September 21, 2012 Web Applications – College Now Homework – Identifying computer related terms and critical thinking questions. 1. Identify and/or describe each of the following computers related terms. Bit: Comes from the phrase “Binary DigIT. ” A bit is a single digit number in base-2 (a zero or a one) and is the smallest unit of computer data. A full page of text is composed of about 16,000 bits. Byte: A byte is a unit of measurement used to measure data. One byte contains eight binary bits, or a series of eight zeros and ones. Therefore, each byte can be used to represent 2^8 or 256 different values.
Computer: A programmable machine. This means it can execute a programmed list of instructions and respond to new instructions that it is given. Input: Whenever you enter data into your computer, it is referred to as input. This can be text typed in a word processing document, keywords entered in a search engine’s search box, or data entered into a spreadsheet. Output: Data generated by a computer is referred to as output. This includes data produced at a software level, such as the result of a calculation, or at a physical level, such as a printed document.
Processing: A process is a program that is running on your computer. This can be anything from a small background task, such as a spell-checker or system events handler to a full-blown application like Internet Explorer or Microsoft Word. All processes are composed of one or more threads. Storage: A computer storage device is any type of hardware that stores data. The most common type of storage device, which nearly all computers have, is a hard drive. The computer’s primary hard drive stores the operating system, applications, and files and folders for users of the computer. 2.
Critical Thinking Skills Describe the four operations of computers. The four operations of a computer include input, processing, output, and storage. Together these actions make up the information processing cycle. By following a set of instructions, called a program, the computer turns raw data into organized information that people can use. Contrast analog and digital computing. Analog computers measure data on a scale with many values. Think of the scales on a mercury thermometer or on the gas gauge of a car. A digital computer, however, works with data that has a fixed value.
They use data in digital or number form. The computers that run programs for playing games or searching the Internet are digital computers. Explain why computer data is coded as a series of zeros and ones. What the computer does depends on the instructions, or program, given to the computer. These instructions are written in binary code, using combinations of 0s and 1s. They might tell the computer to add two numbers, or they might have the computer compare two numbers to see which is larger. Computers can process data at a very rapid speed; performing millions of operations every second.
The ability to process data with lighting speed is another reason computers are so valuable We ordinarily count using the decimal or base 10 system. That system has 10 values, 0 through 9. But you can express many numbers using values. You simply add additional places – the 10s, the 100s, and so on. Each place is 10 times larger than the previous place. In a binary system, the quantity represented by each place is 2 times the previous quantity. In an 8-digit binary number the places are the 1s, 2s, 4s, 8s, 16s, 32s, 64s, and 128s. Identify three benefits of computers. One benefit of a computer is the storage.
Computers can store nearly anything at anytime. This allows us to access the information over and over wherever we are. What we do one day can we opened and worked on again another day. Another benefit of a computer is speed. Computers can process data very rapidly; this allows us to perform millions of operations every second with a click of a button. The last benefit of a computer would be accessibility. A computer can be nearly used for anything, from something small like online portfolios to real-world tech such as robotic controls. Computers are simple and efficient.