MANAGEMENT OF INTERNALLY DISPLACED PEOPLE (IDPs) IN RELATION TO MASSIVE DISPLACEMENT IN SWAT VALLEY ©Aftab Hussain Malik, Ejaz Ahmed Bhatti [pic] Dr. Nadeem Ehsan, Chairman, EM Department CASE, Islamabad, Pakistan. Tel: +92518432273 Correspondence regarding this paper should be addressed to: Dr. Nadeem Ehsan Email: [email protected] com Authors Profile Aftab Hussain Malik Malik is a Mechanical Engineer and doing Masters in Engineering Management and working for the cause of IDPs in Pakistan. Ejaz Ahmed Bhatti
Bhatti is an Electrical Engineer and doing Masters in Engineering Management and working for the cause of IDPs in Pakistan under the umbrella of Saviours Social Organization (SSO), Pakistan.
“When planning for a year, plant corn. When planning for a decade, plant trees. When planning for life, train and educate people “. Abstract The paper aims to formulate a comprehensive design scheme to manage the internally displaced people (IDPs) inside and outside of the camps. As almost two million internally displaced persons (IDPs) have fled to camps, homes, schools and other places of shelter across Pakistan.
It proposes modeling of well thought plan of camps, which can not only accommodate the people but also provide all basic and social necessities. The study do not restrict its domain to IDPs ,but offers detailed guidelines to cater such like mishaps in future as well. Methodology: The paper opted for research study due to lack of guidelines in the subject, thus including detailed planning of the issue, few interviews and one expert group discussion The data were complemented by study analysis, including national and international reviews, consulting official documents, descriptions of internal processes.
Findings: This paper provides thoughtful insights about how major change can be brought out in managing IDPs during such uncertain and transit phase. It is suggested that well thought out implementation of this concept will bring a well coordinated system, which can be an “integrating force” at the national and international levels: integrating the elements of social sector, and making a bond between the society and the individual. Research Limitations: Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may vary to area and nature of calamity and displacement in its certain aspects.
Therefore, researchers are encouraged to test the proposed propositions further. Practical Implications: Doubtlessly, the paper includes implications for the development of a procedure, which thus can be the beginning towards massive development in the field of rescue and relief to larger number of people. Originality: This paper fulfils an identified need to manage the IDPs on humanitarian basis. Keywords: Swat, Internally displaced people, IDPs, Humanitarian basis, Leadership, Social change, NGOs. Introduction
Swat is a valley and an administrative district in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan located 160 km/100 miles from Islamabad, the capital of Pakistan. It is the upper valley of the Swat River, which rises in the Hindu Kush range. The capital of Swat is Saidu Sharif, but the main town in the Swat valley is Mingora. It was a princely state in the NWFP until it was dissolved in 1969. With high mountains, green meadows, and clear lakes, it is a place of great natural beauty that used to be popular with tourists as “the Switzerland of Pakistan”.
The wanton excesses perpetrated by Taliban against innocent civilians in Bajaur, Swat, and Buner and the sequential military counter offensives reportedly have driven over a million citizens of Pakistan from their homes and turned them into refugees within their own country. The UN system euphemistically classifies these unfortunate men, women, and children as IDPs, who are herded into makeshift camps where they may languish for years and often are unable to return to their hearth and home.
International aid pours in with its legions of humanitarian aid organisations and workers. And in the process, once resilient and self-sufficient people become wards of international charity, bereft of dignity and hope. These camps, while they provide relief and shelter, also generate grief, despair and resentment in an odd milieu of dependence and entitlement. And these camps become the breeding ground of deep social malaise and dysfunction, as seen from the IDP experience in Darfur, Congo, Palestine and other strife stricken regions.
The anatomy of the current man-made disaster in NWFP is not that different from a natural disaster like an earthquake or floods. And one would have expected the Pakistani citizenry and the government to respond to this crisis with the same zeal and organisation that was shown after the 2005 earthquake that struck parts of Azad Kashmir and NWFP. This operation will require careful planning and sustained resolve, with protection of civilians and avoidance of wanton destruction of property a basic operational tenet.
It is hoped that the military and civilian authorities would begin soon to organise an orderly evacuation of civilians from the war zone to safer areas using protected vehicle convoys and air force cover where necessary. No military necessity can justify the abandonment of innocent civilians the heartbreaking scenes of desperate women, children, and the aged fleeing the conflict zone on foot with no support or protection as if they were refugees spilling over a foreign border. They are citizens of Pakistan.
In addressing the current IDP crisis, it would be wise to remember how a nascent, fledgling State of Pakistan managed the massive displacement caused by the Great Partition in 1947. Refugee camps had to be established to provide relief in face of the massive dislocation but it goes to the credit of the country’s leaders at the time that all such camps were dismantled within a year and the refugees relocated to towns and cities across Pakistan. The country relied on its own limited resources and citizenry to respond to the refugee crisis. The young Pakistan Army rose to the occasion in the service of the people.
The Pakistani government and its leadership today must avoid internationalising the current IDP problem and as far as possible rely on domestic resources and means to care for its internally displaced citizens. According to the Provincial Government, there are 558,125 families registered as IDPs in Pakistan. Of this number, the National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) have verified almost 261,750 families, or approximately 1. 9 million people, to date. Of this figure, 96 percent are people registered in the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP); 2. percent in Punjab; and 1. 5 percent in other urban centers of Pakistan including Karachi. The registration verification process is continuing and expected to be completed in the coming weeks. The focus of humanitarian activities continues to be the needs of the displaced living in camps, schools, and with host communities. Planning and preparedness activities are continuing in the evolving humanitarian context. The recently established Returns Task Force is focusing on the operationalization of possible IDP returns to their area of origin.
The Task Force coordinates and implements a phased return process respecting the humanitarian standards of voluntary, safe and informed return. Some spontaneous returns are taking place in Bajaur and Buner. Security concerns still prevail and make cluster planning in areas of origin challenging, given the lack of information on needs outside the large population centers. Food distributions have taken place in Bajaur. A UN security assessment mission to Buner revealed that the situation has greatly improved in comparison to the previous mission on 28 May.
A number of IDPs appear to have returned and local activity has restarted. This situation resulted in a greater discomfort of the local population along with their migration to the other areas of the province and across the country. The government was also put in pressure to act against the militants. The majority of the local population continued shifting to Mardan and Swabi in order to save their lives and avoid conflict. The IDPs are settled in camps at Swabi, Mardan, and Nowshehra other than the people who are residing with their relatives across the country and especially in NWFP.
The situation was getting worst even at the time of the assessment process. This largest displacement in the history of Pakistan has developed an immense pressure over the government to deal with the issues of shelter, safety, food and other basic needs of the IDPs. The international humanitarian community has also stepped forward to support the Government of Pakistan to meet the challenge of IDPs and their resettlement process. The UN agencies are ever committed to respond to the needs of this greater population on urgent and immediate basis along with the other international and national organisations.
The research revealed many facts with some significant observations as below: A good number respondents reported for accessing safe dinking water; however 94% of the total interviewed population is found using no water treatment practices at all. Use of open water storage is also seen at household and community level with some dirty vessels at community level. The use of latrines at household level is satisfactory but at the camps level it is critical in terms of sufficiency and functionality of available latrines both for male and female.
The practices of washing hands before eating and after defecation both at household and community level requires education and awareness to the community along with provision of basic facilities of water and soaps to camps level to improve the hygiene and sanitation condition. Farming is found as a major source of income of the IDPs and a greater loss on the sources of income including food crop, cash crop, fodder crop and animals has been observed. The extent of loss of all means of livelihoods falls mostly under ‘complete’ or ‘badly damaged’ that shows the extent of damage of the income sources of IDPs.
The families of IDPs are not seen concerned with the education of their children as being scattered population or even at camps. The education is not a priority since they are confronting other issues of food, health and shelter. The majority of education facilities in the five districts with higher number of primary school are being occupied by the IDPs. If this situation prolongs after mid of august; the issue of education of children of the settled population would arise. [pic] Management of IDPs – The Research Methodology
Doubtlessly internally displaced people are adversely threatened by widespread human rights violations and inter and intrastate conflict. It’s not only that they have been forced to flee their homes and area to avoid such situations, but they also lack the protections guaranteed in the Refugee Convention. In particular, using a constructivist perspective, this paper will suggest that management of internally displaced people represents an emerging norm and concern. The paper will begin by examining the existing rrangements of the ERRA and NDMC on Internal Displacement, which are based on international rules and establish specific protections for the displaced. Then, in order to demonstrate that these Principles are having an effect, efforts are made to suggest a procedure which if adopted can create major shift in this particular problem not only pertinent to Swat valley but elsewhere as well. The substantially different justifications offered by the two governments does suggest norm emergence. This study aimed at collecting the information about the IDPs residing at camps and host families.
The information ranges from their issues of poverty and vulnerability to health, education, sanitation, shelter and livelihood. The study also covered the gender aspect by having a split of male and female population for most of the queries. A concentrated effort was made to develop the basis for the data required for obtaining the maximum information for the purpose of planning, resource allocation and responding to the immediate needs of IDPs. A broad based consultative process was followed to incorporate each cluster’s head with its pertinent concerns. Research Scope
The study was carried out in five districts of NWFP including Peshawar, Charsadda, Swabi, Mardan and Noshehra. The questionnaires include information at household and community level. A total of 600 household and 400 community groups were interviewed. About 60% representative size at household was covered from district Mardan, 20% from Swabi and 20% from the rest of three districts. The detail of household per district is as follows: The figure shows that the highest representative sample has been taken from Mardan with 59% and the lowest from Peshawar with 5%.
Swabi represents the second higher representation of the household sample with 19%, followed by Charsadda, Nowshehra and Peshawar. A total of 176 camps/ schools were accessed and interviewed. The district wise detail of the camps and schools is as follows: Details of Communities Interviewed | |Camps |Schools | |Districts | | | |No |% |No |% | |Mardan |64 |73 |64 |72 | |Swabi |6 |6. 8 |7 |7. 8 | |Charsadda |5 |5. 7 |5 |5. | |Nowshehra |7 |8 |8 |8. 9 | |Peshawar |5 |5. 7 |5 |5. 6 | |Total |87 |100 |89 |100 | The highest representation has been taken from Mardan with more than 70% for schools and camps each. Rest of the district bear almost the same sample representatives both for schools and camps.
Basic Information (Household and Community) Place of origin of IDPs The highest number of IDPs has been found from Swat with 57% and the lowest from Shangla with 0. 2%. The second higher rate of displacement has been found from Bunir with 32. 9%. Mother Language The mother tongue of the 99% IDPs is Pashto that can be seen in the following figure in comparison to the other two languages Gojri and Kohistani. Duration of Stay at the Present Locations The highest population with 69% has been found with 3 – 4 weeks’ stay at the present locations. However, 16% IDPs were found with two months’ stay at the current sites.
The lowest population of 0. 2% has been found with four months’ stay while 3% reported unawareness of the exact duration of their migration period. Another view of the IDPs in terms of their district wise settlement shows that the highest number of IDPs has been found in range of 3 – 4 weeks and with the same duration of stay; the highest number has been found in district Nowshehra i. e. 84%. District Wise Duration of Stay at Site Less than two days or about 2 – 3 days stay has been observed as insignificant in all the districts that show the majority of IDPs have been shifted since longer than a week.
Average Household Size of the Displaced Family The study reveals that the average household size is 9 with 5 males and 4 females. Among districts, the family size ranges from 7 – 11 members. The highest family size is found in district Peshawar with 11 members, followed by 10 members in district Swabi and 9 members in district Mardan. The lowest family size is found in district Charsadda with 7members. |District Name |Average Female Population |Average Male Population |Total Population | |Charsadda |3. 3 |4. 02 |7. 45 | |Mardan |4. 37 |5. 05 |9. 42 | |Nowshehra |4. 2 |4. 14 |8. 34 | |Peshawar |5. 15 |5. 52 |10. 67 | |Swabi |4. 6 |5. 57 |10. 03 | |Total |4. 33 |5. 01 |9. 34 | The average female members within a household are 4 in comparison to 5 male members. The highest female number is found in district Peshawar with 5 members and lowest in Charsadda with 3 members. The highest family size with male members is found with 6 members in district Swabi followed by Peshawar and Mardan with a little deviation.
Households of the Displaced Families with More than Five Dependants at Camps and Schools |Percentage families with more than 5 dependants | |District |Households with ;5 dependants | |Charsadda |70. 0 | |Mardan |81. | |Nowshera |75.. 2 | |Peshawar |74. 7 | |Swabi |76. 2 | |Total |80. 8 | The following table shows the percentage of families with more than five dependants at camps and schools.
Majority of the families have more children and elderly people to take care of them. Around 81% of the families fall in this category. The highest amongst the five districts is found in Mardan where 82% families are found with more than five dependents, followed by Swabi with 76%. The lowest percent is found in Charsadda with 70. The prevailing high dependency rate leads to the higher rate of vulnerability. The total number of respondents at community level includes 176 out of which almost 51% reside in schools and 49% in camps. AVERAGE NUMBER OF FAMILIES PER DISTRICT BY TYPE OF LOCATION | |District | |District |Decanter |Closed storage |Open storage |Dirty vessels | | |storage | | | | |Charsadda |9. |9. 1 |72. 7 |9. 1 | |Mardan |0. 8 |44. 5 |48. 4 |6. 3 | |Nowshehra |0 |14. 3 |85. 7 |0. 0 | |Peshawar |0 |50. 0 |50. 0 |0. 0 | |Swabi |0 |92. 9 |7. |0. 0 | |Average |2 |46. 1 |52. 8 |3. 1 | If we compare the water storage practice of individuals with the IDPs living in camps and schools, we found that 52% of IDPs living in the camps and schools use open storage. The highest percentage of camps and schools with open storage facility were found in Nowshera (86%) followed by Charsadda. The community level practices in Mardan and Charsadda shows 6% and 9% dirty vessels storage respectively.
On average, 46% of the camps/schools have access to closed storage. Availability of Sufficient Latrines at Camps/ Schools LevelIf we make a comparison of the availability of sufficient latrines at community level; we would see a higher number of dissatisfaction over the availability of latrines at camps and Schools level. We can see in the table below that the highest percent of dissatisfaction with the availability of latrine is found in district Mardan with 61% followed by district 54% in Swabi. The lowest rate of dissatisfaction can be seen in district Nowshehra with 7%.
We had discussed earlier that the major burden of the fled population is found to be settled in district Mardan where such issues are critically spotted. Livelihood/Agriculture/Food Security Agriculture is the main source of livelihood of the people of conflict zone. The land texture and type of weather conditions of Swat valley and the connecting areas; make them a perfect agricultural zone. The under discussion districts of Swat, Buner, Shangla and Lower Dir along with Malakand Agency are known for their specialized agricultural products of high quality all over the country.
We find abundant crops in Swat ranging from almonds to onions and wheat to lintel. Some special fruit commodities like peaches, plums are known for Swat. Three in every five peaches that Pakistanis enjoy come from Swat. One in three pears and every seventh apple and plum also come from one of the five districts that fall in the conflict zone. Buner and Lower Dir are also known for their minor cash crops while Malakand and Shangla produce good quantities of maize and paddy. Swat leads the other four in production of fruits by a big margin. The five districts are also the main source of persimmon.
Swat valley is the vegetable and fruit basket for the entire country. This conflict has ruined this whole prosperous economy of the inhabitant of Swat and this part of the study would unpack the same i. e. source of income of the displaced families, affect of conflict on the sources of income, agricultural assets of the families and their losses, food security and the related issues of food security. The study would suggest the findings to deal with the issues of livelihood and food security on the basis of acquired information. Source of Income of IDPs
Farming has been found as the major occupation of the IDPs with 23% followed by trading/ shop keeping with 17%, skilled labour with 16%, Govt service and unskilled labour both with 12%. The interesting dimension is the aspect of the occupation in winter and summer. There is no significant deviation found in their profession in both the seasons. Effect of Conflict on Income Source The highest number of IDPs with 43% reported that their source of income/ occupation has completely damaged, followed by 32. 5% who reported categorized their business as badly damaged.
The cumulative percent of these responses make 77% of the damage of business. The reasons for this smashing up of business is understandable as the absent of the working people from the place, unattended agricultural crops, disengagement of skilled and unskilled labour force from their work places etc destroyed their existing occupation and melt down the home based economy of the IDPs. However; only 6. 8% do not feel that their business/ occupation have been impacted. This is the ratio of the IDPs who are government employees who feel secured and have a lesser effect on their income source.
It is important to notice that the 12% IDPs are found to be engaged in government service but the percentage of people who do not have effect on their income is lesser than 12%. It shows that the government employees also have secondary sec source of income other than their govt employment and those sources have been destroyed during the conflict. Another dimension of the effect of conflict over the source of income can be referred here in the above figure that elaborates the district wise effect on the income source of the IDPs.
The highest number of IDPs with badly effected income source can be found in district Upper Dir with 62% followed by Lower Dir and Bunir. The completely damaged income source is highest in Swat with 47% followed by Malakand with 44%. Moderate damage is found highest for district Malakand with 33%. It is important to note that the 100% of the respondents of Upper Dir, Malakand and Swat are affected by the conflict and their source of income has been destroyed to any extent. There is not a single respondent of these districts who reported their occupation as unaffected.
A further insight of the livelihood of the IDPs help the research team find more about the issues of the sources of income. Agriculture being reported the major occupation of the IDPs is explored further to look into the nature of loss. The following table shows the loss of standing food crop of the IDPs. The findings of study in above table show that the 100% of the IDPs belonging to district Upper Dir lost their all standing food crop followed by loss of 77% of IDPs from Swat, 64% from Lower Dir and 47% from Bunir.
The loss in terms of more than half, less than half and half standing food crop has been found significant in district Bunir and Lower Dir. Unaffected standing crop has been found highest as 15% in district Bunir followed by Swat and Lower Dir. In order to streamline distribution of food and non-food items, registration of these internally displaced persons (IDPs) was started by the Government soon after arrival, however, with interruptions. According to the survey around 93 percent of the registered IDPs, hosted by local families, have received food at least once, at the time of registration.
Majority of these families did not receive food for the 2nd time A slightly higher percentage of IDP families without food aid were reported in Nowshera and Charsadda districts (about 11%). . Food Consumption There is no single way to measure food security; however, analysis of food security by WFP generally uses food consumption as the entry point. Food consumption measured in kilocalories is based on the collection of detailed food intake data, which is difficult and time consuming.
There are several alternative ways to collect and analyse food consumption information using indicators that are proxy for actual caloric intake and diet quality. Such proxies generally include information on dietary diversity, sometimes with the addition of food frequency. Analysis of dietary diversity and food frequency can be done in several ways, each with its own specific aims. Building composite score which measure food frequency and/or dietary diversity are one of the more explored and tested methodologies.
According to the food consumption score, around 8 percent of population has poor food consumption while 34 percent are at borderline. The food aid received by majority of the IDP families has improved their level of food insecurity temporarily, but in spite of this their situation is clearly worse than during normal times, as reflected by the CSFVA in 2008. The population at the borderline of food consumption is highly vulnerable to food shock and heavily dependent on food aid. [pic] Sources of Food More than 60 percent of the IDP families depend on food aid (49. 2%) or gifts (11%) for wheat flour.
Around 29 percent purchase wheat flour from markets. In the case of rice, 39 percent purchase from market, about 24% receive in aids while 20% can not afford to eat. Food aid is the major source of basic food items. Around 47 percent of families receive pulses, 42 percent oil and 23 percent sugar as food aid. Milk is one of the important food items, especially for children, but paradoxically, about 69 percent of the families have borrowed it from host families, which depend on its availability. The precarious way households have to access food indicates serious food insecurity.
Availability of food stock In general, 55 percent of the families have no food stock. The food received during registration time was completed exhausted. About 23 percent of families had stock for less than a week. The situation is more severe in Swabi district, where majority of the IDPs have no food stock to survive. Similar was the situation in Nowshera, where above 60 percent of IDPs were without food. Part of the coping strategies, households normally reduce the number of meals during disasters/shocks, where access to food become an issue.
The survey reveals that, on average, children of 14 years and below eat food 3 times a day, while adults 2 times per day. The frequency of meals per day is suggestive of stress, as seen below the normal practice. The lowest rate of meals by children is seen in Charsadda and Nowshera, while for adults in Mardan. The scarcity of food and limited available stocks led to the reduction of meal rates per day. This will result in inadequate caloric intake and consequently malnutrition. Education The guest families when displaced did not know of their future.
Education was not taken as priority and they were scattered to different districts endeavouring to settle individually or collectively in camps, schools or any given place. Thus; the future of children belonging to thousands of internally displaced families from the conflict zone is at stake as no proper measures are being taken for their education. The children of these displaced families can be seen moving around aimlessly in the streets or near camps as their schools were also targeted in their own home towns. The militants had destroyed more than 250 schools in Swat Valley where about 300,000 boys and girls were getting education.
At this time; when nobody is clear about the fate of conflict area, this is the most critical situation to deal with. Though the summer vacation has started in the down towns of the country; but the schools of displaced children are opened now as they close for vacation in winter. The children are also found in trauma as they do not have any other productive activity to continue. There are many organizations those started working on providing psycho social support to children and established safe play areas; but provision of education has never been thought out or seen around the camps.
Also a multi grade type education system would be require in camps to deal with this issue on temporary basis but if this conflicts prolongs; it would be a great point of concern for the government and child focused organizations to meet this challenge with an appropriate and contextual strategy. That means the government and concerned organizations do not compromise on the educational needs of children. This part of the report presents some of the analysed aspects regrading the education of children. Status of Available and Occupied Educational Facilities for Boys/ Male
The graph shows that out of the total, 89% of the educational facilities are occupied/ used by the IDPs at camps/ school level. If we further analyse the educational facilities in terms of levels; we will see that the highest number of facilities being used/ occupied by the IDPs is the primary schools for boys with 51% out of available 54%. However, middle and private schools stand second on ranking with occupied 14% and 10% accordingly. Shelter So far, we have discussed the impact of the action of Pakistan Armed Forces against the militants in Swat valley and Malakand area over the different facets of life of the displaced people.
The fled of millions of people displaced from homes are found to be migrated to areas located in Swabi and Mardan Districts of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. The immediate concern is the provision of secure and an appropriate shelter/ housing facility for them. By now; we find some of the families being accommodated by local communities, friends, relatives while taking over the responsibility of food and clothes. This is not a permanent solution of the issue as fate of the war zone is not clear to the nation and the IDPs.
The study is concerned with the majority of the families who still need shelter, food, clothes, clean drinking water and medical assistance along with those who are residing with their relatives but still need assistance to live independently until the conflict resolves. This part of the report would discuss the different aspects of shelter/ housing arrangements and related concerns of the IDPs at household and community level and would suggest recommendations to improve the situation. Type of Residence
The findings of study shows the highest number of displaced families reside with friends, followed by residents with relatives. A 23% of the total respondents are found living in rented places. The highest percent of people living in rented place is found in district Nowshehra with 44% followed by Peshawar with 33% and Mardan with 21%. The lowest percent of respondents has been found in informally occupied places and others with 10% each. |PRESENTLY LIVING IN OTHER PLACES | |Presently living (Other) Responses |% | |Campus |1 |1. 6 | |Gifted place |1 |1. 6 | |Rented Room |1 |1. 6 | |Tents |1 |1. 6 | |Work for rent |1 |1. | |Reference of nazim |2 |3. 3 | |Voluntarily Offered |2 |3. 3 | |In Hujra |3 |4. 9 | |Free Home |9 |14. 8 | |Sugar Mill |16 |26. | |Rent less place |24 |39. 3 | |Total |61 |100. 00 | The highest rate of respondents living with friends is found in district Swabi and amongst living with relatives it is highest in district Mardan and lowest in Swabi. The study further reveals the living options of the respondents with category ‘others’.
This includes number of places including camps, gifted places, tents, hujra, sugar mills and etc. The highest amongst this category is free houses/ without rent places with 39% followed by sugar mills with 26%. Type of Occupied/ Living Place The further exploration of the living area includes the type of place being occupied by the respondents. The highest number of respondents with 44% of the total is found living in own/ independent room while a significant number of 34% respondents is found living in a shared room with other families. The lowest amongst the given category is the accommodation outside he house of host families with an insignificant number of respondents i. e. 6%. The study unpacks that 17% of the total respondents enjoy living in more than one room. The number of respondents living in more than one room is highest in district Nowshehra and lowest in Charsadda with 2% only. The respondents who live outside space are highest in Charsadda with 12%. There is not a single respondent in Peshawar who lives outside the space. The highest percent for the category of people living in own room is found in district Charsadda where more than half of the population i. . 53% has own rooms for living and it is lowest in district Nowshehra with 28%. Amongst the shared room, we find the highest rate in district Charsadda with 41% followed by Nowshehra and Peshawar with 36% each. However the lowest rate of respondents for living in shared room is found in district Mardan and Swabi with 27% each. . Housing Concerns of the Displaced Families The research also explores the concerns of housing of the displaced families and the focus remains around finding out the top three concerns to analyse the priority issues of the IDPs.
Amongst the priority one issue of housing, we find lack of money on highest (34%) followed by overcrowding and hot summer conditions. Amongst the number two priority concerns, lack of cooking facilities and hot summer both come on top. The 3rd priority issue includes hot summer as top concerns followed by lack of cooking facilities and lack of money. It is important to note that the issue of security has emerged as a slightest issue in all three priority concerns. However, hot summer, lack of money and lack of cooking facilities is seen significantly in all three priority concerns.
Priority Wise Ranking of the Sources of Livelihood The table shows that microfinance is the number one priority of the IDPs with 55% highest amongst the first priority. The IDPs are homeless and also facing the damage of their agricultural crops and livestock assets and need financial support to revitalize their economy. Agriculture and skill wage remain on second under the first priority for the source of living. Since the skill labour is required to meet with the challenge of current period of this temporary settlement in the down areas of country during the displacement period. Priority wise Ranking of livelihood (%) | |Ranking |Agriculture |Livestock |Skill wage |Microfinance |Total | |1 |21. 7 |1. 2 |21. 7 |55. 4 |100. 0 | |2 |25. 4 |5. 6 |43. 0 |26. 1 |100. 0 | |3 |39. 0 |20. 8 |32. |7. 8 |100. 0 | |4 |32. 8 |53. 4 |8. 6 |5. 2 |100. 0 | |5 |23. 8 |76. 2 |0. 0 |0. 0 |100. 0 | It is important to note that the skill wage/ labour remain highest amongst the second priority of livelihood for the reason discussed above. Again we find microfinance on second ranking in the second priority of livelihoods.
Methodology – Management of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) Responsibility for identifying and implementing durable solutions programmes for displaced persons lies first and foremost with national authorities. It is important, therefore, that national development strategies and plans include the necessary provisions to achieve those aims. The role of the Govt is to assist the national authorities in meeting the national development goals and in implementing programming for displaced persons and their host communities, including in areas related to attaining the MDGs, poverty reduction, capacity building and resource mobilization.
The Govt has adopted a collaborative response toward situations of internal displacement whereby a broad range of humanitarian, human rights and development actors work together in a transparent and cooperative manner. For countries emerging from conflict, the programming tool 4Rs (repatriation, reintegration, rehabilitation and reconstruction) has been developed. Population of Concern The guidance focuses on people forcibly displaced within (internally displaced persons) and/or outside (refugees) their country as a consequence f violent conflict, human rights violations and persecution, and on people who return to their country or community of origin following a peace agreement or settlement (returnees). In addition, there are also other displaced population groups, such as people expelled or displaced by natural disasters, who may benefit from the guidance provided in this Note. Equal attention should be given to the needs of the host communities. While the burden of hosting displaced persons is often clear, the opportunities it presents are frequently underemphasized.
Therefore, the needs of the host community and displaced persons should be considered collectively, while taking into account specific issues and circumstances that displaced persons may face. Protection Solutions for displaced persons may only be called “durable” if they receive the full and effective protection of the State of nationality (citizens) or residence and enjoy all basic human rights and have equal access to social services and economic opportunities.
Basic protection standards are contained in international humanitarian law, international and regional human rights instruments, and the Refugee Convention. With regard to internally displaced persons, these international legal standards have been consolidated in the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. In many situations, people may be displaced due to a combination of different reasons that cannot be easily distinguished. In addition, people may be expelled to their country of origin from a country to which they migrated.
Although they are considered to be nationals of their country of origin, they may have similar reintegration needs to those of returning refugees and IDPs. Although IDPs have not crossed an international border and do not, therefore, receive protection under the Refugee Convention, they are protected by relevant domestic legislation, as well as by international human rights law and, in situations of armed conflict, international humanitarian law. The responsibility for assisting, protecting and identifying durable solutions for IDPs lies with the national and regional authorities.
When these authorities are unable and/or unwilling to meet their responsibility, international humanitarian organizations have the right to offer their services in support of national efforts. Displaced persons may face specific protection concerns, such as the continued threat of violence and discrimination on account of their ethnicity, restricted access to social services and economic rights (e. g. health and education, land and property, and gainful employment), restrictions on their ability to vote and participate in public affairs, or recognition of citizenship (statelessness).
During the emergency and transition phases, they may also have experienced serious human rights violations, (e. g. physical violence, including sexual abuse and exploitation, torture, and forced return to a situation where they may have faced persecution, etc. ). These and other specific protection concerns, as well as the need to address their consequences, must be incorporated in the design and implementation of durable solution strategies. Durable Solutions – An Approach There are three broad types of policy options/responses to facilitate the transition from displacement to integration/re-integration: Voluntary return and re-integration of displaced persons to their country and/or community of origin. This is the most desirable option. ? The integration of displaced persons into new host communities in their country of nationality (IDPs) or of asylum (refugees) is an option to be considered seriously where voluntary return is not feasible within a reasonable time frame, in order to prevent displacement situations from becoming intractable and unmanageable. ? Integration (resettlement) in third countries of displaced persons.
This is only feasible for a relatively small number of persons each year according to well-established criteria. The Common Community Concern To integrate displaced persons into host communities. A multitude of causes can lead to displacement. In addition to more immediate ones, such as violent conflict, persecution, serious human rights abuses, and natural disasters, attention should be given to the root causes, such as exclusion and inequality among groups, competition for access to natural resources and discriminatory policies and practices.
Opportunities to solve displacement situations can be seized through various channels, such as: ? Negotiating peace agreements and amnesties; ? Promoting self-reliance and poverty reduction strategies; ? Increasing respect for human rights and the rule of law, including rights at ? work; ? Enhancing participation in the institutions and processes of governance; ? Promoting justice, tolerance and reconciliation among divided communities. ? Data collection and analysis is the first step in ensuring a coherent analysis in the context of the ERRA.
However, existing data collection on displaced persons and host communities is geared toward shorter-term relief-recovery activities. Due attention should, therefore, be given to collecting and analyzing data relevant to implementing durable solutions strategies. Among the key variables are: o Demographic data: to establish a profile (including a gender and age breakdown) of the displaced population and the host community, to identify vulnerable populations (e. g. he disabled, female-headed households, and separated children), and to assess the priorities of the displaced persons and the host communities; o Socio-Economic Data: to understand the livelihood and assess/prioritize the needs of the host community in relation to, e. g. , access to land and natural resources, skills requirement, employment and income generating opportunities, the environment, housing, health and education infrastructure, and farming systems; o Protection data: to identify gaps in the protection of human rights and identify specific protection issues, e. . the legal status of displaced persons (residence permits, nationality), the presence of discriminatory regulations and practices (freedom of movement, right to return, property ownership); and continued threat of violence, restricted access to social services, economic rights, and to participate in public affairs; and o Institutional data: to assess the capacity of the national and local authorities as well as civil society to implement a durable solutions strategy. Based upon an analysis of the causes for displacement, the opportunities for a solution, and the available data, Strategic Planning for Durable Solutions o When developing strategies to address displacement, several operational gaps need to be overcome. These include: ? Institutional: Among international agencies and government institutions different operating modalities and cultures exist. ? Financial: Funding is often either for emergency/humanitarian or development assistance. ? Temporal: Gaps can appear immediately after a crisis subsides and widen when emergency assistance declines and before long-term development activities begin.
A Framework for Durable Solutions Based upon operational experiences, three approaches have been developed to facilitate strategic planning for durable solutions. Pending the identification and implementation of durable solutions, development programmes should promote self-reliance for displaced persons through emphasizing capacity building and empowerment. Such policies will prepare the displaced for their eventual return and integration, as well as alleviate the burden on and, where applicable, reduce the poverty of the host communities.
Return is the most desirable solution, but integrated approaches are essential to link shorter-term humanitarian relief with longer-term development strategies, as well as the four different phases of repatriation, reintegration, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. For the displaced for which return is not an option, local integration into their host communities should be considered. Local integration of long-term displaced persons is often a very complex and sensitive issue, but one that, can be eased by applying self-reliance strategies.
The socio-economic and political dimensions need to be carefully assessed. Pursuing any of the three approaches requires careful assessment of the role of the various actors. Ownership and active engagement by the national/local Government is critical. Protection Effective protection depends upon resources and national institutions that aim to uphold these standards. Among the protection gaps following should be addressed: Developing national and regional legislation and administrative practices (e. . documentation, the granting of citizenship; freedom of movement and residence; access to the labor market, education and social services; right to own/use property/land); Supporting national and local government institutions; Promoting tolerance and respect among communities and groups in society, including through the media; Promoting and supporting the role of civil society, including human rights organizations; and Assisting specific groups to overcome their vulnerabilities. Livelihood
Promoting self-reliance entails that displaced persons have access to livelihood and can own/use property and land. In addition, to help create the necessary legal and administrative framework, the UNCT can also ensure that their development and poverty reduction programmes give due priority to areas and communities hosting displaced persons in line with the national priorities. Among the concerns of national and local authorities is the lack of capacity to absorb/integrate displaced people. Specific steps to be considered should include:
Settlement programmes that include provisions for land restitution and/or compensation, land and natural resource management, environmental protection, and housing assistance; Micro-finance schemes and income-generating projects, including food-for-work, cash-for-work programmes, and small-business schemes; Community driven development through empowerment projects aimed at strengthening capacity, assets and technical services and that are sustainable without external assistance; Food security, nutrition and health interventions that meet the immediate needs of displaced persons while assisting them in building assets with onger-term benefits to their livelihood requirements; Steps to ensure equal access to services; and Targeting of vulnerable groups, in particular female- and child-headed households, youth, HIV/AIDS affected households, the disabled and the elderly. Institution and Capacity Building Government authorities are the primary actors in programming for the displaced and must have the capacity to do so. It is important that relevant national and local authorities responsible for different issues (health, labor, housing, documentation, etc. are all linked up. As a rule, integrated approaches for displaced persons and host communities should be mainstreamed into the policies/practices of line ministries and local authorities. If the number of displaced persons is very high and/or the integration strategies are complex, the establishment of a dedicated government department at national and local levels may be desirable, as in the case of Afghanistan and Rwanda. Coordination
Existing coordination mechanisms set-up between the NDMA and the national and local authorities should be used to facilitate mainstreaming durable solutions into the key outcomes and activities of the results-based matrix. In addition, these mechanisms should seek to build upon the work of the coordination mechanisms established during the humanitarian and transition phases. If necessary, sectoral and inter-sectoral committees can be created. In countries hosting large numbers of displaced persons, it may be useful to set-up a joint durable solutions programming unit or transitional reintegration units.
A multi-country coordination mechanism can help to: ? Devise a comprehensive durable solutions framework that deals with all the Eventualities in various countries; ? Ensure integrated planning and data management; and ? Establish operational coherence, through e. g. comparable/harmonized integration Packages, where repatriation involves several countries. Monitoring and Evaluation In line with the ERRA & NDMA Guidelines, monitoring and evaluating the durable solutions policies and programmes are key and a work-plan should be agreed upon from the outset.
Benchmarks and indicators need to be identified and integrated into the monitoring and evaluation frameworks of national development plans and agency-specific programmes. To the extent possible, existing indicators should be used but the NDMA must ensure that displaced persons are included in the measurements. Specific indicators may be useful to monitor and evaluate progress toward addressing specific protection issues. Resource Mobilization Strategies
To ensure the effective mobilization of financial resources it is essential that durable solutions for displaced persons are included in national development plans and related resource mobilization strategies. These financial resources should be in addition to existing development assistance. The concern among countries hosting displaced populations is that scarce development aid may be redirected. These concerns should be alleviated by emphasizing the additional value of the programmes and the positive contributions that integrating displaced persons can make toward local development.
Management Arrangements, Cost Projections and Budgeting Identification of optimum arrangements and requirements (organizational, personnel and technical assistance requirements) for the management and coordination of public investment programmes (labor-intensive works, infrastructure and area-based rehabilitation) at the governorate and local levels in return-impacted areas; Identification of locally based mechanisms and needs and external support (training and technical assistance) to develop and manage community-driven development programmes (micro projects, community investments, credit, micro finance and savings) in areas of high displacement and return; and Cost projections for both operating (personnel, salaries, expendable and non-expendable equipment, utilities, communications, etc. ) and investment (capital inputs, materials, credit lines, training, etc. ) for programmes outlined above in return-impacted areas. Recommendations Pakistan is vulnerable to disaster risks from a range of hazards including avalanches, cyclones/storms, droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, floods, glacial lake outbursts, landslides, pest attacks, river erosion and tsunami.
Human induced hazards that threaten the country include transport, industrial, oil spills, urban and forest fires, civil conflicts and internal displacements of communities due to multiple factors. High priority hazards in terms of their frequency and scale of impact are: – earthquakes, droughts, flooding, Wind Storms and Landslides that have caused widespread damages and losses in the past. A reactive, emergency response approach has remained the predominant way of dealing with disasters in Pakistan till now. The Calamity Act of 1958 was mainly concerned with organizing emergency response. A system of relief commissioner at provincial level was established. An Emergency Relief Cell (ERC) in the Cabinet Secretariat was responsible for organizing disaster response by the federal government.
The awareness of policy makers, media, civil society, NGOs, UN agencies and other stakeholders remained low about disaster risk management and the Country as a whole lacked a systematic approach towards disaster risk management. The loss of life and property and the challenges that were faced in the aftermath of October 2005 earthquake affecting Azad Jammu and Kashmir and the NWFP province exhibited the need for establishing appropriate policy and institutional arrangements to reduce losses from disasters in future. The need for strong institutional and policy arrangements has been fulfilled with the promulgation of National Disaster Management Ordinance, 2006. Under the Ordinance the National Disaster Management Commission (NDMC) has been established under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister as the highest policy making body in the field of disaster management.
As an executive arm of the NDMC, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) has been made operational to coordinate and monitor implementation of National Policies and Strategies on disaster management. The new system envisages a devolved and de-centralized mechanism for disaster management. Accordingly, Provincial Disaster Management Commissions (PDMCs) and Authorities (PDMAs) have been established while similar arrangements have been made in AJ and Northern Areas. The District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) have been notified across the country. The DDMAs are going to be the linchpin of the whole system and would play the role of the first line of defense in the event of a disaster. The National Disaster risk Management Framework has been formulated to guide the work of entire system in the area of disaster risk management.
It has been developed through wide consultation with stakeholders from local, provincial and national levels. The Framework identifies National Strategies and Policies for disaster management. Nine priority areas have been identified within this framework to establish and strengthen policies, institutions and capacities over the next five years: These include:- ? Institutional and legal arrangements for DRM ? Hazard and vulnerability assessment. ? Training, education and awareness. ? Disaster risk management planning. ? Community and local level programming. ? Multi-hazard early warning system. ? Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into development. ? Emergency response system, and ? Capacity development for post disaster recovery.
The NDMA has already embarked upon a five year development program to implement the above nine priority areas. For the purpose, the NDMA in collaboration with international donor agencies has already secured commitments for the provision of 58 million dollars. Household and Gender Basis The basic information of the IDPs residing with the host families reveals that the majority of displaced people belong to district Swat. The mother tongue of majority of the respondents is Pashto. The highest numbers of IDPs have been moved since three – six weeks before this study was conducted. Almost every individual household intends to go back to their hometowns.
Here are some recommendations based on the findings of this part of the research: The average number of household consist of nine members even it is higher in some districts but the food and non-food distribution to a family is made for an average number of 6. This needs to be reviewed on the basis of large family sizes. The average number of male is higher than the female in a family. Government and other institutions should focus on the education and skill training of young people in order to make them enable for future challenges. The registration authorities should register all IDPs and especially focus on Nowshehra to get the families of IDPs registered.
The burden of families residing in schools and camps can be distributed among different districts to lessen the issues of concentrated population on one district only. A significant number of vulnerable populations is found in Mardan and should be focused by the child centred organizations. The higher number of disabled children is also found in Mardan and the organizations that work on disability should concentrate their efforts on camps and schools in Mardan for the mainstreaming of such children. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Following are the recommendations for improving the areas of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: It is critical to see that majority of population does not use any water treatment practices. This may cause number of diseases, infections to the people.
The concerned organizations need to work on educating people about the consequences of using untreated water and further training be provided to them for treating the water through easiest and simplest methods. A higher number of respondents i. e. 30% adopts open water storage that is also an unhygienic practices It is also important to notice that 80% respondents use only water after defecation that is not a hygienic practice and require improvement. It can also be done thru education and provision of soaps to the families. Basic hygiene is utmost important in such conditions to avoid the aftermaths of such practices. A significant number of respondents reported about the insufficiency of latrines. A very insignificant number of respondents are found who uses water and soap both for washing hands before eating.
An orientation training on adopting good hygienic practices need to be designed and organized for the groups of IDPs to orient them with the knowledge of basic hygiene. Food, Shelter and Health Sector: IDPs have lost their livelihoods and have limited or no resources to purchase food. On average, they spend 67% on the purchase of food. Around 84% of the families fall in the poor and average food access groups, despite the receipt of food aid by some of them. Therefore, general food distribution among IDPs is recommended, and efforts should be made to include all IDPs. Majority of the IDPs has poor food diversity and need some resources to afford a balanced diet.
NGOs and other partners need to work on it. The average family size of IDPs is 9. 3. Hence, the quantity of food provided is less than their needs. Food basket should be according to the household size. Majority of the IDPs prefer to buy wheat flour from the market instead of grinding the wheat due to a number of problems, like, searching for grinding facility, transportation to grinding mill, cleaning before grinding and most importantly they like the market wheat flour than grinded one. Therefore, distribution of wheat flour is strongly recommended against wheat gains. IDPs have no resources to buy milk for children, elderly people and disabled.
Majority of them borrow milk in small quantity from the host families to tea making. There is an urgent need to arrange milk for these families, especially for families with children, elder people and disabled. Majority of the IDPs want to return homes as soon as possible. Therefore, a reduced case load is expected in near future, if the security situation will allow it. A strategy for involving the children in the education activities on temporary basis should be evolved in consultation of their parents, education department and international and national organizations. A multi grade education system can be introduced in camps and schools to involve children in the productive activities.
A food for education programme will be a good incentive programme for primary education. The number of children who require essential and scheduled vaccination require attention of the health service providers as a significant number of children is found unvaccinated Diarrheal is found as a common disease amongst the children and adults that requires education and awareness of IDPs to prevent it further and supply of pure and treated water to handle with. The supply of essential medical care and food supplements is critical for the malnourished children, pregnant and lactating mothers. Blood pressure, diabetes, heart and liver diseases are not seen significantly; probably due to the issue of assessment of dis
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