Impact of ict - Management Essay Example

Develop action plans
Overview

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You should already know about evaluating current business strategy and evaluating the impact of changes - Impact of ict introduction. This resource will help you to develop an action plan within an information technology environment. In this topic you will learn how to:

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More Management, Government, Goal Essay Topics.

develop an action plan for proposed changes
ensure action plans take account of all relevant considerations document action plans
submit action plan for feedback and approval
This topic contains:
reading notes
activities
references
topic quiz
As you work through the reading notes you will be directed to activities that will help you practise what you are learning. The topic also includes references to aid further learning and a topic quiz to check your understanding. Download a print version of this whole topic: Develop action plans (162 KB 2841.doc) Reading notes

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Developing action plans
The action plan is where the recommendations made in the gap analysis are explored further. More detail is developed so that for each recommendation a list of activities, responsibilities, resources and a timeline is developed. What goes in an action plan?

The gap analysis develops a range of options or recommendations for the organisation to consider. Each of these recommendations made in the gap analysis may become an action plan. These action plans will detail the
activities that need to be carried out in order to implement each recommendation. Action plans take a number of forms, but generally may include the following elements: Goal

What will be achieved by implementing the action? See the table below for an example. Activities
What are the activities, and in what order will the activities be completed? See the table below for an example. Responsibilities
Which staff members are responsible for the completion of each activity? See the table below for an example. Resources
What resources will be allocated to each activity? Resources may include funding, time, people and materials. See the table below for an example. Timeline
When will each activity commence and finish? See the table below for an example. Evidence of success
How will you know if you are making progress? How will progress be measured? See the table below for an example. Evaluation process
How will you determine that the goal has been reached? See the table below for an example. Below is an example of an action plan which utilises these elements. Table 1: Limited example of an action plan

Goal: Cut costs for customer in order to be more competitive Activity
Responsibilities
Resources
Timeline
Review customer requests, complaints, feedback to determine service provision possibilities Marketing staff
35 hours staff time x 3 marketing staff ($700)
Begin 22/3/04 9am, End 26/3/04 5 pm
Create alternative courses of action that could be implemented to improve service to customers: drop prices to match competitors’
offer discounts on calls during off peak times for: STD and international calls offer customer loyalty rewards for staying with Telstra.
Pricing department
15 hours x 1 staff ($300)
Begin 29/3/04 9am, End 31/3/04 10am
Implement new pricing strategy

Inform customers (existing and potential) of new pricing strategy through: mail out brochures
television and radio advertising.

Review status of pricing strategy periodically to determine success or failure.

Evidence of success
Increase in customer numbers by x%
Evaluation process
Review of customer feedback or survey to determine satisfaction of customers Action plans detail
the activities that need to be completed
the order of the activities
the person responsible for each activity
the resources available
the timeline for the activity.
Activity 1
To practise developing action plans, complete Activity 1 – Developing action plans located in the Activities section of the Topic menu. Ensure action plans
When developing action plans, it is important to consider both internal and external factors and constraints. Failure to take these factors into account may lead to poor implementation or problems with the action when it is implemented. Constraints and considerations

In order to implement action plans appropriately, it is important to consider all constraints and other relevant factors that may impact on them. These considerations may be both internal and external to the action. Internal considerations

Internal considerations will relate to factors within the organisation which
will affect the action plan. These include the following: Operational
The structure of the organisation can either help to facilitate the action plan or prohibit the plan from proceeding. If the organisation is highly structured or complex and the action plan calls for creative thinking and development, the culture within the organisation may doom the plan to failure before it begins. Conversely, an action plan that fits in with this highly structured type of organisation has a greater chance of success. Financial

The organisation may not have the capital to invest in a new system or a system upgrade at the present time. This may mean that the organisation must delay the implementation of the action plan until they can afford it. Legal

There may be legal reasons why the organisation may not implement a course of action. For example, installing proprietary software on a number of computers is illegal without the appropriate multiple licenses. Likewise, there may be legislation that the organisation must follow when implementing particular actions. For example, if the organisation is going to create and implement an e-commerce website, then elements of the Privacy Act must be considered and followed. The organisation has a duty of care to protect all customer information. Human relations

The implementation of an action plan may require extensive changes to the way people communicate within the organisation. For example, if an email system is made available to employees in an organisation for the first time, those employees will need to know about email etiquette and acceptable use policies for the organisation. Internal operating environment

The internal operating environment of the organisation will include the platform, hardware and software that the organisation uses to perform operations. If a new piece of software is being installed, then it must be compatible with the operating environment of the organisation. The internal operating environment may also include the following: the operating climate/culture, existing merchandise or service range of the organisation, possible future merchandise or service range, staff, management, and
management information systems. External considerations

External considerations will relate to factors outside the organisation which will affect the action plan. The external environment may include the following: External operating environment
The external operating environment may include the following: markets such as advertising/marketing target
customers
local culture/environment
new or existing products and services, suppliers and technology. Competitors
Competitor considerations may include the competitor’s product or service range, their pricing policies and their marketing policies. If we decide to offer a similar product to that of our competitor, then a similar pricing structure must also be employed. Government bodies

Government and legislative bodies may affect employment conditions, staff, trade practices, consumer law, and occupational health and safety. Summary
Internal constraints include operational, legal, human relations, financial and internal operating environment factors. External constraints include the external operating environment, competitors and factors relating to government bodies. When developing action plans, all of these factors must be considered. Activity 2

To practise analysing action plans, complete Activity 2 – Analysing action plans located in the Activities section of the Topic menu. Document action plans
Many organisations have documentation standards and use templates for all organisation documents. The template for the action plan details the goal, activities, responsibilities, resources, timeline, success factors and an evaluation process for each recommendation or goal. Action plan template

A template allows the organisation to develop documentation consistently across different departments, levels and workgroups. Each of the headings in the template shown in the example below was explained in detail at the beginning of these reading notes. Table 2: Example of an action plan template

Goal
Activity
1.
2.
3.
4.

Responsibilities
1.
2.
3.
4.

Resources
1.
2.
3.
4.

Timeline
1.
2.
3.
4.

Evidence of success
Evaluation process
Summary
Action plans allow the organisation to detail the activities that must be undertaken to achieve a set goal or objective. The template forms a standard that the organisation can follow and enables a consistent level of information to be created. Activity 3

To practise reviewing action plans, complete Activity 3 – Reviewing action
plans located in the Activities section of the Topic menu. Feedback / approval
Management review of documentation and the provision of feedback or approval is a standard procedure for all organisations. This process allows management to consider the information being presented when making decisions about the organisation’s future. Documentation

The completed action plans will inform management about how they may implement each option. The action plan gives management all the information about a number of possible changes to the system or organisation. Management will choose to implement the options that best suit their situation. There may be further information that management will consider when approving the action plan(s). For example, there may be financial or other resource constraints that management must take into account or that might influence the order of implementation and the commencement dates for each option. This feedback from management will give the organisation the ability to create a timeline and a list of activities for each option and perhaps allocate resources and personnel to each activity. Management must review all documentation in order to make informed decisions. The action plans may be compared to the business situation, ensuring that only appropriate courses of action are pursued. Management constraints will also need to be considered before the action plans can be implemented. Summary

Action plans detail step by step how the goals or recommendations of an organisation will be accomplished. Each action plan specifies the goal of the activities, the activities and the expected results for the activities, expected responsibilities of employees, resources, and timelines for each activity. The performance monitoring and evaluation of each action plan must also be detailed. When developing action plans, it is important to consider both internal and external factors and constraints. Consideration of these factors increases the likelihood of success in implementing the action. Action plans usually take the form of a written document which summarises the activities an organisation needs to undertake to implement a course of action. Templates are used by an organisation to ensure consistency of documentation. The action plans produced must be reviewed by management, who
will then decide if the action will be implemented and the order of implementation. Acknowledgement: The above material is sourced from the Information Technology E-Commerce Toolbox 906 © Commonwealth of Australia 2006.

Activities

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Activity 1 – Developing action plans
Complete the online quiz (4 KB quiz_2841_activity01.htm) on developing action plans. Activity 2 – Analysing action plans
Complete the online quiz (3 KB quiz_2841_activity2.htm) on analysing action plans Activity 3 – Reviewing action plans
Visit three of the links listed below for action plans and review the similarities and differences between them. Examples of action plans may be found in the following links: http://www.wested.org/csrd/guidebook/pdf/tools15.pdf (an example of an action plan template) http://www.ealing.gov.uk/ ( Search Corporate equality action plan) http://web.mit.edu/course/10/10.27/www/Team-Building/Documents/Action_Plan_Template.html (an example of an action plan template) http://titlev.adams.edu/CELT/Y3Activities/Action%20Plan%20Template.htm (an example of a special interest group action plan template) http://www.maltaforum.org/Com_Cen/Action_Plan_Template.htm (another example of an action plan template) References

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Internet
The following websites are linked to action plan examples:
http://www.wested.org/csrd/guidebook/pdf/tools15.pdf (an example of an action plan template) http://titlev.adams.edu/CELT/Y3Activities/Action%20Plan%20Template.htm (an example of a special interest group action plan template) http://www.wested.org/csrd/guidebook/pdf/tools15.pdf (an example of an
action plan template) http://web.mit.edu/course/10/10.27/www/Team-Building/Documents/Action_Plan_Template.html (an example of an action plan template) http://www.maltaforum.org/Com_Cen/Action_Plan_Template.htm (another example of an action plan template) http://www.ealing.gov.uk/ ( Search Corporate equality action plan) Topic quiz

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This quiz will help you review the content you have learned in this topic. Answer the questions, check the feedback at the end of each question and take note of the areas you need to review.

1. Answer True or False:
The gap analysis develops a range of options or recommendations for the organisation to consider. Each of these recommendations made in the gap analysis may become an action plan. Feedback
Correct! This statement is True! The gap analysis develops a range of options or recommendations for the organisation to consider. Each of these recommendations made in the gap analysis may become an action plan. Incorrect. This statement is not false – it’s True! Go to the Reading notes and review the section on What goes in an action plan. 2. Action plans take a number of forms, but generally may include similar elements. Which elements are included? goal, activities, responsibilities, evaluation process, timeline resources, timeline, evidence of success, evaluation process, activities goal, activities, responsibilities, evaluation process, resources, timeline, evidence of success Feedback

Correct! An action plan generally includes the following elements: goal, activities, responsibilities, evaluation process, resources, timeline, evidence of success Incorrect. Go to the Reading notes and review the section on What goes in an action plan. 3. Which of the following are internal considerations in an action plan? government bodies, competitors, legal issues

HR considerations, financial considerations, legal issues
Feedback
Correct! HR considerations, financial considerations, and legal issues are internal considerations in an action plan. Incorrect. Go to the Reading notes and review the section on Internal considerations. 4. Which of the following are external considerations in an action plan? operational issues, government bodies

financial considerations, competitors
competitors, government bodies
Feedback
Correct! Competitors and government bodies are external considerations in an action plan. Incorrect. Go to the Reading notes and review the section on External considerations.

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