ASSIGNMENT NO. 1 IMPACTS OF ISLAM ON INDIAN SOCIETY Group-1: Junaid-ur-Rahman (ME-123052) Muhammad Zaid (ME-123051) Shamoon Tariq (ME-123053) Section:ME (09) Submitted On:08-10-2012 Submitted To:Sir Aijaz Athar IMPACT OF ISLAM ON INDIAN SOCIETY ARRIVAL OF ISLAM IN INDIA Muhammad bin Qasim in A. D. 712. After the foundation of Muslim rule in India, Islam spread far and wide and brought about a great change in the social a religious outlook of the people.
Muhammad Bin Qasim, the great Muslim hero and commander, entered India as a conqueror and lived there for three years. He introduced Islamic system and left an indelible impact on Indian society by the example of his character and generosity. Islam, as a faith and system of life, won many followers in sub-continent because of its simple and humanitarian principles. Before the advent of the Muslims many foreign tribes had come to India, but all of them had been assimilated into Indian society. This however was not possible in case of the Muslims.
The basic social and religious ideas of Islam differed so widely from those of Hinduism that Muslim invaders could not be absorbed in Indian society Islam was a well-defined faith and its monotheistic belief and exclusive religious outlook made its absorption into Hinduism impossible. During their stay in India from 12th century A. D. to 18th century A. D. , the Muslims converted a considerable number of native people into Islam. Yet throughout this period the Muslims remained a minority community.
However gradually Hindus and Muslims came in close contact with each other in various fields like administration, literature and in religions. History has shown that when two civilizations, however opposed and different, come in close contact for centuries, both are bound to be influenced by each other. This is what has happened in India in the medieval period. The idea of brotherhood of man, the belief in one God, a total surrender to God, which are the basic principles of Islam made a deep impression on the minds of Indian thinkers and reformers of the period.
Finally, as a result of Hindus and Muslims interacting with each other two religious movements developed, namely Sufism among the Muslims and Bhakti among the Hindus. MAJOR ISLAMIC IMPACTS ON INDIAN SOCIETY (i) Religious Impact: Before the coming of Islam to India, the people were divided in several religious factions and an intense struggle was going on between Hinduism and other religions. When Islam was introduced to the people of the sub-continent, it attracted many followers because of its simple and easily understandable principles.
The introduction of Islam completely transformed the Indian society into a well knit social fraternity. Islam came as blessing for the oppressed classed in India whose life had become miserable because of the deep rooted caste system Most of the Indian Muslims converted to Islam were belonged to the lower classes of the Indian society. Besides these Muslims there are also Muslims who belonged to the ruling families of the different Indian kingdoms. Some of these rulers were Hindus who actually belonged to the warrior castes of the Hindu society and adopted Islam.
Islam brought a new way of life for them which they had never experienced before in the Hindu society. The respectable way of life, shown to them under Islam, gave them a feeling of being human beings. Islam infused a different thinking and sentiments among the people of the sub-continent. (ii) Social Impact: India was divided into several sects and class when Islam reached here. Since Islam propounds that all human beings are equal and accordingly make no discriminations on the basis of caste or creed. Hindus in large numbers adopted Islam voluntarily.
However, even the Muslim rulers got many Hindus forcibly converted to Muslim. Islam had its deep impact on the social life too. The practice of purdah has been the result of the impact of Islam. Since the Hindu society was living in isolation for several thousand years under a tight Brahminic control, it had lost its vigor and vitality. Bottled in their own customs and rites the Hindus were politically divided and militarily weak. This naturally resulted in a major shake up by the Muslim who was strong and better equipped.
A sense of homogeneity and oneness grew in the social set-up after the arrival of the Muslims in India. Indian society was now a well knit whole and a sense of centralism had evolved amongst the various sections of society. With the arrival of the Muslims, India established relations with the other countries of the world. Diplomatic and trade links were established. (iii) Cultural Impacts: The impact of Islam could be seen on the cultural life of the Indians too. The Hindus to a great extent have adopted the thoughts and belief of Islam.
The impact of Islam on Indian culture has been inestimable. It permanently influenced the development of all areas of human like language, dress, cuisine, all the art forms, architecture and urban design, and social customs and values. Conversely, the languages of the Muslim invaders were modified by contact with local languages, to Urdu, which uses the Arabic script. The Farsi language was introduced in the sub-continent by the Muslims. At the time of the Mughal, Farsi became the official language in the whole sub-continent. Even the Hindus used this language for communication.
By the interaction of these languages new languages like Urdu and Hindi emerged In the rule of Delhi Sultans, there are constructions which are designed by Muslims and built by Hindus who could not shun their artistic excellence which they have shown in temple constructions. The materials used in temples were used later for the construction of Mosques which led to consist of Hindu element in Islamic constructions. Sometimes, they have only morphed the temple into Mosque by changing roof. Islamic influence was visible in the miniature paintings of that time.
Due to Muslim influence there was a wide transformation in Hindu Art and cultural activities. Sufi created the spirit of tolerance. Muslim influence brought music out of the temples into the courts and chambers of royal families. Some of the Muslim Mughal rulers, who loved music and helped it grow, enriched North Indian music by incorporating Persian elements. New types of music like the Khayal, Thumri and Tarana were introduced. The Muslim conquest of India left a considerable impact on the Indian architecture and there was a unique development in art during the Muslim rule.
Muslim architecture frequently mingled with the Hindu style of buildings. The Hindu temples, their pillars and domes reflected some glimpses of Muslims architecture. In the new buildings red stone and marble was used which was a significant characteristic of the Muslim way of construction. (iv) Impact on Literature: In every country that was conquered including India, the first duty of Islam was to build a mosque in which Allah would be worshipped. Attached to the mosque was a school (Madersa) where people were taught to read and study the Quran. From this initial point they enlarged the study of science, literature and art.
Schools were founded, great universities established, and libraries were built, which laid the permanent foundation of knowledge. The old languages Sanskrit and Parakrit were influenced by Arabic and Persian and later on by Turkish language. By the interaction of these languages new languages like Urdu and Hindi emerged. (v) Impact on History: The arrival of Muslims in the sub-continent marks a new development in the art of recording historical events. Historical literature which existed before the arrival of the Muslims was mostly legendary and unauthentic.