, maintained and cleaned in accordance with the training, instruction and information received and used for official purposes only (unless prior management approval obtained). * Take all reasonable steps to return PPE to storage accommodation provided for it after use. If not possible, to take all-reasonable steps to safeguard the condition of PPE when temporarily stored elsewhere.
* Regularly examine PPE and report any defect, damage or loss to their manager/supervisor. * Inform their manager/supervisor of any medical conditions that may affect their ability to wear or use PPE| Task Fifteen (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 5. 5)| Describe employers responsibilities regarding the use of PPE: * Familiarise themselves with the content of this Code, and actively inform staff. * Ensure that specific assessments are carried out for both the risk to be protected against and the different types of PPE that could be used to protect an individual from that risk.
* Ensure that employees receive suitable and sufficient information, instruction and training with regard to PPE supplied. * Take all reasonable steps to ensure the full and proper use, storage, maintenance, cleaning, examination, repair and replacement of PPE. * Periodically carry out recorded audits of any PPE held by team members. | Task Sixteen (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 5. 6)| Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE:GLOVES * Checking gloves before putting them on. Never use gloves with tears or holes.
Check they are not cracked or faded * Pull gloves on ensuring they fit correctly. If wearing a gown pull the gloves over the cuffs * Take them off by pulling from the cuff – this turns the glove inside out * Pull off the 2nd glove whilst holding the 1st. The two gloves will fold together * Dispose of them in the correct waste bin and wash handsAPRONS * Remove the apron promptly after use by turning the outer contaminated side inward and rolling into a ball. Dispose of immediately into a pedal operated bin and wash hands.
| Task Seventeen (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 5. 7)| Describe the correct procedure for the disposal of used PPE:PPE such as gloves, aprons and masks are single use items and should be disposed of after each procedure or activity to prevent cross-transmission of micro-organisms. When these items are worn primarily to protect the wearer, the importance of their prompt removal between tasks on the same patient/client or between patients can easily be overlooked and give rise to the possibility of contamination.
All PPE must be removed before leaving the area and disposed of correctly, and any body fluids that have inadvertently contaminated the skin washed off immediately. PPE should not replace other infection prevention and control practices such as hand hygiene. | Task Eighteen (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 6. 1)| Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene:Learning to properly take care of your body is one of the most important life skills you will learn. Proper personal hygiene requires you to take care of your body to prevent illness and keep your body healthy and clean.
[Practicing good personal hygiene can also prevent the spread of germs to others. Personal hygiene does not always refer to keeping your body clean, but also extends to the spaces where you live and work| Task Nineteen (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 6. 2)| Describe the correct sequence for hand washing: 1. Wet your hands using warm, running water. Add soap. 2. During the handwashing process, rub your hands vigorously for a minimum of 20 seconds, paying special attention to the backs of your hands, wrists, in between your fingers and underneath your fingernails. 3.
Rinse well while leaving the water running. 4. With the water continuing to run, use a single-use towel and pat your hands dry. 5. Turn off the water faucet using the paper towel covering your clean hands to prevent recontamination. | Task Twenty (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 6. 3)| Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out:You should wash your hands before and after any procedure which has involved contact with an individual or with any body fluids, soiled items or clinical waste, even if you were wearing gloves. This is to prevent the risk of transfer of micro organisms.
The basic rule is to wash hands if they look dirty, before preparing food and after handling uncooked meat and poultry, before eating, after coughing, sneezing, or blowing one’s nose into a tissue, after using the bathroom, and after touching animals or anything in the animal’s environment. To assist care workers The World Health Organisation (WHO) has identified “five moments for hand hygiene”. 1. Clean your hands before touching a service user. 2. Clean your hands after touching a service user and the immediate surroundings. 3. Clean your hands immediately before an aseptic technique.
4. Clean your hands immediately after an exposure risk to body fluids (and after glove removal). 5. Clean your hands after touching any object or furniture in the service user’s immediate surrounding when leaving – even if the service user has not been touched. | Task Twenty One (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 6. 4)| Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing:. Liquid soap In most care home settings, hand washing with liquid soap (preferably one that contains an emollient) and water is all that is required. There is no need to use antibacterial soaps.
Liquid soap dispensers should be provided. These should be wall mounted, kept clean and maintained regularly. The dispenser should have single use cartridges that are discarded when empty in order to reduce the risk of accidental contamination and cross infection. Soap dispensers must not be refilled or topped upPaper towelsSoft user-friendly paper towels should be provided for drying hands. These should be provided in wall mounted holders that are easy to use and clean. Alcohol- based handrubIf your hands look clean, use an alcohol-based handrub, where supplied.
Make sure the solution used covers all the surfaces of your hands. Rub them together vigorously, remembering the tips of your fingers, your thumbs and the areas between the fingers. Rub it in until it has evaporated and your hands are dry. Alcohol hand rubs should be available for use at the point of care. Alcohol hand rubs are useful in many situations when caring for people in the community especially for domiciliary care and are recommended for use to compliment hand washing with soap and water when appropriate.
Alcohol hand rubs also provide a quick and effective method of disinfecting clean hands when hand washing facilities are limited. After using on a maximum of five consecutive occasions hands should be washed with soap and water in order to prevent a build up of residue on the hands. They are not suitable for use on hands that are soiled or during outbreaks of diarrhoeal illness (Clostridium difficile and norovirus) when washing with soap and water is necessary. Hand wipesImpregnated hand wipes are not as effective as hand washing or the use of alcohol hand rub and should not be used as a substitute.
| Task Twenty Two (Unit IC01 – Assessment Criteria 6. 5)| Describe correct procedure that relate to skincare:1. Always read the label on a product before you use it. 2. Avoid skin contact with substances which may be harmful as much as possible. 3. Wear the correct gloves for the task and as instructed by your manager. 4. Never wear gloves which are torn or share gloves with another person. 5. Never let liquids come in over the top of your gloves. 6. Wash hands after removing gloves. 7.
Report immediately to your manager any: • Skin irritation; or • Puncture wounds, cuts or abrasions which occur at work and obtain first aid if necessary. 8. Cover your cuts and wounds with a waterproof self adhesive plaster when at work and change it at least daily. 9. Keep your skin clean but do not use abrasives to clean your skin. Wash or replace cotton liners frequently. 10. Use the recommended hand cream several times a day to keep your skin soft. | Candidate Name:| | Candidate Signature:| | Date:| | Additional Comments: Assessor Name:| | Assessor Signature:| | Date:| | Additional Comments:
Cite this Hygiene and Assessment Criteria
Hygiene and Assessment Criteria. (2016, Sep 03). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/hygiene-and-assessment-criteria/